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1.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333823

ABSTRACT

Antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 target mainly the receptor-binding domain or the N-terminal domain (NTD). Over a dozen potently neutralizing NTD-directed antibodies have been studied structurally, and all target a single antigenic supersite in NTD (site 1). Here we report the 3.7 A resolution cryo-EM structure of a potent NTD-directed neutralizing antibody 5-7, which recognizes a site distinct from other potently neutralizing antibodies, inserting a binding loop into an exposed hydrophobic pocket between the two sheets of the NTD beta-sandwich. Interestingly, this pocket has been previously identified as the binding site for hydrophobic molecules including heme metabolites, but we observe their presence to not substantially impede 5-7 recognition. Mirroring its distinctive binding, antibody 5-7 retains a distinctive neutralization potency with variants of concern (VOC). Overall, we reveal a hydrophobic pocket in NTD proposed for immune evasion can actually be used by the immune system for recognition. HIGHLIGHTS: Cryo-EM structure of neutralizing antibody 5-7 in complex with SARS CoV-2 spike5-7 recognizes NTD outside of the previously identified antigenic supersite5-7 binds to a site known to accommodate numerous hydrophobic ligandsStructural basis of 5-7 neutralization tolerance to some variants of concern.

2.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326938

ABSTRACT

The recently reported B.1.1.529 Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 includes 34 mutations in the spike protein relative to the Wuhan strain that initiated the COVID-19 pandemic, including 15 mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD). Functional studies have shown omicron to substantially escape the activity of many SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies. Here we report a 3.1 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Omicron spike protein ectodomain. The structure depicts a spike that is exclusively in the 1-RBD-up conformation with increased mobility and inter-protomer asymmetry. Many mutations cause steric clashes and/or altered interactions at antibody binding surfaces, whereas others mediate changes of the spike structure in local regions to interfere with antibody recognition. Overall, the structure of the omicron spike reveals how mutations alter its conformation and explains its extraordinary ability to evade neutralizing antibodies.

3.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326824

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) was only recently detected in southern Africa, but its subsequent spread has been extensive, both regionally and globally1. It is expected to become dominant in the coming weeks2, probably due to enhanced transmissibility. A striking feature of this variant is the large number of spike mutations3 that pose a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) vaccines and antibody therapies4. This concern is amplified by the findings from our study. We found B.1.1.529 to be markedly resistant to neutralization by serum not only from convalescent patients, but also from individuals vaccinated with one of the four widely used COVID-19 vaccines. Even serum from persons vaccinated and boosted with mRNA-based vaccines exhibited substantially diminished neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529. By evaluating a panel of monoclonal antibodies to all known epitope clusters on the spike protein, we noted that the activity of 17 of the 19 antibodies tested were either abolished or impaired, including ones currently authorized or approved for use in patients. In addition, we also identified four new spike mutations (S371L, N440K, G446S, and Q493R) that confer greater antibody resistance to B.1.1.529. The Omicron variant presents a serious threat to many existing COVID-19 vaccines and therapies, compelling the development of new interventions that anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326792

ABSTRACT

The devastation caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made clear the importance of pandemic preparedness. To address future zoonotic outbreaks due to related viruses in the sarbecovirus subgenus, we identified a human monoclonal antibody, 10-40, that neutralized or bound all sarbecoviruses tested in vitro and protected against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in vivo. Comparative studies with other receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies showed 10-40 to have the greatest breadth against sarbecoviruses and thus its promise as an agent for pandemic preparedness. Moreover, structural analyses on 10-40 and similar antibodies not only defined an epitope cluster in the inner face of the RBD that is well conserved among sarbecoviruses, but also uncovered a new antibody class with a common CDRH3 motif. Our analyses also suggested that elicitation of this class of antibodies may not be overly difficult, an observation that bodes well for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 240-249, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe COVID-19 pandemic and measures against it provided a unique opportunity to understand the transmission of other infectious diseases and to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures on them. Here we show a dengue epidemic in Yunnan, China, during the pandemic of COVID-19 was dramatically reduced compared to non-pandemic years and, importantly, spread was confined to only one city, Ruili. Three key features characterized this dengue outbreak: (i) the urban-to-suburban spread was efficiently blocked; (ii) the scale of epidemic in urban region was less affected; (iii) co-circulation of multiple strains was attenuated. These results suggested that countermeasures taken during COVID-19 pandemic are efficient to prevent dengue transmission between cities and from urban to suburban, as well to reduce the co-circulation of multiple serotypes or genotypes. Nevertheless, as revealed by the spatial analysis, once the dengue outbreak was established, its distribution was very stable and resistant to measures against COVID-19, implying the possibility to develop a precise prediction method.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Dengue Virus , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genotype , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Spatial Analysis , Vero Cells
6.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-7535

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has ravaged the globe, and its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, continues to rage. Prospects of ending this pandemic rest on the development of effective interventions. Two monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics have received emergency use authorization, and more are in the pipeline. Furthermore, multiple vaccine constructs have shown promise, including two with ~95% protective efficacy against Covid-19. However, these interventions were directed toward the initial SARS-CoV-2 that emerged in 2019. Considerable viral evolution has occurred since, including variants with a D614G mutation that have become dominant. Viruses with this mutation alone do not appear to be antigenically distinct, however. Recent emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 in the UK and B.1.351 in South Africa is of concern because of their purported ease of transmission and extensive mutations in the spike protein. We now report that B.1.1.7 is refractory to neutralization by most mAbs to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of spike and relatively resistant to a number of mAbs to the receptor-binding domain (RBD). It is modestly more resistant to convalescent plasma (~3 fold) and vaccinee sera (~2 fold). Findings on B.1.351 are more worrisome in that this variant is not only refractory to neutralization by most NTD mAbs but also by multiple potent mAbs to the receptor-binding motif on RBD, largely due to an E484K mutation. Moreover, B.1.351 is markedly more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma (~11-33 fold) and vaccinee sera (~6.5-8.6 fold). B.1.351 and emergent variants with similar spike mutations present new challenges for mAb therapy and threaten the protective efficacy of current vaccines.

7.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 45(6):579-581, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-723501

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has influenced the world deeply, nevertheless, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is currently one of the most important problems facing clinicians. Bedside ultrasound is able to diagnose the peripulmonary tissue lesions of patients with COVID-19 accurately, and is capable of diagnosing the underling diseases of critically ill patients precisely, which is beneficial to improve patients' prognosis and shorten the therapeutic period. The present article made a retrospective analysis of ultrasound applications and examination results on patients with COVID-19 in Huoshenshan Hospital from February 4 to April 7, 2020, summarized the practice and experience of making full use of bedside ultrasound to diagnose and evaluate patients with COVID-19 treated in Huoshenshan Hospital, so to improve the ability of bedside ultrasound as a non-invasive physical examination against major infectious diseases outbreaks further.

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