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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22279589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe rising breakthrough infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, especially Omicron and its sub-lineages, have raised an urgent need to develop broad-spectrum vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have developed a mosaic-type recombinant vaccine candidate, named NVSI-06-09, having immune potentials against a broad range of SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODSAn ongoing randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-09 as a booster dose in subjects aged 18 years and older from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), who had completed two or three doses of BBIBP-CorV vaccinations at least 6 months prior to the enrollment. The participants were randomly assigned with 1:1 to receive a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcomes were immunogenicity and safety against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, and the exploratory outcome was cross-immunogenicity against other circulating strains. RESULTSA total of 516 participants received booster vaccination. Interim results showed a similar safety profile between NVSI-06-09 and BBIBP-CorV booster groups, with low incidence of adverse reactions of grade 1 or 2. For immunogenicity, by day 14 after the booster vaccination, the fold rises in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) from baseline level elicited by NVSI-06-09 were remarkably higher than those by BBIBP-CorV against the prototype strain (19.67 vs 4.47-fold), Omicron BA.1.1 (42.35 vs 3.78-fold), BA.2 (25.09 vs 2.91-fold), BA.4 (22.42 vs 2.69-fold), and BA.5 variants (27.06 vs 4.73-fold). Similarly, the neutralizing GMTs boosted by NVSI-06-09 against Beta and Delta variants were also 6.60-fold and 7.17-fold higher than those boosted by BBIBP-CorV. CONCLUSIONSA booster dose of NVSI-06-09 was well-tolerated and elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing responses against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and immune-evasive variants, including Omicron and its sub-lineages. The immunogenicity of NVSI-06-09 as a booster vaccine was superior to that of BBIBP-CorV. (Funded by LIBP and BIBP of Sinopharm; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05293548).

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22275834

ABSTRACT

BackgroundsDespite the widespread distribution of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the COVID-19 pandemic continues with highly contagious variants and waning immunity. Low disease severity of the Omicron variant gives society hope that the COVID-19 pandemic could end. MethodsWe develop an agent-based simulation to explore the impact of COVID-19 vaccine willingness, booster vaccination schedule, vaccine effectiveness, and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on reducing COVID-19 deaths while considering immunity duration and disease severity against the Omicron variant. The model is calibrated to the greater Seattle in year 2020 by observing local epidemic data. The simulation is run to the end of year 2024 to observe long-term effects. ResultsResults show that an NPI policy that maintains low levels of NPIs can reduce mortality by 35.1% compared to fully opening the society. A threshold NPI policy is especially helpful when the disease severity of the Omicron variant is high, or booster vaccines are not scheduled. A periodic booster schedule is needed to achieve the goal of lowering the number of deaths from COVID-19 to the level of influenza and pneumonia. Except for one scenario, 80% or more vaccine willingness is also needed to achieve this goal. ConclusionsWe find that a periodic booster vaccination schedule and mild disease severity of the Omicron variant play a crucial role in reducing deaths by the end of year 2024. If a booster schedule is not planned and the Omicron variant is not mild, NPI policies that limit society from fully opening are required to control the outbreak.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22271905

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 vaccination of persons aged 12 years and older has reduced disease burden in the United States. The COVID-19 Scenario Modeling Hub convened multiple modeling teams in September 2021 to project the impact of expanding vaccine administration to children 5-11 years old on anticipated COVID-19 burden and resilience against variant strains. MethodsNine modeling teams contributed state- and national-level projections for weekly counts of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States for the period September 12, 2021 to March 12, 2022. Four scenarios covered all combinations of: 1) presence vs. absence of vaccination of children ages 5-11 years starting on November 1, 2021; and 2) continued dominance of the Delta variant vs. emergence of a hypothetical more transmissible variant on November 15, 2021. Individual team projections were combined using linear pooling. The effect of childhood vaccination on overall and age-specific outcomes was estimated by meta-analysis approaches. FindingsAbsent a new variant, COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths among all ages were projected to decrease nationally through mid-March 2022. Under a set of specific assumptions, models projected that vaccination of children 5-11 years old was associated with reductions in all-age cumulative cases (7.2%, mean incidence ratio [IR] 0.928, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.880-0.977), hospitalizations (8.7%, mean IR 0.913, 95% CI 0.834-0.992), and deaths (9.2%, mean IR 0.908, 95% CI 0.797-1.020) compared with scenarios where children were not vaccinated. This projected effect of vaccinating children 5-11 years old increased in the presence of a more transmissible variant, assuming no change in vaccine effectiveness by variant. Larger relative reductions in cumulative cases, hospitalizations, and deaths were observed for children than for the entire U.S. population. Substantial state-level variation was projected in epidemic trajectories, vaccine benefits, and variant impacts. ConclusionsResults from this multi-model aggregation study suggest that, under a specific set of scenario assumptions, expanding vaccination to children 5-11 years old would provide measurable direct benefits to this age group and indirect benefits to the all-age U.S. population, including resilience to more transmissible variants.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325434

