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1.
ANZ J Surg ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of special technical challenges, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been introduced into surgical practice, with surgeons required to have adequate training. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected every aspect of healthcare systems, including LESS training, which must be modified to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A 3-session training programme was designed in 2020 during the epidemic, which was modified in 2019 before the pandemic. Session 1 was an online study on LESS knowledge. Session 2 involved the trainees' self-directed simulator-training. Task performance was evaluated using the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) scoring. Session 3 was practical training, including trainers' live surgical video demonstrations and trainees' surgical video feedback after training. Video feedback performance was evaluated using the modified global rating scale (GRS). Furthermore, trainees completed a general self-efficacy (GSE) instrument. Forty-two gynaecology trainees were allocated into two groups: novices (n = 32) and experts (n = 10). RESULTS: Compared with pre-training, FLS scores improved in peg transfer (P < 0.001 and P = 0.01) and pattern cutting (P = 0.02 and P < 0.001) for novices and experts, respectively. Participants (81% versus 67%) provided first and second video feedback, respectively. Compared to the first feedback, the GRS scores of both groups improved significantly in the second feedback. All trainees showed an increase in GSE after training (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The modified LESS training programme is a practical and effective option that allows trainees to continue training during the epidemic.

2.
Acta Epileptologica ; 4(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837919

ABSTRACT

Background This study was aimed to investigate whether patients with epilepsy (PWE) have higher depression and anxiety levels than the normal population in low-risk areas for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the northern part of Guizhou Province, China, during the COVID-19 epidemic, to evaluate their knowledge on COVID-19, and to analyze related factors for the psychological distress of PWE at this special time. Methods The survey was conducted online from February 28, 2020 to March 7, 2020 via a questionnaire. PWE from the outpatient clinic of epilepsy of the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, and healthy people matched for age and sex, participated in this study. Mental health was assessed via a generalized anxiety self-rating scale (GAD-7) and the self-rating depression scale (PHQ-9). The knowledge of COVID-19 in both groups was investigated. Results There were no significant differences in the general demographics between the PWE and healthy control groups. The scores of PHQ-9 (P < 0.01) and GAD-7 (P < 0.001) were higher in the PWE group than in the healthy group. There was a significant difference in the proportions of respondents with different severities of depression and anxiety, between the two groups, which revealed significantly higher degree of depression and anxiety in PWE than in healthy people (P = 0, P = 0). Overwhelming awareness and stressful concerns for the pandemic and female patients with epilepsy were key factors that affect the level of anxiety and depression in PWE. Further, the PWE had less accurate knowledge of COVID-19 than healthy people (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the knowledge of virus transmission route, incubation period, susceptible population, transmission speed, clinical characteristics, and isolation measures on COVID-19 (P > 0.05). PWE knew less about some of the prevention and control measures of COVID-19 than healthy people. Conclusions During the COVID-19 epidemic, excessive attention to the epidemic and the female sex are factors associated with anxiety and depression in PWE, even in low-risk areas.

3.
Mathematics ; 10(7):1067, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785802

ABSTRACT

In today’s world, the countries that have easy access to energy resources are economically strong, and thus, maintaining a better geopolitical position is important. Petroleum products such as gas and oil are currently the leading energy resources. Due to their excessive worth, the petroleum industries face many risks and security threats. Observing the nature of such problems, it is asserted that the complex bipolar fuzzy information is a better choice for modeling them. Keeping the said problem in mind, this article introduces the novel structure of complex bipolar fuzzy relation (CBFR), which is basically used to find out the relationships between complex bipolar fuzzy sets (CBFSs). Similarly, the types of CBFRs are also defined, which is helpful during the process of analyzing and interpreting the problem. Moreover, some useful results and interesting properties of the proposed structures are deliberated. Further, a new modeling technique based on the proposed structures is initiated, which is used to investigate the security risks to petroleum industries. Furthermore, a detailed comparative analysis proves the advantages and supremacy of CBFRs over other structures. Therefore, the results achieved by the proposed methods are substantially reliable, practical and complete.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322464

