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1.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2305597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

2.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):21-24, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2274146

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of low-to-moderate dose glucocorticoid therapy on viral clearance in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 72 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 19 to February 17, 2020 at the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recruited. All patients received oral arbidol and combination of lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobistitat for antiviral therapy, and symptomatic supportive care. Among them, 51 patients received methylprednisolone (0.75-1.50 mg.kg-1.d-1) (glucocorticoid treatment group), and 21 patients did not use glucocorticoid (control group). The time of virologic negative conversion in sputum and the time of radiologic recovery in lung since onset were compared between the two groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher exact test was used to compare the difference between groups. Results: The median ages of the glucocorticoid group and the control group were 52 (45, 62) and 46 (32, 56) years (chi2=4.365, P<0.05). The clinical conditions at hospital admission were different between the two groups (P<0.01). The severe cases accounted for 52.0%, while moderate cases in the control group accounted for 71.4%. The median times from the onset to virologic negative conversion in the two groups were 15 (13, 20) and 14 (12, 20) days (P>0.05). The median times from onset to radiologic recovery were 13 (11, 15) and 13 (12, 17) days in the two groups (P>0.05). In moderate cases, the median times from the onset to virologic conversion in sputum were 13 (11, 18) days in the glucocorticoid group and 13 (12, 15) days in the control group (P>0.05). The median times from onset to radiologic recovery in lung were 12 (10, 15) and 13 (12, 17) days, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion(s): Low-to-moderate glucocorticoid treatment has no effect on the time of virus clearance in patients with different clinical types of COVID-19, and also no effect on accelerating radiologic recovery in lung, so it is not recommended.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

3.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):21-24, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2274145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of low-to-moderate dose glucocorticoid therapy on viral clearance in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 72 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 19 to February 17, 2020 at the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recruited. All patients received oral arbidol and combination of lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobistitat for antiviral therapy, and symptomatic supportive care. Among them, 51 patients received methylprednisolone (0.75-1.50 mg.kg-1.d-1) (glucocorticoid treatment group), and 21 patients did not use glucocorticoid (control group). The time of virologic negative conversion in sputum and the time of radiologic recovery in lung since onset were compared between the two groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher exact test was used to compare the difference between groups. Results: The median ages of the glucocorticoid group and the control group were 52 (45, 62) and 46 (32, 56) years (chi2=4.365, P<0.05). The clinical conditions at hospital admission were different between the two groups (P<0.01). The severe cases accounted for 52.0%, while moderate cases in the control group accounted for 71.4%. The median times from the onset to virologic negative conversion in the two groups were 15 (13, 20) and 14 (12, 20) days (P>0.05). The median times from onset to radiologic recovery were 13 (11, 15) and 13 (12, 17) days in the two groups (P>0.05). In moderate cases, the median times from the onset to virologic conversion in sputum were 13 (11, 18) days in the glucocorticoid group and 13 (12, 15) days in the control group (P>0.05). The median times from onset to radiologic recovery in lung were 12 (10, 15) and 13 (12, 17) days, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion(s): Low-to-moderate glucocorticoid treatment has no effect on the time of virus clearance in patients with different clinical types of COVID-19, and also no effect on accelerating radiologic recovery in lung, so it is not recommended.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

4.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):21-24, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2274144

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of low-to-moderate dose glucocorticoid therapy on viral clearance in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 72 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 19 to February 17, 2020 at the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recruited. All patients received oral arbidol and combination of lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobistitat for antiviral therapy, and symptomatic supportive care. Among them, 51 patients received methylprednisolone (0.75-1.50 mg.kg-1.d-1) (glucocorticoid treatment group), and 21 patients did not use glucocorticoid (control group). The time of virologic negative conversion in sputum and the time of radiologic recovery in lung since onset were compared between the two groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher exact test was used to compare the difference between groups. Results: The median ages of the glucocorticoid group and the control group were 52 (45, 62) and 46 (32, 56) years (chi2=4.365, P<0.05). The clinical conditions at hospital admission were different between the two groups (P<0.01). The severe cases accounted for 52.0%, while moderate cases in the control group accounted for 71.4%. The median times from the onset to virologic negative conversion in the two groups were 15 (13, 20) and 14 (12, 20) days (P>0.05). The median times from onset to radiologic recovery were 13 (11, 15) and 13 (12, 17) days in the two groups (P>0.05). In moderate cases, the median times from the onset to virologic conversion in sputum were 13 (11, 18) days in the glucocorticoid group and 13 (12, 15) days in the control group (P>0.05). The median times from onset to radiologic recovery in lung were 12 (10, 15) and 13 (12, 17) days, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion(s): Low-to-moderate glucocorticoid treatment has no effect on the time of virus clearance in patients with different clinical types of COVID-19, and also no effect on accelerating radiologic recovery in lung, so it is not recommended.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