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of confirmed and suspected corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases via the process of “triage-screening-isolation-transfer” in the hospitals of non-epidemic areas. Methods: : The general data, epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, laboratory examination, and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of 38 patients with suspected COVID-19, admitted between January 21 and March 5, 2020, were analyzed. Results: : According to the results of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) ribonucleic acid (RNA) testing, the patients were divided into study group (RNA positive) and control group (RNA negative). Ultimately, 8 cases were RNA-positive and diagnosed as CDVID-19, and 30 cases were negative. Approximately half of the patients in the study group returned to Chongqing from Wuhan;this number was significantly larger than that of the control group (P<0.05). The number of subjects in close contact with the confirmed cases with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive and the incidence of aggregation was significantly larger in the study group than in the control group (both P<0.05). The clinical symptom of the study group was mainly low fever (with or without cough). The patients with decreased white blood cells (WBC) in the study group were significantly more than those in the control group (P<0.05). Both group had reduced lymphocytes (Lym) but the number of patients with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) in the study group was significantly more than that in the control group (P<0.05). There were different degrees of chest CT abnormalities in both study and control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The epidemiological investigations in screening for infectious diseases is crucial. The risk of infection was high from the primary epidemic area and/or in close contact with the confirmed case. The most common form of clustering occurrence was family aggregation. CDVID-19 was mainly characterized by fever and respiratory symptoms, although asymptomatic infection may also occur. Decreased WBC, decreased Lym, and increased CRP are common characteristics but can also be combined with other respiratory tract virus infections. COVID 19 screening by chest CT alone had certain limitations in non- epidemic areas.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315220

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel SARS-CoV-2 has swiftly spread worldwide. Rapid genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 strains has become a helpful tool for better understanding of virus genomic characteristics and the origin. To obtain the virus whole-genome sequence directly from the clinical specimens, we performed the nanopore sequencing using a modified ARTIC protocol on portable nanopore sequencer, and validated the routine 8 hours workflow and 5 hours rapid pipeline. We had made some optimizations to improve the genome sequencing workflow. The sensitivity of the workflow was also tested by serially diluting RNA from clinical samples. The optimized pipeline was finally applied to obtain the whole genomes from 17 clinical specimens in Hangzhou from January 2020 to March 2020. In the obtained 17 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2, 12 variations were found and analyzed. The genomic variations and phylogenetic analysis hinted the multiple sources and different transmission pattern during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hangzhou, China. In conclusion, the genomic characteristics and the origin of the virus could be quickly determined by nanopore sequencing following our workflows.

6.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(21):3708-3711, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1628273

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-COV-2 caused the global pandemic crisis.As the pandemic evolves, the mutation of novel coronavirus genome continues, resulting in several novel coronavirus variants. For example, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (p.1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Lambda (C.37) variants may cause changes in biological characteristics of the virus, such as pathogenicity and infectivity, which may lead immune escape from vaccine protection and antibodies, even bring greater harm to epidemic prevention and control and also disease treatment. In this paper, the pandemic characteristics and relevant prevention and control measures of lambda variant are reviewed.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262748

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?The highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has begun to cause increases in cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in parts of the United States. With slowed vaccination uptake, this novel variant is expected to increase the risk of pandemic resurgence in the US in July--December 2021. What is added by this report?Data from nine mechanistic models project substantial resurgences of COVID-19 across the US resulting from the more transmissible Delta variant. These resurgences, which have now been observed in most states, were projected to occur across most of the US, coinciding with school and business reopening. Reaching higher vaccine coverage in July--December 2021 reduces the size and duration of the projected resurgence substantially. The expected impact of the outbreak is largely concentrated in a subset of states with lower vaccination coverage. What are the implications for public health practice?Renewed efforts to increase vaccination uptake are critical to limiting transmission and disease, particularly in states with lower current vaccination coverage. Reaching higher vaccination goals in the coming months can potentially avert 1.5 million cases and 21,000 deaths and improve the ability to safely resume social contacts, and educational and business activities. Continued or renewed non-pharmaceutical interventions, including masking, can also help limit transmission, particularly as schools and businesses reopen.

