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1.
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1896398

ABSTRACT

Background: In India, two vaccines received emergent use authorization, namely Covishield (a brand of the Oxford—Astra Zeneca vaccine manufactured by the Serum institute of India) and Covaxin (developed by Bharat Biotech) against COVID-19 disease. Chest CT is an objective way to assess the extent of pulmonary parenchymal involvement. This study aims to estimate the disease severity and outcome due to COVID-19 among vaccinated and non-vaccinated symptomatic patients and compare the same in Covishield versus Covaxin recipients using CT severity score. Results: A total of 306 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age was 62.56 ± 8.9 years, and males [n-208 (67.97%)] were commonly affected. Of 306 patients, 143 were non-vaccinated (47%), 124 were partially vaccinated (40%), and 39 were completely vaccinated (13%). CT severity scores were reduced in both Covishield and Covaxin recipients in comparison with the non-vaccinated group [χ2 (2) = 16.32, p < 0.001]. There is a reduction in LOS among the vaccinated group, predominantly among the Covishield recipients. Conclusion: Vaccination confers protection from severe SARS-CoV2 infection and is associated with an overall reduction in mortality.

2.
Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 21(2):160-163, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876083

ABSTRACT

Corona viruses are a large family of viruses that may cause respiratory illness in animals or humans. The most recently discovered corona virus causes Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19), also known as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), which became a global pandemic and is persisting. The data on the spectrum of gross and microscopic changes in COVID-19 infections is insufficient to accurately outline the disease process due to its ever-changing viral nature. The current knowledge on this aspect is not comprehensive since limited numbers of autopsies are conducted on such dead bodies because of higher infectivity and increased risk of transmission. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who was admitted to our institute with an alleged history of road traffic accident, later tested positive for COVID-19 and developed Covid-19 Pneumonia and succumbed. The detailed autopsy and histopathological findings are discussed. Performing autopsies on cases of COVID-19 deaths are helpful in understanding the pathology, disease process and variability in clinical presentation of COVID-19. © 2021, Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. All rights reserved.

3.
Problems and Perspectives in Management ; 20(2):57-70, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847959

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to analyze the protection behavior of employees while working remotely during the Covid-19 pandemic using online video chat software. This pandemic changed the way organizations work, managers meet with employees, and employees communicate. An e-mail-based survey among computer users who use video chat software for remote working is employed in this study. Using 306 responses, structural equation modeling explores the relationship between privacy concerns, protection behavior, and antecedents. The technological changes induced due to Covid-19 influence privacy concerns and protection behavior. Privacy efficacy increases privacy concerns and protection behavior. Perceived vulnerability increases privacy concerns. Perceived effectiveness of organization software affects privacy concerns but does not affect protection behavior. There is a positive relationship between privacy concerns and protection behavior;however, this positive relation is negatively moderated by a propensity to trust. A finding of threat severity measure using Covid-19 factors concludes that both privacy concerns and protection behavior increased for online video chat software users. The theoretical model explicates 75% of variances in privacy concerns and 57% of variances in protection behavior. Every one-unit increase in Covid-19 induced changes regarding the work environment increases the privacy concern by 35%, and every one-unit increase in perceived effectiveness of organization software increases privacy concern by 22%. Every one-unit increase in the privacy concern increases the protection behavior by 48%, and every one-unit increase in privacy efficacy increases protection behavior by 59%. © 2022 The author(s).