ABSTRACT

Objective: this study aimed to explore the impacts of myocardial injury on the clinical severity and outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: : we analyzed the electronic medical records of 1646 COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital. Results: : 327 (19.9%) developed into severe cases, 23 (1.4%) died. In comparison to common cases, severe cases showed older age, more comorbidities, abnormal immune responses, as well as liver, renal, cardiac and coagulation disorders. Multivariable logistic regression identified that older age , combining with arrhythmia, abnormal lymphocyte percentage, elevated hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and myocardial injury were the independent risk factors for the incidence of severe cases. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with myocardial injury had increasing risks of mortality, incidence of severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Particularly, myocardial injury patients co-existed with any other risk factor further deteriorated the clinical outcomes. Conclusion: The presence of myocardial injury and its co-existing with older age, arrhythmia, abnormal lymphocyte percentage, or elevated hs-CRP were greatly associated with the incidence of severe patients and poor clinical outcomes.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324808

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a larger ratio of pneumonia lesions are more likely to progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of baseline parameters with pneumonia lesions on admission, as quantified by an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm using computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: : This retrospective study quantitatively assessed lung lesions on CT using an AI algorithm in 1630 consecutive patients confirmed with COVID-19 on admission and classified the patients into none (0%), mild (>0–25%), intermediate (>25–50%), and severe (>50%) groups, according to the lesion ratio of the whole lung. A multivariate linear regression model was established to explore the relationship between the lesion ratio and laboratory parameters. The baseline parameters associated with lung lesions, including demographics, initial symptoms, and comorbidities, were determined using a multivariate ordinal regression model. Results: : The 1630 patients confirmed with COVID-19 had a median whole lung lesion ratio of 4.1%, and the right lower lung lobe had the most lesions among the five lung lobes based on the evaluation of CT using AI algorithm. The whole lung lesion ratio was associated with the levels of plasma fibrinogen (r=0.280, p<0.001), plasma D-dimer (r=0.248, p<0.001), serum α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (r=0.363, p<0.001), serum albumin (r=-0.300, p<0.001), and peripheral blood leukocyte count (r=0.194, p<0.001). Among the four patients groups categorised by whole lung lesion ratio, the highest frequency of cough (p<0.001) and shortness of breath (p<0.001) were found in the severe group, and the highest frequency of hypertension (p<0.001), diabetes (p<0.001) and anemia (p=0.039) were observed in the intermediate group. Based on baseline ordinal regression analysis, cough (p=0.009), shortness of breath (p<0.001), hypertension (p=0.002), diabetes (p=0.005), and anemia (p=0.006) were independent risk factors for more severe lung lesions. Conclusions: : Based on AI-enabled CT quantitation , patients with initial symptoms of cough/shortness of breath, or with comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, or anemia, had a higher risk for more severe lung lesions on admission in COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(3): 224-233, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673151

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is the most common comorbidity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and increases in-hospital mortality. Day-by-day blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is associated with clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients. However, little information is available on the association of BPV with the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. This study aimed to demonstrate whether day-by-day in-hospital BPV had prognostic significance in these patients. The authors included 702 COVID-19 patients with hypertension from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China), who underwent valid in-hospital BP measurements on at least seven consecutive days. Day-by-day BPV was assessed by standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and variation independent of mean (VIM). Overall, patients with severe COVID-19 and non-survivors had higher BPV than moderate cases and survivors, respectively. Additionally, higher BPV was correlated with greater age and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, high-sensitive cardiac troponin I, and B-type natriuretic peptide. In multivariable Cox regression, SD of systolic BP (SBP) was predictive of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.30] as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.16). Similar trends were observed for CV and VIM of SBP, but not indices of diastolic BP variability. The authors demonstrated that day-by-day in-hospital SBP variability can independently predict mortality and ARDS in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. And high BPV might be correlated with severe inflammation and myocardial injury. Further studies are needed to clarify whether early reduction of BPV will improve the prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prognosis
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 405, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631967