8.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-448958

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive target for COVID-19 vaccine developments, which naturally exists in a trimeric form. Here, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of RBD (mutI tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, in which three RBDs were individually grafted from three different circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains including the prototype, Beta (B.1.351) and Kappa (B.1.617). The three RBDs were then connected end-to-end and co-assembled to possibly mimic the native trimeric arrangements in the natural S protein trimer. The recombinant expression of the mutI tri-RBD, as well as the homo-tri-RBD where the three RBDs were all truncated from the prototype strain, by mammalian cell exhibited correct folding, strong bio-activities, and high stability. The immunization of both the mutI tri-RBD and homo-tri-RBD plus aluminum adjuvant induced high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain in mice. Notably, regarding to the "immune-escape" Beta (B.1.351) variant, mutI tri-RBD elicited significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than homo-tri-RBD. Furthermore, due to harboring the immune-resistant mutations as well as the evolutionarily convergent hotspots, the designed mutI tri-RBD also induced strong broadly neutralizing activities against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the variants partially resistant to homo-tri-RBD. Homo-tri-RBD has been approved by the China National Medical Products Administration to enter clinical trial (No. NCT04869592), and the superior broad neutralization performances against SARS-CoV-2 support the mutI tri-RBD as a more promising vaccine candidate for further clinical developments.

9.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14271, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fangcang Hospitals (cabin hospitals) played a key role in isolation and control of the infection sources during COVID-19 epidemic. Many patients at Fangcang Hospitals had complications or mental stress. As the doctors, nurses and paramedics presented in the emergency, there was a growing demand for clinical pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care for the affected patients with chronic diseases via telemedicine. OBJECTIVE: This study was a retrospective study to evaluate the usefulness of clinical prevention and control measures of clinical pharmacists at Jianghan Fangcang Hospital. Besides, this study proposed innovative strategies for developing pharmacy services to ensure the medication compliance, accuracy and cure rates under the epidemic. METHODS: A total of 374 patients filled in the questionnaires and 349 patients were enrolled in this study. Patients who refused to receive pharmaceutical care were not included in this study. The pharmaceutical care included medication education via broadcast station, medication reconciliation, optimisation of drug use, monitor of adverse drug events and psychological comfort via WeChat one-to-one service. The data were collected from patients' interviews and the questionnaires of inpatients and discharged patients. RESULTS: In Jianghan Fangcang Hospital, many patients had complications with hypertension (12.9%), hyperlipidaemia (9.2%), thyroid disease (8.9%), diabetes (7.2%), heart disease (3.4%), nephropathy (1.7%), cancer (1.1%) and other diseases (12.6%). After 35 days' pharmacy service, about 200 different questions had been solved by our clinical pharmacists, including drug usage (65.38%), medication reconciliation (55.13%), drug precautions (23.1%), adverse drug reactions (35.9%) and psychological counselling (32.05%). Most patients were satisfied with clinical pharmacist service (66.7% great, 18.0% good). CONCLUSION: The results of the retrospective study indicated that clinical pharmacist can effectively reduce and prevent drug-related, life-related and COVID-19-related problems for COVID-19 patients, which is important for the disease recovery. This study also demonstrated that clinical pharmacist played a key role for patients' healthcare during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Medication Reconciliation , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Journal of Asian Public Policy ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1160715
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117232, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932797

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is rapidly spreading globally. Clinical observations found that systemic symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are attenuated when using the anticoagulant agent heparin, indicating that heparin may play other roles in managing COVID-19, in addition to prevention of pulmonary thrombosis. Several biochemical studies show strong binding of heparin and heparin-like molecules to the Spike protein, which resulted in inhibition of viral infection to cells. The clinical observations and in vitro studies argue for a potential multiple-targeting effects of heparin. However, adverse effects of heparin administration and some of the challenges using heparin therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection need to be considered. This review discusses the pharmacological mechanisms of heparin regarding its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and direct antiviral activities, providing current evidence concerning the effectiveness and safety of heparin therapy for this major public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20225409

ABSTRACT

Policymakers make decisions about COVID-19 management in the face of considerable uncertainty. We convened multiple modeling teams to evaluate reopening strategies for a mid-sized county in the United States, in a novel process designed to fully express scientific uncertainty while reducing linguistic uncertainty and cognitive biases. For the scenarios considered, the consensus from 17 distinct models was that a second outbreak will occur within 6 months of reopening, unless schools and non-essential workplaces remain closed. Up to half the population could be infected with full workplace reopening; non-essential business closures reduced median cumulative infections by 82%. Intermediate reopening interventions identified no win-win situations; there was a trade-off between public health outcomes and duration of workplace closures. Aggregate results captured twice the uncertainty of individual models, providing a more complete expression of risk for decision-making purposes.

