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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317496

ABSTRACT

Background: More evidence in understanding the heterogeneity of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in improving strategy to increase the survival from the critical patients intubated is always needed. The study aimed to comprehensively explore the features of COVID-19-associated ARDS and the features and outcomes between the early and late intubation groups. Methods: : This retrospective cohort included 65 adult COVID-19 inpatients with ARDS at two hospitals in Hubei, China. The ARDS in these patients was diagnosed according to the Berlin criteria. We defined intubation within 7 days of ARDS diagnosis as ‘early’ intubation and that performed from the eighth day as ‘late’ intubation based on literatures. The outcomes were invasive mechanical ventilation and in-hospital death. The log-binomial regression models were used to explore the risk factors and the Kaplan-Meier statistic was used to estimate the risk of mortality. Results: : The median number of days from symptom onset to ARDS diagnosis was 11.0 (IQR, 8.0–13.0). Up to 84.1% COVID-19-related ARDS patients demonstrated multiple organ injuries. The mortality rates were 41.9% and 85.7% in moderate and severe ARDS. The early intubation and the late intubation had the differences in days from symptom onset/hospital admission/ARDS diagnosis to intubation (P = 0.023, P = 0.011, P < 0.001). Compared with the early-intubation group, the late-intubation group showed less severity at admission (median oxygenation index 159.0 95% CI 134.0-203.0 vs. 133.9 95% CI 98.3-183.2), but required more aggressive therapies (ICU 80% vs. 70%, CRRT 50% vs. 10%, prone-position 50% vs. 30%, and ECMO 50% vs. 10%) and had higher risk to die at hospital (RR, 3.18;95% CI 1.98-5.12). Conclusion: The ARDS caused by COVID-19 was not typical ARDS due to prolonged onset time, multiple organ injuries, and higher mortalities. The late-intubation group showed less severity at admission but higher risk of in-hospital death than the early-intubation group.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317495

ABSTRACT

Background: The reviews on the risk factors with ARDS and the worse outcomes concluded lacking robust data of risk factors to prevent COVID-19 and identified an urgent need for large sample and high-quality research in this area, as well as the features of the ARDS. Methods: : This retrospective cohort study included 333 COVID-19 inpatients at two hospitals in Hubei of China in 2020. The COVID-19-related ARDS was diagnosed according to the Berlin criteria. The outcomes were ARDS development and the intubation or in-hospital death. The cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) models were employed to determine the significant risk factors. Results: : The median number of days from symptom onset to ARDS diagnosis was 11.0 (IQR, 8.0–13.0). Up to 84.1% COVID-19-related ARDS patients demonstrated multiple organ injuries. The mortality rates were 41.9% and 85.7% in moderate and severe ARDS. The survival patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) had been intubated earlier since ARDS diagnosis than those who had not survived (5.5 median days, IQR 4.0-7.0 days versus 11.5 median days, IQR 6.0-14.0 days, P < 0.001). Males and all abnormal laboratory indices associated with the higher risk of ARDS (P<0.05) but were not linked with the risk of intubation or death (P>0.05). The sensitivity analyses found that lymphocyte count of < 1000 per mm3 at hospital admission were still significantly associated with developing ARDS when adjusting for age and male gender (HR, 4.10;95% CI, 2.40-7.10), and oxygenation index (OI) ratio < 150 were more likely to predict the intubation/death after age adjustment (HR, 2.50;95% CI, 1.17-5.30). Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2-caused ARDS was not the typical ARDS according to Berlin criteria. The alive patients with IMV had been intubated earlier since ARDS diagnosis than those who had not survived. We identified male gender and abnormal laboratory indices associated with the ARDS but were not linked with the intubation/death. Sensitivity analysis concluded lymphocyte count of < 1000 per mm3 could predict ARDS while OI ratio less than 150 could predict intubation/death.

3.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 180: 114079, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620432

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol or PEG has a long history of use in medicine. Many conventional formulations utilize PEG as either an active ingredient or an excipient. PEG found its use in biotechnology therapeutics as a tool to slow down drug clearance and shield protein therapeutics from undesirable immunogenicity. Nanotechnology field applies PEG to create stealth drug carriers with prolonged circulation time and decreased recognition and clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Most nanomedicines approved for clinical use and experimental nanotherapeutics contain PEG. Among the most recent successful examples are two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines that are delivered by PEGylated lipid nanoparticles. The breadth of PEG use in a wide variety of over the counter (OTC) medications as well as in drug products and vaccines stimulated research which uncovered that PEG is not as immunologically inert as it was initially expected. Herein, we review the current understanding of PEG's immunological properties and discuss them in the context of synthesis, biodistribution, safety, efficacy, and characterization of PEGylated nanomedicines. We also review the current knowledge about immunological compatibility of other polymers that are being actively investigated as PEG alternatives.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers , Nanomedicine , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109299, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559479