4.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(3):TC01-TC04, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1780257

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is suitable for a patient to wear a respirator or face mask during any radiological investigation during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Some face masks may have nanoparticles, or antimicrobial coating, which may comprise metal to help shape the mask according to user face shape. This kind of ferromagnetic substances can cause artefacts in the image. Aim: To detect and compare the artefacts while using different types of respirators and surgical masks in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) phantom images. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study which was conducted from July 2021-September 2021. Two Not resistant to oil-based aerosols with 95% efficiency to airborne particles (N95) respirators and two types of three-ply surgical disposable masks with a metal and plastic nose holder were used. The N95 respirators were of Halo N95 Filtering Facepiece 2 Particulate Matter (FFP2) PM 2.5 and Suchi N95 S-7400, while the surgical masks were from Venus 3 ply V-1010 with a metal nose holder and the Thea Tex Filtra 3 ply with plastic nose holder. A polymethyl methacrylate plastic phantom was used with 1.5 Tesla (Siemens Magnetom Avanto) MRI scanner for imaging. Results: When exposed to the metal detector both N95 respirators and one of the surgical masks with a metal nose clip showed strong ferromagnetic attraction. Both respirators and a surgical mask with a metal nasal holder showed magnetic susceptibility artefacts. The signal loss is caused by dephasing of spins from metal strip on the image. Conclusion: All the patients must have a recognised MR safe masks prior to an MRI investigation. When this is not possible to follow, metallic components from the face mask should be removed before the patient's arrival at the MR room. After removing the metal strip from the mask, the paper tape may be applied across the nasal bridge region for adequate transmission control and to maintain the intended function of the mask. The mask with a plastic nasal holder was ideal to use in an MR environment since it doesn't have any distortion in the image.

5.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 48, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1587801

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite overall impact on health during COVID-19, mental health was least explored to assess psychological wellbeing. Hence, this study to screen the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescents and adults and evaluate the effectiveness of Ayurveda herbal intervention becomes relevant. This study examined the effectiveness of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell) in reducing depression, anxiety, and stress among populations aged between 12 to 60 years in COVID-19 negative patients Hassan district of Karnataka State, India after screening them for psychological distress. Methods: 198 eligible participants (140 female and 58 male) selected by Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was used to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress from 1657 screened participants at baseline. Two 500 mg capsule of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell) was administered twice daily after food in morning and night for 30 days. Paired t-test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test was applied to see the change in each DASS-21 indicator after intervention. Results: At the DASS-21, 4.09% of the responders presented pathological levels of depression, 10.85% of anxiety, and 0.72% of stress among general population. Significant decrease in means were found for scales of depression, anxiety, stress and total DASS-21 after intervention (p<0.001) with Brahmi for a period of 1 month Conclusion: The population during COVID-19 experienced mild to moderate levels of anxiety, depression and stress. This study result highlights the effectiveness of Brahmi in improving the psychological health during COVID-19. These results have important implications in clinical practice in improving psychological health in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Trial Registration: CTRI/2020/07/026952. Available at: http://www.ctri.nic.in. Keywords: COVID-19, DASS-21, psychological health, depression, anxiety, stress, Brahmi, Bacopa monnieri

6.
2021 Asian Conference on Innovation in Technology, ASIANCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1494260

ABSTRACT

Over the recent past, the raging pandemic due to COVID-19 is making the headlines, bringing about a global crisis with an inevitable spread. The use of a face mask and maintaining physical distancing is a precautionary measure as suggested by the WHO. The individuals infected with COVID-19 suffer respiratory problems accompanied by shortness of breath. The surroundings of the concerned individuals can be contaminated by their droplets carrying the virus. It is mandatory to wear a mask and follow physical distancing, yet many citizens violate the regulations. In such scenarios, frequent checks for face masks in public places and imposing fines are common. As object detection has unfolded to be an approachable biometric process, it has been widely applied in surveillance, security, autonomous driving, etc. With the rapid development of deep learning models, object detectors are highly suitable to develop social distancing and face mask detectors to administer the crowd via CCTV and surveillance cameras. The paper surveys various deep learning networks to develop such detectors. In this survey, the existing object detection models used for surveillance and people detection are analyzed. The one-stage and two-stage detectors along with their applications and performance are outlined in a comprehensive manner. Deep Learning models such as AdaBoost, Voila-Jones, variants of CNN including ResNet, VGG-16, single-shot detectors MobileNet, and versions of YOLO are discussed and compared. © 2021 IEEE.