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of the coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) with evolving variants of concern. It remains urgent to identify novel approaches against broad strains of SARS-CoV-2, which infect host cells via the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Herein, we report an increase in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that express ACE2 (evACE2) in plasma of COVID-19 patients, which levels are associated with severe pathogenesis. Importantly, evACE2 isolated from human plasma or cells neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 infection by competing with cellular ACE2. Compared to vesicle-free recombinant human ACE2 (rhACE2), evACE2 shows a 135-fold higher potency in blocking the binding of the viral spike protein RBD, and a 60- to 80-fold higher efficacy in preventing infections by both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Consistently, evACE2 protects the hACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury and mortality. Furthermore, evACE2 inhibits the infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants (α, ß, and δ) with equal or higher potency than for the wildtype strain, supporting a broad-spectrum antiviral mechanism of evACE2 for therapeutic development to block the infection of existing and future coronaviruses that use the ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis , Vero Cells
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(46): 19306-19310, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510556

ABSTRACT

The 68-kDa homodimeric 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV-2, Mpro (3CLpro/Nsp5), is a promising antiviral drug target. We evaluate the concordance of models generated by the newly introduced AlphaFold2 structure prediction program with residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured in solution for 15N-1HN and 13C'-1HN atom pairs. The latter were measured using a new, highly precise TROSY-AntiTROSY Encoded RDC (TATER) experiment. Three sets of AlphaFold2 models were evaluated: (1) MproAF, generated using the standard AlphaFold2 input structural database; (2) MproAFD, where the AlphaFold2 implementation was modified to exclude all candidate template X-ray structures deposited after Jan 1, 2020; and (3) MproAFS, which excluded all structures homologous to coronaviral Mpro. Close agreement between all three sets of AlphaFold models and experimental RDC data is found for most of the protein. For residues in well-defined secondary structure, the agreement decreases somewhat upon Amber relaxation. For these regions, MproAF agreement exceeds that of most high-resolution X-ray structures. Residues from domain 2 that comprise elements of both the active site and the homo-dimerization interface fit less well across all structures. These results indicate novel opportunities for combining experimentation with molecular dynamics simulations, where solution RDCs provide highly precise input for QM/MM simulations of substrate binding/reaction trajectories.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Software , X-Rays
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323266

ABSTRACT

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and causes remodeling of the small airways. However, the exact smoke-induced effects on the different types of small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) are poorly understood. Here, using air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures, single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals previously unrecognized transcriptional heterogeneity within the small airway epithelium and cell type-specific effects upon acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Smoke triggers detoxification and inflammatory responses and aberrantly activates and alters basal cell differentiation. This results in an increase of inflammatory basal-to-secretory cell intermediates and, particularly after chronic smoke exposure, a massive expansion of a rare inflammatory and squamous metaplasia associated KRT6A+ basal cell state and an altered secretory cell landscape. ALI cultures originating from healthy non-smokers and COPD smokers show similar responses to cigarette smoke exposure, although an increased pro-inflammatory profile is conserved in the latter. Taken together, the in vitro models provide high-resolution insights into the smoke-induced remodeling of the small airways resembling the pathological processes in COPD airways. The data may also help to better understand other lung diseases including COVID-19, as the data reflect the smoke-dependent variable induction of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors across SAEC populations.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Neoplasms, Basal Cell/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Smoke , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/metabolism
11.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 137, 2021 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318293