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging porcine enteric coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea in piglets and results in serious economic losses. There are no effective vaccines and antiviral drugs to prevent and treat PDCoV infection currently. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a lectin with potent antiviral activity against enveloped viruses because of its ability to specifically bind N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides. GRFT has been reported to possess antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we first confirmed the antiviral activity of GRFT against PDCoV in vitro. The infected cells (%) and virus titers were significantly decreased at concentration 1 µg/mL or above of GRFT. Time-course experiments revealed that GRFT inhibits PDCoV infection at the adsorption and penetration step. GRFT binding to PDCoV spike (S) protein on the surface wraps the virus and blocks its entry. The outstanding antiviral potency indicates that GRFT has the potential value as a candidate drug for the prevention and treatment of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus , Plant Lectins , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/drug effects , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy
5.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 67, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360193

ABSTRACT

One of the best ways to control COVID-19 is vaccination. Among the various SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines have been widely applied in China and many other countries. To understand the underlying protective mechanism of these vaccines, it is necessary to systematically analyze the humoral responses that are triggered. By utilizing a SARS-CoV-2 microarray with 21 proteins and 197 peptides that fully cover the spike protein, antibody response profiles of 59 serum samples collected from 32 volunteers immunized with the inactivated virus vaccine BBIBP-CorV were generated. For this set of samples, the microarray results correlated with the neutralization titers of the authentic virus, and two peptides (S1-5 and S2-22) were identified as potential biomarkers for assessing the effectiveness of vaccination. Moreover, by comparing immunized volunteers to convalescent and hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the N protein, NSP7, and S2-78 were identified as potential biomarkers for differentiating COVID-19 patients from individuals vaccinated with the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The comprehensive profile of humoral responses against the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine will facilitate a deeper understanding of the vaccine and provide potential biomarkers for inactivated virus vaccine-related applications.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 563533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305686

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese government had transferred many medical rescuers to Wuhan, which provided effective support in disease control. The high-intensity working and mental stress during rescue could induce distress and negatively impact the performance of rescuer afterward. Materials and Methods: To identify the characteristics of stress load and its possible effects on performance, the study surveyed 90 medical rescuers in Wuhan using a mobile phone-based self-rated questionnaire. Results: The results showed an existence of universal but mostly mild distress in rescuers. About 95.6% of the participants reported that they had at least one symptom of distress, whereas, the median scores were <30 (100 as max). Compared with civilian rescuers, a higher proportion of working with immediate virus contact was found in military medical rescuers (P = 0.008); however, no statistical differences of stress load were found between civilians and militaries. The rescuers with positive cognition or good psychological preparation were found having lower stress loads than other rescuers. An inverse correlation between the stress load and performance (R = -0.24, P = 0.023) and a positive correlation between social support and working performance (R = 0.349, P = 0.001) were found in our survey, suggesting the possible negative effects of stress and the beneficial effects of social support on performance. Conclusion: Our study indicated that more attention should be paid to the distress of medical rescuers against COVID-19. Positive cognitions, good psychological preparations, and sufficient social support would be necessary to reduce the distress and improve the performance in COVID-19 rescue.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 586826, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942255

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are widespread in nature and infect humans, mammals and poultry. They cause harm to humans and animals. Virus-mediated cell cycle arrest is an essential strategy for viral survival and proliferation in the host cells. A clarification system of the mechanisms of virus-induced cell cycle arrest is highly desirable to promote the development of antiviral therapies. In this review, molecular mechanisms of coronavirus-induced cell cycle arrest were systematically summarized. Moreover, the common features of coronavirus-mediated cell cycle arrest were discussed. This review will provide a theoretical basis for further studies on the infection mechanisms and prevention of coronaviruses.