7.
Public Health ; 200: 33-38, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 continues to cause devastation throughout the world. Various factors influence the perioperative course and prognosis of COVID-19. This study aims to collate the independent prognostic factors among hospitalised COVID-19 patients in east Iran. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study, all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 between 19 February 2020 and 1 August 2020 who were admitted to nine public hospitals of South Khorasan province, Iran, were enrolled. METHODS: Univariate analysis (chi-square [χ2], and Mann-Whitney U test) and multiple logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: This study included 1290 participants; 676 patients (52.4%) were male. A total of 1189 (92.2%) recovered, and 101 (7.8%) died. The results show that in-hospital mortality increases with advanced age (the optimal cut-off point = 62 years). The following three variables were shown to have the most significant role in in-hospital mortality: age >60 years (odds ratio [OR] = 8.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.8-13.35), shortness of breath (OR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.4-69.17) and atypical radiological manifestations in a chest X-ray on admission (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.3-28.64). In the univariate analysis, associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, influenced the in-hospital mortality rate, while the same could not be replicated in the multiple variable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the potential predictors of COVID-19 and highlighted the need to be cautious with advanced age and heightened clinical symptoms at the time of admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems ; 191:1045-1056, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1355987

ABSTRACT

The world today has become fully digitalized. The increase of digitalization has provided a huge platform for the cybercriminals to launch their attacks. With the outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) followed by lockdowns, digitalization has been the only way to stay connected virtually. With the growing technology every day, the attacks become more and more sophisticated as the attackers quickly learn and invent new ways to find their prey. Every sector whether public or private has been affected due to breaches in cybersecurity especially during the COVID-19. In this paper, we have tried to analyze various types of cyberattacks carried out during the pandemic with its impact and preventive measures to be taken for protection. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

9.
Studies in Computational Intelligence ; 963:77-99, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1353626

ABSTRACT

As on 15th September 2020, the total cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in the world has crossed 29 million, with more than 930,000 deaths occurring due to the virus. Real time RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which is the standard detection method for COVID-19, is likely to have low detection rate in early stages of the infection possibly due to less viral load in the patients. On the other hand, in comparison to RT-PCR, patterns obtained from radiography on chest CT scans show higher sensitivity and specificity. However, due to the sensitive nature and difficulties in publicly acquiring medical data, only 2 open-sourced COVID CT datasets with images containing clinical findings of COVID-19 could be found. Applying existing deep learning models to the limited CT scans can distinguish COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 CT images but with lesser accuracy. The paper proposes to use existing deep learning-based frameworks on an augmented dataset consisting of pixel scaled images (of the original CT images) and the original CT images to diagnose COVID-19 infection. Since this is a binary classification problem the paper proposes to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to classify CT images into infected and not infected categories. The implementation is done with Keras and Tensorflow using an 80/20 ratio for training and validation. The proposed methodology (using pixel scaled images) achieved a validation accuracy of over 90% in detecting COVID-19 with an F1-score of 0.96 compared to the best F1-score of 0.86 on the original dataset. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

10.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(28A):174-190, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1314959

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has influenced every aspect of life. Healthcare professionals, especially dentists, are exposed to a higher risk of getting infected due to close contact with infected patients primarily through aerosol generated procedures. This study aimed to assess the awareness and risks of getting infected among dentists in the western region of Saudi Arabia, while working during the current novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In addition, dentists' knowledge about various practice modifications to combat COVID-19 cross infection and spread were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 329 participants including 123 males and 196 females responded to an online questionnaire consisting of 30 questions, which was circulated among all kinds of dental healthcare professionals through social media and e-mails after obtaining approval from the institutional ethical committee. Results: Chi square tests revealed significant differences when comparing the responses of the participants based on qualification with regard to key responses related to awareness and practice perceptions such as HEPA filters, pulse oximeter, wearing an N-95 mask, using a face shield, a High volume suction and rubber dam.(p<0.05) Conclusion: Although, there were variations in responses among the various dental professionals, it can be concluded that it is important to ensure increased knowledge and awareness of covid -19 risks and transmission which is absolutely essential in dental practice to ensure optimal oral care during the ongoing pandemic.