13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3443-3450, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853685

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. Patients with mild symptoms were admitted to Fangcang shelter hospitals for centralized quarantine. We aimed to clarify the medication usage, related adverse reactions, and pharmaceutical interventions in patients with mild COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We innovatively carried out targeted pharmacy services. We provided online and off-line pharmaceutical services to patients in the Fangcang shelter hospital. The use of medication, related adverse reactions, and the effects of pharmaceutical intervention were analyzed. RESULTS: Lower blood lymphocyte count was proposed as the most significant risk factor in patients with mild illness. All patients received antiviral treatment (arbidol, oseltamivir, and ribavirin); 78.4% of patients received antibiotic therapy (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefdinir); patients in the moderate disease group received more antibiotic therapy than those in the mild disease group. Most of the patients were treated with traditional Chinese medicine. Patients with moderate disease preferred to receive sedative hypnotic therapy. Diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, insomnia, arrhythmia, and constipation were the most common adverse reactions. The rate of mild-to-moderate illness in the pharmaceutical intervention and non-intervention groups was 20.6% and 31.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most patients with mild illness were treated with antiviral, antibiotic, and Chinese medicine therapy. However, attention should be paid to patients with mild illness presenting with hypertension and low lymphocyte count at the onset; these patients are more likely to develop moderate or severe disease. Moreover, there were many drug-related problems in Fangcang shelter hospital; pharmaceutical care might contribute to alleviate the progress of the patient's condition. Pharmacists should be prepared to provide skilled and effective services to patients, with the aim to ensure medication safety and promote the overall control of the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(6): 1087-1095, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742070

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared its assessment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic. However, specific anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) drugs are still under development, and patients are managed by multiple complementary treatments. We performed a retrospective analysis to compare and evaluate the effect of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment on disease progression. For this purpose, the clinical records and laboratory indicators were extracted from electronic medical records of 42 patients with COVID-19 (21 of whom were treated with LMWH, and 21 without LMWH) hospitalized (Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology) from February 1 to March 15, 2020. Changes in the percentage of lymphocytes before and after LMWH treatment were significantly different from those in the control group (P = 0.011). Likewise, changes in the levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen degradation products in the LMWH group before and after treatment were significantly different from those in the control group (P = 0.035). Remarkably, IL-6 levels were significantly reduced after LMWH treatment (P = 0.006), indicating that, besides other beneficial properties, LMWH may exert an anti-inflammatory effect and attenuate in part the "cytokine storm" induced by the virus. Our results support the use of LMWH as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of COVID-19, paving the way for a subsequent well-controlled clinical study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20176776

ABSTRACT

Effectively identifying COVID-19 patients using non-PCR clinical data is critical for the optimal clinical outcomes. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of various biomedical features and appropriate technical approaches to accurately detecting COVID-19 patients. In this study, we recruited 214 confirmed COVID-19 patients in non-severe (NS) and 148 in severe (S) clinical type, 198 non-infected healthy (H) participants and 129 non-COVID viral pneumonia (V) patients. The participants clinical information (23 features), lab testing results (10 features), and thoracic CT scans upon admission were acquired as three input feature modalities. To enable late fusion of multimodality data, we developed a deep learning model to extract a 10-feature high-level representation of the CT scans. Exploratory analyses showed substantial differences of all features among the four classes. Three machine learning models (k-nearest neighbor kNN, random forest RF, and support vector machine SVM) were developed based on the 43 features combined from all three modalities to differentiate four classes (NS, S, V, and H) at once. All three models had high accuracy to differentiate the overall four classes (95.4%-97.7%) and each individual class (90.6%-99.9%). Multimodal features provided substantial performance gain from using any single feature modality. Compared to existing binary classification benchmarks often focusing on single feature modality, this study provided a novel and effective breakthrough for clinical applications. Findings and the analytical workflow can be used as clinical decision support for current COVID-19 and other clinical applications with high-dimensional multimodal biomedical features. One sentence summaryWe trained and validated late fusion deep learning-machine learning models to predict non-severe COVID-19, severe COVID-19, non-COVID viral infection, and healthy classes from clinical, lab testing, and CT scan features extracted from convolutional neural network and achieved predictive accuracy of > 96% to differentiate all four classes at once based on a large dataset of 689 participants.