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is closely related to SARS-CoV, poses a grave threat to global health and has devastated societies worldwide. One puzzling aspect of COVID-19 is the impressive variation in disease manifestations among infected individuals, from a majority who are asymptomatic or exhibit mild symptoms to a smaller, largely age-dependent fraction who develop life-threatening conditions. Some of these differences are likely the consequence of host genetic factors. Systems genetics using diverse and replicable cohorts of isogenic mice represents a powerful way to dissect those host genetic differences that modulate microbial infections. Here we report that the two founders of the large BXD family of mice-C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, differ substantially in their susceptibility to a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV, MA15. Following intranasal viral challenge, DBA/2J develops a more severe disease than C57BL/6J as evidenced by more pronounced and sustained weight loss. Disease was accompanied by high levels of pulmonary viral replication in both strains early after infection but substantially delayed viral clearance in DBA/2J. Our data reveal that the parents of the BXD family are segregated by clear phenotypic differences during MA15 infection and support the feasibility of using this family to systemically dissect the complex virus-host interactions that modulate disease progression and outcome of infection with SARS-CoV, and provisionally also with SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Lung Cancer ; 157: 60-65, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Given that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mainly spreads through the respiratory system and is associated with severe pulmonary complications, lung cancer patients may have worse outcomes than those with other tumors. There is no confirmed evidence about the mortality comparison between COVID-19 patients with lung cancer and other tumors. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis to provide precise estimates of the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients with lung cancer and other tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study systemically included and reviewed 13 studies on the characteristics of COVID-19 patients with lung cancer published up to November 1, 2020. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We also compared the all-cause mortality rates in China and other regions as a secondary endpoint. The mortality rate was assessed with a fixed-effects model, which was used to derive the pooled mortality and 95 % confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Thirteen studies from different countries, involving 1,229 patients with both COVID-19 and cancer, were selected for the pooled analysis. A total of 343 deaths were recorded in this population: 86 for lung cancers and 257 for other tumors. The mortality rate varies from 18 % to 60 % for patients with lung cancer and COVID-19 and 10%-41% for other tumor patients with COVID-19. The overall meta-analysis did not show a significant mortality difference for the lung cancer and other tumor subgroups (OR = 1.47, 95 %CI = 0.98-2.20, p = 0.06, I2 = 23 %). Nevertheless, in regions other than China, the pooled mortality of lung cancer patients with COVID-19 was 42 %, which was significantly higher than that of other tumors (24 %) (OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.54-4.86, p = 0.0006, I2 = 16 %). CONCLUSION: Appropriate and aggressive preventive measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of COVID-19 in patients with cancer and optimally manage those who contract the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 21(6): 615-623, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203499

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although in some countries, palliative care (PC) still remains poorly implemented, its importance throughout the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasingly being acknowledged. With an emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, growing emphasis has been placed on the palliative needs of people with Parkinson's (PwP), particularly elderly, frail, and with comorbidities.Areas covered: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses an enormous challenge on aspects of daily living in PwP and might interact negatively with a range of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS), both directly and indirectly - as a consequence of pandemic-related social and health care restrictions. Here, the authors outline some of the motor and NMS relevant to PC, and propose a pragmatic and rapidly deployable, consensus-based PC approach for PwP during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, potentially relevant also for future pandemics.Expert opinion: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a considerable impact on PwP and their caregivers, ranging from mental health issues to worsening of physical symptoms - both in the short- and long-term, (Long-COVID) and calls for specific, personalized PC strategies relevant in a lockdown setting globally. Validated assessment tools should be applied remotely to flag up particular motor or NMS that require special attention, both in short- and long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Humans , Minority Groups , Parkinson Disease/ethnology , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Spirituality
15.
Front Physiol ; 12: 632123, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119551

ABSTRACT

Male novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients tend to have poorer clinical outcomes than female patients, while the myocardial injury is strongly associated with COVID-19-related adverse events. Owing to a lack of corresponding data, we aimed to investigate the sex differences in the incidence of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients and to identify the potential underlying mechanisms, which may partly account for the sex bias in the incidence of adverse events. This retrospective study included 1,157 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Huoshenshan Hospital from 12 March 2020 to 11 April 2020. Data on the patients' demographic characteristics, initial symptoms, comorbidities and laboratory tests were collected. Totally, 571 (49.4%) female and 586 (50.6%) male COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The incidence of myocardial injury was higher among men than women (9.2 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.004). In the logistic regression analysis, age, and chronic kidney disease were associated with myocardial injury in both sexes. However, hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 2.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-4.22], coronary artery disease (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.14-5.34), leucocyte counts (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.24-7.86), hs-CRP (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 1.33-14.83), and D-dimer [OR = 3.93 (1.27-12.19), 95% CI 1.27-12.19] were independent risk factors only in the men. The correlations of hs-CRP and D-dimer with hs-cTnI and BNP were stronger in the men. The incidence of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients is sex-dependent, predominantly in association with a greater degree of inflammation and coagulation disorders in men. Our findings can be used to improve the quality of clinical management in such settings.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(2): 100, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the temporal pattern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presence on ocular surfaces using conjunctival swabs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This study included 59 patients (32 newly admitted and 27 hospitalized for ≥2 weeks) with a COVID-19-confirmed diagnosis at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from March 3, 2020, to March 21, 2020. Conjunctival swab samples were collected from both eyes of all the 59 patients and were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The range of sampling time lies widely between 1 and 50 days since symptom onset. RESULTS: Among the 32 newly admitted patients, positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival swab samples were reported in 2 patients (one eye for each) without ocular discomfort, but 1 positive case had conjunctival congestion. The positive results were detected on Day 5 for 1 patient and Day 7 for the other, but repeated tests after 1 week were negative for both patients. All 27 patients who had been hospitalized for ≥2 weeks had negative test results. The mean time from symptom onset to sampling of 2 positive cases was significantly less than that of 57 negative cases (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 on the ocular surface can be detected in the early phase of COVID-19. The risk of ocular transmission remains and might be higher in the early phase.

