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Cell Rep Med ; 3(6): 100652, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960088


Disease recovery dynamics are often difficult to assess, as patients display heterogeneous recovery courses. To model recovery dynamics, exemplified by severe COVID-19, we apply a computational scheme on longitudinally sampled blood transcriptomes, generating recovery states, which we then link to cellular and molecular mechanisms, presenting a framework for studying the kinetics of recovery compared with non-recovery over time and long-term effects of the disease. Specifically, a decrease in mature neutrophils is the strongest cellular effect during recovery, with direct implications on disease outcome. Furthermore, we present strong indications for global regulatory changes in gene programs, decoupled from cell compositional changes, including an early rise in T cell activation and differentiation, resulting in immune rebalancing between interferon and NF-κB activity and restoration of cell homeostasis. Overall, we present a clinically relevant computational framework for modeling disease recovery, paving the way for future studies of the recovery dynamics in other diseases and tissues.

COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , NF-kappa B/genetics , Neutrophils/metabolism , Signal Transduction
Med (N Y) ; 3(7): 468-480.e5, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851770


BACKGROUND: Much remains unknown regarding the response of the immune system to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. METHODS: We employed circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to assess the turnover of specific immune cell types following administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. FINDINGS: The levels of B cell cfDNA after the primary dose correlated with development of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells after the booster, revealing a link between early B cell turnover-potentially reflecting affinity maturation-and later development of effective humoral response. We also observed co-elevation of B cell, T cell, and monocyte cfDNA after the booster, underscoring the involvement of innate immune cell turnover in the development of humoral and cellular adaptive immunity. Actual cell counts remained largely stable following vaccination, other than a previously demonstrated temporary reduction in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: Immune cfDNA dynamics reveal the crucial role of the primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in shaping responses of the immune system following the booster vaccine. FUNDING: This work was supported by a generous gift from Shlomo Kramer. Supported by grants from Human Islet Research Network (HIRN UC4DK116274 and UC4DK104216 to R.S. and Y.D.), Ernest and Bonnie Beutler Research Program of Excellence in Genomic Medicine, The Alex U Soyka Pancreatic Cancer Fund, The Israel Science Foundation, the Waldholtz/Pakula family, the Robert M. and Marilyn Sternberg Family Charitable Foundation, the Helmsley Charitable Trust, Grail, and the DON Foundation (to Y.D.). Y.D. holds the Walter and Greta Stiel Chair and Research Grant in Heart Studies. I.F.-F. received a fellowship from the Glassman Hebrew University Diabetes Center.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunologic Memory