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1.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 220, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Existing clinical studies supported the potential efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as derived exosomes in the treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to explore the safety and efficiency of aerosol inhalation of the exosomes derived from human adipose-derived MSCs (haMSC-Exos) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The MEXCOVID trial is a phase 2a single-arm, open-labelled, interventional trial and patients were enrolled in Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Eligible 7 patients were assigned to receive the daily dose of haMSCs-Exos (2.0 × 108 nano vesicles) for consecutively 5 days. The primary outcomes included the incidence of prespecified inhalation-associated events and serious adverse events. We also observed the demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory results including lymphocyte count, levels of D-dimer and IL-6 as well as chest imaging. RESULTS: Seven severe COVID-19 related pneumonia patients (4 males and 3 females) were enrolled and received nebulized haMSC-Exos. The median age was 57 year (interquartile range (IQR), 43 year to 70 year). The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission and administration of nebulized haMSC-Exos was 30 days (IQR, 15 days to 40 days) and 54 d (IQR, 34 d to 69 d), respectively. All COVID-19 patients tolerated the haMSC-Exos nebulization well, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events or clinical instability during the nebulization or during the immediate post-nebulization period. All patients presented a slight increase of serum lymphocyte counts (median as 1.61 × 109/L vs. 1.78 × 109/L). Different degrees of resolution of pulmonary lesions after aerosol inhalation of haMSC-Exos were observed among all patients, more obviously in 4 of 7 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our trial shows that a consecutive 5 days inhalation dose of clinical grade haMSC-Exos up to a total amount of 2.0 × 109 nano vesicles was feasible and well tolerated in seven COVID-19 patients, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events, immediate clinical instability, or dose-relevant toxicity at any of the doses tested. This safety profile is seemingly followed by CT imaging improvement within 7 days. Further trials will have to confirm the long-term safety or efficacy in larger population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: MEXCOVID, NCT04276987.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Adipose Tissue , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac118, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784385

ABSTRACT

Background: Case reports have described herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, this constitutes low-quality evidence for an association. We therefore performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the risk of developing HZ following a COVID-19 diagnosis. Methods: We compared the HZ incidence in ≥50-year-olds diagnosed with COVID-19 vs those never diagnosed with COVID-19. We used data from the US MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental (3/2020-2/2021) and Optum Clinformatics Data Mart (3-12/2020) databases. Individuals with COVID-19 were exact-matched 1:4 to those without COVID-19 by age, sex, presence of HZ risk factors, and health care cost level. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) were estimated by Poisson regression. Results: A total of 394 677 individuals ≥50 years old with COVID-19 were matched with 1 577 346 individuals without COVID-19. Mean follow-up time after COVID-19 diagnosis and baseline characteristics were balanced between cohorts. Individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 had a 15% higher HZ risk than those without COVID-19 (aIRR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24; P < .001). The increased HZ risk was more pronounced (21%) following COVID-19 hospitalization (aIRR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03-1.41; P = .02). Conclusions: We found that COVID-19 diagnosis in ≥50-year-olds was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing HZ, highlighting the relevance of maintaining HZ vaccination.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 225(11): 1915-1922, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some vaccines elicit nonspecific immune responses that may protect against heterologous infections. We evaluated the association between recombinant adjuvanted zoster vaccine (RZV) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. METHODS: In a cohort design, adults aged ≥50 years who received ≥1 RZV dose before 1 March 2020 were matched 1:2 to unvaccinated individuals and followed until 31 December 2020. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for COVID-19 outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. In a test-negative design, cases had a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test and controls had only negative tests, during 1 March-31 December 2020. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for RZV receipt were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In the cohort design, 149 244 RZV recipients were matched to 298 488 unvaccinated individuals. The aHRs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were 0.84 (95% CI, .81-.87) and 0.68 (95% CI, .64-.74), respectively. In the test-negative design, 8.4% of 75 726 test-positive cases and 13.1% of 340 898 test-negative controls had received ≥1 RZV dose (aOR, 0.84 [95% CI, .81-.86]). CONCLUSIONS: RZV vaccination was associated with a 16% lower risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and 32% lower risk of hospitalization. Further study of vaccine-induced nonspecific immunity for potential attenuation of future pandemics is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1930636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258715

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), interacts with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via its spike 1 protein during infection. After the virus sequence was published, we identified two potent antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) from antibody libraries using a phage-to-yeast (PtY) display platform in only 10 days. Our lead antibody JMB2002, now in a Phase 1 clinical trial (ChiCTR2100042150), showed broad-spectrum in vitro blocking activity against hACE2 binding to the RBD of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.351 that was reportedly much more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma, vaccine sera and some clinical-stage neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, JMB2002 has demonstrated complete prophylactic and potent therapeutic efficacy in a rhesus macaque disease model. Prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasure intervention of SARS-CoV-2 using JMB2002 would likely slow down the transmission of currently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants and result in more efficient control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , CHO Cells , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
5.
Front Nutr ; 8: 638825, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247884

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 124 million people worldwide. In addition to the development of therapeutics and vaccines, the evaluation of the sequelae in recovered patients is also important. Recent studies have indicated that COVID-19 has the ability to infect intestinal tissues and to trigger alterations of the gut microbiota. However, whether these changes in gut microbiota persist into the recovery stage remains largely unknown. Here, we recruited seven healthy Chinese men and seven recovered COVID-19 male patients with an average of 3-months after discharge and analyzed their fecal samples by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis to identify the differences in gut microbiota. Our results suggested that the gut microbiota differed in male recovered patients compared with healthy controls, in which a significant difference in Chao index, Simpson index, and ß-diversity was observed. And the relative abundance of several bacterial species differed clearly between two groups, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and insufficiency of some anti-inflammatory bacteria in producing short chain fatty acids. The above findings provide preliminary clues supporting that the imbalanced gut microbiota may not be fully restored in recovered patients, highlighting the importance of continuous monitoring of gut health in people who have recovered from COVID-19.

6.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 88(3): 211-216, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098909

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is leading to an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Our objectives are to analysis the expression profile of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in human spermatogenic cells, follicle cells, and preimplantation embryos, thereby providing mechanistic insights into viral entry and viral impact on reproduction. We found that ACE2 is mainly expressed during gametogenesis in spermatogonia and oocytes of antral follicles, granulosa cells of antral follicles and pre-ovulatory follicles, while TMPRSS2 almost has no expression in spermatogenic cells, oocytes or granulosa cells. In preimplantation embryos, ACE2 is expressed in early embryos before eight-cell stage, and trophectoderm of late blastocysts, while TMPRSS2 initiates its robust expression in late blastocyst stage. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 only show significant co-expression in trophectoderm of late blastocysts in all above cell types. We speculate that trophectoderm of late blastocysts is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and that the chance of SARS-CoV-2 being passed on to offspring through gametes is very low. Therefore, we propose that fertility preservation for COVID-19 patients is relatively safe and rational. We also recommend embryo cryopreservation and embryo transfer into healthy recipient mother at cleavage stage instead of blastocyst stage. Moreover, we unexpectedly found that co-expression pattern of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in oocytes and preimplantation embryos in human, rhesus monkey and mouse are totally different, so animal models have significant limitations for evaluating transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in reproduction.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Blastocyst/metabolism , Granulosa Cells/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Embryo Transfer/methods , Female , Fertility Preservation/methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Transcriptome/genetics , Virus Internalization
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