16.
American journal of cancer research ; 10(7):2010-2031, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-710041

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel, human-infecting β-coronavirus enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection that emerged in November 2002. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the epidemic disease concepts of "febrile epidemics" (wenyi) or "warm diseases" (wenbing) are based on geographic and cultural aspects, and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) played an important role in the treatment of epidemic diseases. CHM was widely used to treat patients suffered with SARS almost two decades ago during outbreak of SARS, with proven safety and potential benefits. TCM has also been widely used to treat cancer patients for a long history and much of them associate with immunomodulatory activity and are used to treat coronavirus-related diseases. We propose the use of CHM treatment principles for clinical practice, based on four main stages of COVID-19 infection: early, intermediate, severe, and convalescence. We suggest corresponding decoctions that exhibit antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory effects in the early stage of infection;preventing the disease from progressing from an intermediate to severe stage of infection;restoring normal lung function and improving consciousness in the severe stage;and ameliorating pulmonary and vascular injury in the convalescent stage. We summarize the pharmaceutical mechanisms of CHM for treating coronavirus via antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20105841

ABSTRACT

Effectively and efficiently diagnosing COVID-19 patients with accurate clinical type is essential to achieve optimal outcomes for the patients as well as reducing the risk of overloading the healthcare system. Currently, severe and non-severe COVID-19 types are differentiated by only a few clinical features, which do not comprehensively characterize complicated pathological, physiological, and immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 invasion in different types. In this study, we recruited 214 confirmed COVID-19 patients in non-severe and 148 in severe type, from Wuhan, China. The patients comorbidity and symptoms (26 features), and blood biochemistry (26 features) upon admission were acquired as two input modalities. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that these features differed substantially between two clinical types. Machine learning random forest (RF) models using features in each modality were developed and validated to classify COVID-19 clinical types. Using comorbidity/symptom and biochemistry as input independently, RF models achieved >90% and >95% predictive accuracy, respectively. Input features importance based on Gini impurity were further evaluated and top five features from each modality were identified (age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, gender, diabetes; D-Dimer, hsTNI, neutrophil, IL-6, and LDH). Combining top 10 multimodal features, RF model achieved >99% predictive accuracy. These findings shed light on how the human body reacts to SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a unity and provide insights on effectively evaluating COVID-19 patients severity and developing treatment plans accordingly. We suggest that symptoms and comorbidities can be used as an initial screening tool for triaging, while biochemistry and features combined are applied when accuracy is the priority. One Sentence SummaryWe trained and validated machine learning random forest (RF) models to predict COVID-19 severity based on 26 comorbidity/symptom features and 26 biochemistry features from a cohort of 214 non-severe and 148 severe type COVID-19 patients, identified top features from both feature modalities to differentiate clinical types, and achieved predictive accuracy of >90%, >95%, and >99% when comorbidity/symptom, biochemistry, and combined top features were used as input, respectively.

18.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 60(3): 431-438.e1, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the pharmacy administration and pharmaceutical care in a module hospital during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and provide reference for domestic and foreign pharmacists participating in the epidemic prevention and control. SETTING: The study was performed in a Jianghan module hospital constructed at the Wuhan Convention and Exhibition Center in Wuhan, China. This is 1 of the first 3 module hospitals. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: One thousand eight hundred forty-eight patients were admitted to the Jianghan module hospital, and 1327 cases (71.81% of the total number) were cured and discharged. Pharmacists have successfully completed the tasks of purchase, storage, and free distribution of drugs worth ¥1.03 million (approximately $146,000), reviewed about 20,000 electronic orders, provided one-on-one online medication consultation for 484 patients, and held 5 lectures on rational drug use knowledge, which could help reduce irrational drug use and minimize the risk involved. PRACTICE INNOVATION: The new COVID-19 "module" pharmaceutical care model is equipped with new features such as pharmacy emergency command group, organizational structure for pharmacy administration, electronic control of drug prescription, and "zero contact" pharmaceutical care relying on the new media platform "WeChat." This platform provides relevant pharmaceutical care for patients, such as ensuring drug supply, setting up critical care drug trolleys, designing specific drug packaging bags, creating a module radio station to broadcast rational drug use information to the patients, and other aspects. EVALUATION: With the continuous improvement of the module hospital and the progress in in-depth knowledge about COVID-19, some aspects such as patient admission criteria and variety of drugs need to be adjusted depending on the actual situation. RESULTS: The pharmacists provided pharmaceutical care for 1848 patients with mild COVID-19 disease. They not only ensured the timely supply of the drugs but also reduced the incidence of drug-induced risks through medication review and guidance, thereby improving patient compliance and helping the patients rebuild their confidence in overcoming the disease. CONCLUSION: The new COVID-19 module pharmaceutical care model has played an important role in overcoming the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in China and thus can be implemented on a broader scale.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharmacy Administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Professional Role , Young Adult
19.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20052720