11.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds ; 10(20):1558-1560, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1257182
12.
British Journal of Surgery ; 108(SUPPL 2):ii2, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1254592

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The impetus to apply the lean method to creation of arteriovenous fistulae came with the pandemic restricting access to theatres. Here we present HADAP implemented in a dedicated procedure room in the Renal ward. Method: Between April and September 2020, 44 patients underwent ward-based arteriovenous fistula operations with no more than 3 people in the room - surgeon, runner and patient. The parameters assessed were duration of operation, complications, patency, patient and surgeon feedback and financial implications. Results: The service was predominantly registrar-led who created 91% of the fistulae. 95% operations were completed successfully with a 2- week primary patency of 73% and no surgical site infections. 40% of the procedures were radiocephalic fistulae. 14% procedures required surgical assistance by the runner. The average operating time reduced from 90 minutes for the first 10 cases to 50 minutes for the last 9. A structured questionnaire showed positive feedback from both patients and surgeons (4-5 out of 5). This service has cleared potentially 9 main theatre lists for more complex procedures. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the successful implementation of a novel operating environment allowing expedited care for renal failure patients. It has enhanced our ability to deliver a dialysis access program despite the challenges of COVID.

13.
Lect. Notes Inst. Comput. Sci. Soc. Informatics Telecommun. Eng. ; 362 LNICST:208-223, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1204870

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has resulted in increased fatality rates across the world and has stretched the resources in healthcare facilities. There have been several proposed efforts to contain the spread of the virus among humans. Some of these efforts involve appropriate social distancing in public places, monitoring and tracking temperature at the point of access, etc. In order for us to get back to the “new normal", there is a need for automated and efficient human contact tracing that would be non-intrusive and effective in containing the spread of the virus. In this paper, we have developed “Connect", a Blockchain and Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) based digital contact tracing platform. “Connect" will provide an automated mechanism to notify people in their immediate proximity of an occurrence of a positive case and would reduce the rate at which the infection could spread. The platform’s self-sovereign identity capability will ensure no attribution to a user and the user will be empowered to share information. The ability to notify in a privacy-preserving fashion would provide businesses to put in place dynamic and localized data-driven mitigation response. “Connect’s" SSI based identity wallet platform encodes user’s digital identities and activity trace data on a permissioned blockchain platform and verified using SSI proofs. The user activities will provide information, such as places travelled, travel and dispatch updates from the airport etc. The activity trace records can be leveraged to identify suspected patients and notify the local community in real-time. Simulation results demonstrate transaction scalability and demonstrate the effectiveness of “Connect" in realizing data immutability and traceability. © 2021, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

14.
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 52(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1133620

ABSTRACT

Background: The typical CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia include ground-glass opacity (GGO) with or without consolidation and superimposed interlobular septal thickening. These are often rounded in morphology and frequently bilateral, multilobar, posterior, peripheral, and basilar in distribution. The various atypical CT features of COVID-19 are seldom described in the literature. The study aims to enumerate the atypical pulmonary CT features in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in correlation with the disease severity. Results: A total of 298 confirmed cases of COVID-19 pneumonia with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) who underwent chest CT scans were retrospectively evaluated. The cohort included 234 (78.5%) men and 64 (21.5%) women and the mean age was 53.48 ± 15.74 years. The most common presenting symptoms were fever [n = 197 (66.1%)] and cough [n = 139 (46.6%)]. Out of 298 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia, 218 cases (73.1%) showed typical CT features while 63 cases (21.1%) showed atypical CT features with concurrent classical findings and the remaining 17 cases (5.8%) were normal. Among the atypical CT features, the most common was pulmonary cysts [n = 27 (9%)]. The other features in the order of frequency included pleural effusion [n = 17 (5.7%)], nodules [n = 13 (4.3%)], bull’s eye/target sign[n = 4 (1.3%)], cavitation [n = 3 (1.0%)], spontaneous pneumothorax [n = 2 (0.6%)], hilar lymphadenopathy [n = 2 (0.6%)], spontaneous pneumo-mediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema [n = 1 (0.3%)], Halo sign [n = 1 (0.3%)], empyema [n = 1 (0.3%)] and necrotizing pneumonia with abscess [n = 1 (0.3%)]. Conclusion: CT imaging features of COVID-19 pneumonia while in a vast majority of cases is classical, atypical diverse patterns are also encountered. A comprehensive knowledge of various atypical presentations on imaging plays an important role in the early diagnosis and management of COVID-19. © 2021, The Author(s).

