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1.
Respiration ; 100(2): 116-126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still no clinical evidence available to support or to oppose corticosteroid treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of corticosteroid given to the hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, single-blind, randomized control trial. Adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to the general ward were randomly assigned to either receive methylprednisolone or not for 7 days. The primary end point was the incidence of clinical deterioration 14 days after randomization. RESULTS: We terminated this trial early because the number of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in all the centers decreased in late March. Finally, a total of 86 COVID-19 patients underwent randomization. There was no difference of the incidence of clinical deterioration between the methylprednisolone group and control group (4.8 vs. 4.8%, p = 1.000). The duration of throat viral RNA detectability in the methylprednisolone group was 11 days (interquartile range, 6-16 days), which was significantly longer than that in the control group (8 days [2-12 days], p = 0.030). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in other secondary outcomes. Mass cytometry discovered CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells in the methylprednisolone group which were significantly lower than those in the control group after randomization (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: From this prematurely closed trial, we found that the short-term early use of corticosteroid could suppress the immune cells, which may prolong severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 shedding in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04273321.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pharynx/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD3 Complex , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Disease Progression , Early Medical Intervention , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Patients' Rooms , Pharynx/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chest ; 158(1): 195-205, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in December 2019, considerable attention has been focused on its elucidation. However, it is also important for clinicians and epidemiologists to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza viruses. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to explore the different clinical presentations between COVID-19 and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia in patients with ARDS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis was a retrospective case-control study. Two independent cohorts of patients with ARDS infected with either COVID-19 (n = 73) or H1N1 (n = 75) were compared. Their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, treatments, and prognosis were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The median age of patients with COVID-19 was higher than that of patients with H1N1, and there was a higher proportion of male subjects among the H1N1 cohort (P < .05). Patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher proportions of nonproductive coughs, fatigue, and GI symptoms than those of patients with H1N1 (P < .05). Patients with H1N1 had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores than patients with COVID-19 (P < .05). The Pao2/Fio2 of 198.5 mm Hg in the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than the Pao2/Fio2 of 107.0 mm Hg in the H1N1 cohort (P < .001). Ground-glass opacities was more common in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with H1N1 (P < .001). There was a greater variety of antiviral therapies administered to COVID-19 patients than to H1N1 patients. The in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 was 28.8%, whereas that of patients with H1N1 was 34.7% (P = .483). SOFA score-adjusted mortality of H1N1 patients was significantly higher than that of COVID-19 patients, with a rate ratio of 2.009 (95% CI, 1.563-2.583; P < .001). INTERPRETATION: There were many differences in clinical presentations between patients with ARDS infected with either COVID-19 or H1N1. Compared with H1N1 patients, patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS had lower severity of illness scores at presentation and lower SOFA score-adjusted mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hospital Mortality , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Symptom Assessment , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
4.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47800

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the death of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.All clinical and laboratory parameters were collected prospectively from a cohort of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were hospitalised to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China) between 25 December 2019 and 7 February 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥65 years (OR 3.765, 95% CI 1.146­17.394; p=0.023), pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases (OR 2.464, 95% CI 0.755­8.044; p=0.007), CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL−1 (OR 3.982, 95% CI 1.132­14.006; p<0.001) and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL−1 (OR 4.077, 95% CI 1.166­14.253; p<0.001) were associated with an increase in risk of mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia." has been corrected to: "Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥65 years (OR 3.765, 95% CI 1.201−11.803; p=0.023), pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases (OR 2.464, 95% CI 1.279−4.747; p=0.007), CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL−1 (OR 3.982, 95% CI 1.761­9.004; p<0.001) and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL−1 (OR 4.077, 95% CI 1.778­9.349; p<0.001) were associated with an increase in risk of mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia. In a sex-, age- and comorbid illness-matched case-control study, CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL-1 and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL-1 remained as predictors for high mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia.We identified four risk factors: age ≥65 years, pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL-1 and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL-1 The latter two factors, especially, were predictors for mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(7): 839-846, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38758

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, spreads across national and international borders. The overall death rate of COVID-19 pneumonia in the Chinese population was 4%.Objectives: To describe the process of hospitalization and critical care of patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods: This was a multicenter observational study of 109 decedents with COVID-19 pneumonia from three hospitals in Wuhan. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed, and the final date of follow-up was February 24, 2020.Results: The mean age of 109 decedents with COVID-19 pneumonia was 70.7 years, 35 patients (32.1%) were female, and 85 patients (78.0%) suffered from one or more underlying comorbidities. Multiple organ failure, especially respiratory failure and heart failure, appeared in all patients even at the early stage of disease. Overall, the mean time from onset of symptoms to death was 22.3 days. All 109 hospitalized patients needed admission to an intensive care unit (ICU); however, because of limited availability, only 51 (46.8%) could be admitted. The period from hospitalization to death in the ICU group and non-ICU group was 15.9 days (standard deviation = 8.8 d) and 12.5 days (8.6 d, P = 0.044), respectively.Conclusions: Mortality due to COVID-19 pneumonia was concentrated in patients above the age of 65 years, especially those with major comorbidities. Patients who were admitted to the ICU lived longer than those who were not. Our findings should aid in the recognition and clinical management of such infections, especially with regard to ICU resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care/methods , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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