17.
IEEE Access ; 9: 1590-1615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066539

ABSTRACT

As a result of the difficulties brought by COVID-19 and its associated lockdowns, many individuals and companies have turned to robots in order to overcome the challenges of the pandemic. Compared with traditional human labor, robotic and autonomous systems have advantages such as an intrinsic immunity to the virus and an inability for human-robot-human spread of any disease-causing pathogens, though there are still many technical hurdles for the robotics industry to overcome. This survey comprehensively reviews over 200 reports covering robotic systems which have emerged or have been repurposed during the past several months, to provide insights to both academia and industry. In each chapter, we cover both the advantages and the challenges for each robot, finding that robotics systems are overall apt solutions for dealing with many of the problems brought on by COVID-19, including: diagnosis, screening, disinfection, surgery, telehealth, care, logistics, manufacturing and broader interpersonal problems unique to the lockdowns of the pandemic. By discussing the potential new robot capabilities and fields they applied to, we expect the robotics industry to take a leap forward due to this unexpected pandemic.

18.
Geophys Res Lett ; 47(19): e2020GL090080, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028542

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has substantially limited human activities and affected anthropogenic emissions. In this work, daily NO x emissions are inferred using a regional data assimilation system and hourly surface NO2 measurement over China. The results show that because of the coronavirus outbreak, NO x emissions across the whole mainland China dropped sharply after 31 January, began to rise slightly in certain areas after 10 February, and gradually recover across the country after 20 February. Compared with the emissions before the outbreak, NO x emissions fell by more than 60% and ~30% in many large cities and most small to medium cities, respectively. Overall, NO x emissions were reduced by 36% over China, which were mainly contributed by transportation. Evaluations show that the inverted changes over eastern China are credible, whereas those in western China might be underestimated. These findings are of great significance for exploring the reduction potential of NO x emissions in China.

20.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(11): 1974-1983, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810865

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is proved to be associated with severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, little is known about the effects of pre-admission and/or in-hospital antihypertension treatments on clinical outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between in-hospital blood pressure (BP) control and COVID-19-related outcomes and to compare the effects of different antihypertension treatments. This study included 2864 COVID-19 patients and 1628 were hypertensive. Patients were grouped according to their BP during hospitalization and records of medication application. Patients with higher BP showed worse cardiac and renal functions and clinical outcomes. After adjustment, subjects with pre-admission usage of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.86, P = .022) had a lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes, including death, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, septic shock, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit admission. Particularly, hypertension patients receiving RAAS inhibitor treatment either before (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.13-0.97, P = .043) or after (HR = 0.18, 95%CI 0.04-0.86, P = .031) admission showed a significantly lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes than those receiving application of other antihypertensive medicines. Furthermore, consecutive application of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension showed better clinical outcomes (HR = 0.10, 95%CI 0.01-0.83, P = .033) than non-RAAS inhibitors users. We revealed that COVID-19 patients with poor BP control during hospitalization had worse clinical outcomes. Compared with other antihypertension medicines, RAAS inhibitors were beneficial for improving clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Our findings provide direct evidence to support the administration of RAAS inhibitors to COVID-19 patients with hypertension before and after admission.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Blood Pressure Determination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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