15.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 36(1 SUPPL):S114, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1092826

ABSTRACT

Aims & Objectives: The ''gold-standard'' test for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is real time PCR, not all cases with mild symptoms or asymptomatic cases are subjected to RT-PCR analysis. It is also not practically feasible in a country like India, considering the cost, number of subjects to be screened and the required technical expertise. The sero-conversion in case of COVID-19 generally occurs from 4th or 5th day after the onset of symptoms.To develop a cost-effective, rapid kit for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to COVID-19 using gold nanoparticle labeled antigen/antibody. Patients/Materials & Methods: Standardization of the LFIA antibody test involved many different experiments. Different size of gold nanoparticles were prepared and used. These GNPs were then adjusted to different pH for optimal binding: pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, 10.0 using different buffers(PBS, Borate, carbonate, etc.). The pore size of membranes play an important role and thus different pore size membranes were use (5,8,10,12,15 lm). Reaction temperature of 37C and RT were checked for maximum sensitivity. Different concentrations of the proteins ranging from 0.4 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml were tried. For the same, serum samples of 15 patients who were COVID-19 RT PCR positive having symptoms of fever, sore throat, etc. were collected between 7 to 14 days post symptoms and of 40 patients at least 28 days post symptoms. All the results were cross checked and compared with ICMR validated Rapid tests and ELISAs for IgG and IgM. Results: Internal Validation: The results are in good accordance to ICMR validated Rapid tests and ELISAs where in ssensitivity of 89.6% and 91% were obtained for IgG and IgM respectively. External Validation. 1: ICMR-National Institute of Virology 200 kits were sent for validation, Sensitivity, Specificity and cross reactivity with real-time RT-PCR positive for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, influenza A (H3N2), human coronavirus OC43, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza B, parainfluenza type 4, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, etc. was done by ICMR -NIV. Sensitivity was 87.5% and 90% for IgG and IgM, respectively and specificity was 97.12 for both. 2: Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB)-DBT 300 kits were sent for validation. Sensitivity was 96% and 90.67% and specificity was 97.12 for IgG and IgM, respectively. The working cost is around 120Rs. The kit has now gone to the Technology transfer and commercialization department at ICMR, New Delhi. Discussion & Conclusion: The antibody diagnosis approach is important in COVID-19 epidemic to diagnose the asymptomatic cases, to assess the magnitude of infection as well as to assess the number of people who are protected from infection, though it is still not clear about the protective effect of these antibodies for repeated infection. The in-house kit was found to be highly sensitive and specific with the working cost being 100-120 Rs.

16.
ACM Int. Conf. Proc. Ser. ; : 432, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1021131

ABSTRACT

Accurate forecasts of infections for localized regions are valuable for policy making and medical capacity planning. Existing compartmental and agent-based models for epidemiological forecasting employ static parameter choices and cannot be readily contextualized, while adaptive solutions focus primarily on the reproduction number. The current work proposes a novel model-agnostic Bayesian optimization approach for learning model parameters from observed data that generalizes to multiple application-specific fidelity criteria. Empirical results point to the efficacy of the proposed method with SEIR-like models on COVID-19 case forecasting tasks. A city-level forecasting system based on this method is being used for COVID-19 response in a few impacted Indian cities. © 2021 Owner/Author.