ABSTRACT

Most models of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States do not consider geographic variation and spatial interaction. In this research, we developed a travel-network-based susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) mathematical compartmental model system that characterizes infections by state and incorporates inflows and outflows of interstate travelers. Modeling reveals that curbing interstate travel when the disease is already widespread will make little difference. Meanwhile, increased testing capacity (facilitating early identification of infected people and quick isolation) and strict social-distancing and self-quarantine rules are most effective in abating the outbreak. The modeling has also produced state-specific information. For example, for New York and Michigan, isolation of persons exposed to the virus needs to be imposed within 2 days to prevent a broad outbreak, whereas for other states this period can be 3.6 days. This model could be used to determine resources needed before safely lifting state policies on social distancing.

20.
Chinese Journal of Infectious Diseases ; (12): E015-E015, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific), WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-6385

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To observe theepidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, imaging findings, treatment and prognosis of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia.@*Methods@#Clinical data of 109 patients with suspected and definite novel coronavirus pneumonia admitted to Wuhan Sixth Hospital from December 24, 2019 to January 28, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysiswas performed by using t test or chi-square test.@*Results@#Among the 109 patients, 48 (44%) were male and 61 (56%) were female, with the average age of (52.5±10.8) years. Fifty-four patients (49.5%) had definite contact history. Among the 109 patients, 104 (95.5%) presentedwith fever, 37(33.7%) with headache, 78 (71.9%) with general pain, 88 (80.8%) with fatigue and poor appetite, 23 (21.3%) with diarrhea, 94 (86.5%) withcoughing, 23 (21.3%) with shortness of breath, 57 (52.8%) withpalpitation, 45 (41.5%) with chest distress, 4 (3.3%) with chest pain, 40 (37.0%) with lung rales. Forty-two cases (38.5%) had leukocyte count <4×109/L, 58 cases (53.2%) had lymphocyte count <1.5×109/L, 7 cases (24.8%) had hemoglobin <120g/L, 37 cases(33.9%) had LDH >230 mmol/L, 29 cases (26.6%) had brain natriuretic peptide precursor>300 ng/mL, 87 cases (79.8%) had hypersensitive C-reactive protein >10mg/L, 26 cases (23.9%) had D-dimer >0.5 mg/L, 35 cases (32.1%) had coagulation disorder. The leukocyte counts, LDH, brain natriuretic peptide precursor and D-dimer of severe/critical cases[(11.33±4.87)×109/L, (527.51±260.87) mmol/L, (722.88±189.56) ng/mL, (1.89±4.24) mg/L, respectively] were all significantly higher than those of common cases [(4.02±1.49)×109/L, (159.75±30.31)mmol/L, (428.22±124.76)ng/mLand (0.41±0.22)mg/L, respectively], while the lymphocyte count of severe/critical cases [(0.60±0.17)×109/L] was significantly lower than common cases [(1.13±0.43)×109/L] (t=11.36, 11.33,9.81,2.81 and 7.77,all P<0.05). On admission, chest CT showed that 27 cases (24.8%) of pneumonia were unilateral, 82 cases (75.2%) werebilateral, and most of them were ground glass. The pneumonia progressed in a short time and reached the peak within 10 days. The comprehensive treatment included antiviral drugs, prevention ofbacterialinfection and supportive treatment, and glucocorticoid and respiratory support treatment wereadministrated when necessary.@*Conclusions@#The novel coronavirus pneumonia is characterized by highly infectious, rapid progress, and diverse clinical and imaging features. Early diagnosis and active comprehensive treatment could improve theprognosis and reduce themortality.

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