5.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2286480

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

6.
Anesthesia and Analgesia ; 134:293-293, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2040878
7.
47th Annual Conference of the IEEE-Industrial-Electronics-Society (IECON) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799285

ABSTRACT

This paper presents our experience in teaching Devices and Controls remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic in Autumn 2020, at the School of Engineering and Technology, University of Washington, Tacoma. As a core course for Computer Engineering and Systems students, and the only control course in this program's curriculum, we tried our best to minimize the impact brought by the remote teaching and learning, bridge the gap between system theories and practical applications, and expose students to the state-of-the-art technology in the field of embedded control systems. Our efforts include distributing each student an easy-to-use Arduino Mega2560 starter kit, enhancing students' understanding of control theories by using analysis/design tools supported by MATLAB/Simulink, and remotely supervising individual labs and a final project which implements a PID controller through both MATLAB/Simulink and Arduino IDE. In addition to four-hour lectures in the virtual classroom, students also take two-hour virtual lab each week, and complete the course project by the end of quarter. The course evaluation results showed that although challenged by the physically isolated setting, students gained knowledges of the embedded control systems, and in particular, the hands-on experience obtained from virtual labs and the individual project.

8.
6th International Conference on Electromechanical Control Technology and Transportation, ICECTT 2021 ; 12081, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1731247

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia has put tremendous pressure on the operation and organization of urban rail transit. This paper analyzes the calculation method of urban rail transit transport capacity and calculates the safe transport capacity of Shenzhen Metro under the major infectious disease-caused epidemic. This paper then uses Mass Motion passenger flow simulation software to simulate passenger flow to simulate the operation of the station and verify the carrying capacity of Shenzhen Metro stations under the conditions of epidemic prevention. Finally, targeted measures for managing passenger flow of subway under major infectious disease epidemics are proposed to provide ideas and experience for improving the level of subway safety operation and management under major infectious disease epidemics. © 2022 SPIE. All rights reserved.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(28 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1496271

ABSTRACT

Background: Use of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) to evaluate symptoms improves clinical outcomes. Best practices for implementing PROs into routine care may vary according to clinical scenario, site-specific resources and programmatic goals. Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) often experience a variety of symptoms. Methods: As a quality improvement project, we are pilot testing incorporation of a battery of PRO measures into routine care for patients with MBC at Johns Hopkins in order to gain experience that will guide future broader implementation of PROs across our program. Participants complete the PROs on paper at baseline (BL), 3, and 6 months (mo). Measures include NCCN Distress Thermometer (BL only), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), PRO-CTCAE Insomnia questions and a modified version of the revised Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (rESAS) questionnaire with 3 extra symptom domains. Project team members alert clinicians by email of scores that exceed severity thresholds as follows-Distress: ≥4, PHQ-8: ≥8, GAD-7: ≥10, any item on r-ESAS: ≥4 and PROCTCAE Insomnia: Severe/very severe or quite a bit/very much. Results: From May 29, 2020 and April 5, 2021, 67 patients were approached for participation, and 40 (59.7%) completed the BL PROs. Median age was 64 (range 36-85). Most participants were White (70%), non-Hispanic (90%) and had hormone receptor-positive (93%) MBC. At BL, 22 (55%) had visceral disease and most were receiving endocrine-based regimens [21 (53%)] or chemotherapy [16 (40%)]. 27 (68%) participants had ≥1 BL alert. The most common BL alerts were for symptoms on the r-ESAS [23 participants (58%)]. The most frequent items on the r-ESAS for which participants had BL alerts were pain, tiredness, well-being, tingling/numbness and rash. Other BL alerts were: Distress [9 participants (23%)], PROCTCAE Insomnia [5 participants (13%)], PHQ-8 [4 participants (10%)] and GAD-7 [2 participants (5%)]. To date, 24 of 35 (69%) and 15 of 28 (54%) participants who have reached the 3 and 6 mo time points have completed the respective follow-up (FU) PROs. Most common FU alerts to date are on the r-ESAS [3 mo: 14 participants (58%), 6 mo: 9 participants (60%)]. The project team has successfully notified providers of all alerts to date. Clinical actions (phone calls, provider visits and/or referrals) have been taken within 30 days of notification for > 75% of alerts. Conclusions: Implementation of a PRO battery for patients receiving routine care for MBC led to detection of a range of symptoms, the majority of which were clinically actionable. Restrictions on in-person interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to low rates of PRO completion in this pilot project. Prior to broader implementation, we will consider strategies such as an electronic platform and a shorter battery to enhance patient engagement.