17.
Proc. Int. Conf. IoT Soc., Mob., Anal. Cloud, ISMAC ; : 772-777, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-998629

ABSTRACT

There are many applications available in the face detection algorithm but very limited applications are identified for further processing. When it comes to identifying faces in the crowd and that too in all-weather conditions then it's too difficult a task to be conducted. Considering this challenge, most of the surveillance systems are not automated. In the sense the CCTV deployed are used only for bufferingpurposes. Very rarely an event is brought to the notice and later CCTV footage is used as a tool for legal issues. There are a lot of concerns about deploying CCTV's in Public places as well. Selecting this system, our work have made sure that the CCTV's will be used to process the video being taken, and whenever an event triggers, notice(s) has to be provided for officials. Thus, the proposed system is for automatic detection and recognition of human faces for finding criminals/suspects/missing persons for surveillance. The intended method first detects a face in the video using a face detection algorithm and then it will search whether the face is present in the data centre. The method provides the ability to detect, extract features, and recognize a face from inputs taken by camera or video automatically. Recognizing faces under different natural conditions can be done by training the system on a limited number of facial images. Also, this system is tested for Covid-19 Post situations, wherein wearing masks in public places is compulsory thus face recognition in these aspects is also tested, and encouraging results have been achieved. © 2020 IEEE.

18.
Journal of International Oral Health ; 12(8):S57-S63, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-993892

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus originated from Wuhan, China in December 2019 was designated initially as an epidemic but later in a short period it was declared as a pandemic. Currently, this pandemic has spread to 210 countries. There is a steady increase in the number of people getting infected with COVID and a surge in mortality as well. It is an alarming situation for health-care professionals. Dental professionals, by the very nature of treatment (direct contact with the patient's mouth, saliva, aerosols, and droplets), carry a potential risk of getting infected or transmitting infection. Various associations have developed guidelines for an approach to the dental treatment in COVID crisis. With current knowledge, prevention and isolation seem to be the best method reiterating the old-age saying 'Prevention is better than cure.' In this review, we will discuss with the help of flowcharts various preventive measures to decrease the spread of infection and precautions for the dental practice. © 2020 Journal of International Oral Health. Published by Wolters Kluwer . Medknow.

19.
Dental Hypotheses ; 11(4):121-125, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-968024

ABSTRACT

In the present scenario, the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is responsible for simple upper respiratory infection to fatal pneumonia and multi-organ failure has become a major public health challenge and a public health emergency of international concern. Apart from secondary and tertiary care, it is very much essential to provide primary care, prevention, and early detection. To prevent the virus from the human-human transmission and to control the situation, the protocols vary at various setups. Due to the uniqueness of dental settings and practice, the risk of cross-infection can be high between patients and dental practitioners. Establishment of strict and effective infection control protocol is necessary owing to the varying sustainability of the virus on different surfaces. The area of concern for a dental professional is the oral cavity and upper respiratory region where the host recipient cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2, is present abundantly acts as the host cell entry route for the coronavirus. Dental professionals play an important role in preventing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2;we aim to review the infection control measures in dental practice. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

20.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(6): e69-e77, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664510

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented stress on healthcare systems internationally. These Health system-wide demands call for efficient utilisation of resources at this time in a fair, consistent, ethical and efficient manner would improve our ability to treat patients. Excellent co-operation between hospital units (especially intensive care unit [ICU], emergency department [ED] and cardiology) is critical in ensuring optimal patient outcomes. The purpose of this document is to provide practical guidelines for the effective use of interventional cardiology services in Australia and New Zealand. The document will be updated regularly as new evidence and knowledge is gained with time. Goals Considerations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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