9.
J Virol Methods ; 279: 113855, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827847

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes very high mortality in newborn piglets. The mucosal immune system in the gut must eliminate potential pathogens while maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with the commensal microbiota. Antibodies derived from the secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) class, act as the first line of antigen-specific immunity in the gut by recognizing both pathogens and commensals. Therefore, the measurement of SIgA levels is an important index in evaluating PEDV infections and immune status. A simple and rapid method for the detection of PEDV-specific SIgA using an immunochromatographic test strip has been developed; incorporating a colloidal gold-labeled anti-SIgA secretory component (SC) mAb probe for the detection of anti-PEDV-specific SIgA in swine. On the strip, a gold-labeled anti-SIgA SC mAb was applied to a conjugate pad; purified PEDV particles and goat anti-mouse antibodies were blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane to form the test and control lines, respectively. Results showed that the immunochromatographic test strip had high sensitivity and specificity. When compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, kappa value suggesting that the strip could be used to detect PEDV specific SIgA in colostrum samples. Furthermore, the strip assay is rapid and easy to perform with no requirement for professional-level skills or equipment. We found that the immunochromatographic test strip was a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the identification of PEDV specific SIgA, indicating its suitability for epidemiological surveillance as well as vaccine immunity when studying PEDV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Colostrum/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/isolation & purification , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Animals , Female , Gold Colloid , Reagent Strips , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology
10.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645542

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes a porcine disease associated with swine epidemic diarrhea. The type I interferon (IFN-I or IFN α/ß) is a key mediator of innate antiviral response during virus infection. Different antagonistic strategies have been identified and determined as to how PEDV infection inhibits the host's IFN responses to escape the host innate immune pathway, but the pathogenic mechanisms of PEDV infection are not fully elucidated. Our preliminary results revealed that endogenous TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), the key components in the IFN signaling pathway were downregulated in PEDV infected IPEC-J2 cells by iTRAQ analysis. In this study, we screened nsp15 as the most important viral encoded protein involved in TBK1 and IRF3 reduction. Endoribonuclease (EndoU) activity has been well determined for coronavirus nsp15. Three residues (H226, H241, and K282) of PEDV nsp15 were identified as critical amino acids for PEDV EndoU but not D265, which was not well correlated with published results of other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV). Moreover, PEDV nsp15 can directly degrade the RNA levels of TBK1 and IRF3 dependent on its EndoU activity to suppress IFN production and constrain the induction of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), by which PEDV antagonizes the host innate response to facilitate its replication. Collectively, these results have confirmed that PEDV nsp15 was capable of subverting the IFN response by the RNA degradation of TBK1 and IRF3.


Subject(s)
Endoribonucleases/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Down-Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Stability/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/pathology , Vero Cells
11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1095-1097, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748174
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 439-456, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124861

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a newly discovered enteric coronavirus, is the aetiological agent that causes severe clinical diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets. To understand the effect of SADS-CoV on host cells, we characterized the apoptotic pathways and elucidated mechanisms underlying the process of apoptotic cell death after SADS-CoV infection. SADS-CoV-infected cells showed evidence of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The use of a pan-caspase inhibitor resulted in the inhibition of SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and reduction in SADS-CoV replication, suggestive of the association of a caspase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, SADS-CoV infection activated the initiators caspase-8 and -9 and upregulated FasL and Bid cleavage, demonstrating a crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) relocalized to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively, after infection by SADS-CoV. Moreover, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells treated with cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, were completely protected from SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and viral replication, suggesting the involvement of cyclophilin D (CypD) in these processes. Altogether, our results indicate that caspase-dependent FasL (extrinsic)- and mitochondria (intrinsic)- mediated apoptotic pathways play a central role in SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis that facilitates viral replication. In summary, these findings demonstrate mechanisms by which SADS-CoV induces apoptosis and improve our understanding of SADS-CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cyclophilin D/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cyclophilin D/genetics , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 845-851, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that can cause vomiting and watery diarrhea in pigs and death in piglets. Since PDCoV was first detected in 2009 in Hong Kong, the prevalence of PDCoV has increased in recent years, resulting in serious economic losses to the swine industry. The coronavirus spike (S) protein is an antigen that has been demonstrated to contain epitopes that induce neutralizing antibodies. The presence of serum and milk IgA antibodies against pathogens that replicate primarily on mucosal surfaces is important for mucosal immunity. Here, an indirect anti-PDCoV IgA antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PDCoV S1 IgA ELISA) using the purified S1 portion of S protein as the coating antigen was developed to detect PDCoV IgA antibodies in serum and sow's milk. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed high specificity and sensitivity of the PDCoV-S1-IgA-ELISA based on samples confirmed by IFA. Anti-PDCoV IgA antibodies in 152 serum samples and 65 milk samples collected from six farms that had experienced diarrhea outbreaks within previous last two years were detected by this assay, and 62.5% of the serum samples and 100% of the milk samples were positive for PDCoV. The indirect ELISA method established in this study will provide a convenient tool for measurement of serum and milk IgA levels against PDCoV in pig herds, rapid detection of PDCoV infection in pigs, and evaluation of the immunogenicity of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Swine Diseases/blood , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
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