10.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1143641

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon α-2b (rIFNα-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNα-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Methods: A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNα-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2±4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0±5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8±3.9), (13.5±5.1) and (11.2±4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusions: The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNα-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

11.
Critical Sociology ; : 17, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1024319

ABSTRACT

This article explores how the western concept of "organic agriculture" has been applied in the traditional Chinese tea industry and how it has been tested during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using in-depth interviews and observations made during 2017-2020, we analyzed different meanings of organic agriculture and values that were given by Chinese farmers who are certified organic producers. Although organic agriculture, particular certified by international certification standards, is a foreign concept, producers invested efforts that go beyond the commercial pursuit for profit. Most importantly, the combination of the reiterated cultural meaning and health benefits of the certified organic tea with the visionary strategy has allowed these producers to shift in a timely manner from export to domestic markets and adapt to the pandemic's barriers presented to the global trade.

12.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; 402:6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-972930

ABSTRACT

Understanding the transmission mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is a prerequisite to effective control measures. To investigate the potential modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, 21 COVID-19 patients from 12-47 days after symptom onset were recruited. We monitored the release of SARS-CoV-2 from the patients' exhaled breath and systematically investigated environmental contamination of air, public surfaces, personal necessities, and the drainage system. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 0 of 9 exhaled breath samples, 2 of 8 exhaled breath condensate samples, 1 of 12 bedside air samples, 4 of 132 samples from private surfaces, 0 of 70 samples from frequently touched public surfaces in isolation rooms, and 7 of 23 feces-related air/surface/water samples. The maximum viral RNA concentrations were 1857 copies/m3 in the air, 38 copies/cm2 in sampled surfaces and 3092 copies/mL in sewage/wastewater samples. Our results suggest that nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur via multiple routes. However, the low detection frequency and limited quantity of viral RNA from the breath and environmental specimens may be related to the reduced viral load of the COVID-19 patients on later days after symptom onset. These findings suggest that the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 differ from those of SARS-CoV in healthcare settings.

13.
2020 24th ISPRS Congress - Technical Commission V (TC-V) on Education and Outreach - Youth Forum ; 43:57-61, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-860088

ABSTRACT

Remote sensing course is a general disciplinary required course of human geography and urban-rural planning major. Its class hour is 48, including theoretical classes and experimental classes. Rapid technological developments is remote sensing area demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization, especially in experimental classes. Experimental classes include: introduction to remote sensing software and basic operations, remote sensing data pre-processing (input, output, 2D and 3D terrain display, image cut, image mosaic, and projection transformation), remote sensing image enhancement, remote sensing image transformation, computer aided classification, image interpretation, and remote sensing image terrain analysis. There are two difficulties in the remote sensing experimental classes. First, it cost a lot of time to prepare the remote sensing software and the remote sensing images. Second, some students just want to use the remote sensing as a tool to investigate environment changing, some other students may want to study more remote sensing image processing technologies. A web-based learning environment of remote sensing is developed to facilitate the application of remote sensing experimental teaching. To make the learning more effective, there are eight modules including four optional modules. The Python programming language is chosen to implement the web-based remote sensing learning environment. The web-based learning environment is implemented in a local network server, including the remote sensing data processing algorithms and many satellite image data. Students can easily exercise the remote sensing experimental courses by connecting to the local network server. It is developed mainly for remote sensing experimental course, and also can be adopted by digital image processing or other courses. The feature of web-based learning may be very useful as the online education adopted because of Corona Virus Disease 2019. The results are encouraging and some recommendations will be extracted for the future. © 2020 Authors.

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