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1.
Radiology ; 297(3): E346, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741712
2.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(10): 195-198, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737616

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Indicators for identifying severe COVID-19 infection have not been well identified, especially for young patients. What is added by this report?: Both neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) [area under curve (AUC): 0.80; the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.30 (1.13-1.50)] and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) [AUC: 0.87; OR (95% CI): 1.05 (1.01-1.09)] were determined to be indicators for recognition of patients with severe COVID-19 in young patients less than age 40. What are the implications for public health practice?: NLR and PLR are useful indicators for identifying patients with severe COVID-19, especially in young patients less than age 40.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous study suggested that Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten disease course of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our research aims to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in mild COVID-19 patients under well clinical management.METHODS: An unblended cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. 2 cabins were randomly allocated to CHM or control group, with 204 randomly sampled mild COVID-19 patients in each cabin. All participants received a 7-day conventional treatment, and CHM group cabin used additional Huashibaidu granule 10g twice daily. Participants were followed up until they met clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was patient become worsening before clinical endpoint occurred. The secondary outcomes was discharge with cure before clinical endpoint occurred and relief of composite symptoms after 7 days treatment.FINDINGS: All 408 participants were followed up to meet clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. The baseline characteristics were comparable between 2 groups. The number of worsening patients in the CHM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%). There was a significant difference between groups (P=0.014). 8 foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups.INTERPRETATION: 7-day early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced worsening conversion of mild COVID-19 patients. Our study supports Huashibaidu Granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar medical locations with well management.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000029763.FUNDING: This study was supported by “National Key R&D Program of China” (No.2020YFC0841500).DECLARATION OF INTERESTS: The authors guaranteed that there existed no competing interest in this paper.ETHICS APPROVAL STATEMENT: Ethics Review Committee of Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Approval of Ethical Review Acceptance Number: S2020-001;Approval Number: P20001/PJ01.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323647

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate clinical features and the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shanghai. Materials and Methods: Two hundred seven patients (102 men and 105 women, 15-84 years old) with COVID-19 from 23 January 2020 to 8 February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The imaging findings, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were evaluated and analyzed. The CT score was determined by totaling the lobes of lungs affected ranging from 0-25. Results: The median time from onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 5.3±3.9 days.After being tested positive, the hospital stay of patients with onset of symptoms within one week is longer than that of patients with onset of symptoms over one week (15.7 vs. 11.5 respectively, p<0.01). The initial lung findings of patients with COVID-19 on chest CT were small subpleural ground glass opacities (GGO) that grew larger with crazy-paving pattern and consolidation with or without interstitial opacity. The mean CT scores peaked at 8-10 days of illness, with a slow decline thereafter and substantial scores after the 10 days. Both age and CD4+ cell counts had a remarkable prognostic effect on imaging outcomes (p<0.05). Conclusion: For patients in mild-to-moderatecondition, the disease began to improve after 10 days from the initiation of the symptoms. Both age and baseline CD4+ cell count were pivotal predictor of the outcome of imaging of the patients with COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321373

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the long-term trajectories considering pneumonia volumes and lymphocyte counts with individual data in COVID-19. Methods: A cohort of 257 convalescent COVID-19 patients (131 male and 126 females) were included. Group-based multi-trajectory modelling was applied to identify different trajectories in terms of pneumonia lesion percentage and lymphocyte counts covering the time from onset to post-discharge follow-ups. We studied the basic characteristics and disease severity associated with the trajectories. Results: We characterised four distinct trajectory subgroups. (1) Group 1 (13.9%), pneumonia increased until a peak lesion percentage of 1.9% (IQR 0.7~4.4) before absorption. The slightly decreased lymphocyte rapidly recovered to the top half of the normal range. (2) Group 2 (44.7%), the peak lesion percentage was 7.2% (IQR 3.2~12.7). The abnormal lymphocyte count restored to normal soon. (3) Group 3 (26.0%), the peak lesion percentage reached 14.2% (IQR 8.5~19.8). The lymphocytes continuously dropped to 0.75 × 10 9 /L after one day post-onset before slowly recovering. (4) Group 4 (15.4%), the peak lesion percentage reached 41.4% (IQR 34.8~47.9), much higher than other groups. Lymphopenia was aggravated until the lymphocytes declined to 0.80 × 10 9 /L on the fourth day and slowly recovered later. Patients in the higher order groups were older and more likely to have hypertension and diabetes (all P values < 0.05), and have more severe disease. Conclusions: Our findings provide new insights to understand the heterogeneous natural courses of COVID-19 patients and the associations of distinct trajectories with disease severity, which is essential to improve the early risk assessment, patient monitoring, and follow-up schedule.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321201

ABSTRACT

CT imaging is crucial for diagnosis, assessment and staging COVID-19 infection. Follow-up scans every 3-5 days are often recommended for disease progression. It has been reported that bilateral and peripheral ground glass opacification (GGO) with or without consolidation are predominant CT findings in COVID-19 patients. However, due to lack of computerized quantification tools, only qualitative impression and rough description of infected areas are currently used in radiological reports. In this paper, a deep learning (DL)-based segmentation system is developed to automatically quantify infection regions of interest (ROIs) and their volumetric ratios w.r.t. the lung. The performance of the system was evaluated by comparing the automatically segmented infection regions with the manually-delineated ones on 300 chest CT scans of 300 COVID-19 patients. For fast manual delineation of training samples and possible manual intervention of automatic results, a human-in-the-loop (HITL) strategy has been adopted to assist radiologists for infection region segmentation, which dramatically reduced the total segmentation time to 4 minutes after 3 iterations of model updating. The average Dice simiarility coefficient showed 91.6% agreement between automatic and manual infaction segmentations, and the mean estimation error of percentage of infection (POI) was 0.3% for the whole lung. Finally, possible applications, including but not limited to analysis of follow-up CT scans and infection distributions in the lobes and segments correlated with clinical findings, were discussed.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 696976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450816

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research suggested that Chinese Medicine (CM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten the disease course in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This research aimed to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in well-managed patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: An unblinded cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. Two cabins were randomly allocated to a CM or control group, with 204 mild COVID-19 participants in each cabin. All participants received conventional treatment over a 7 day period, while the ones in CM group were additionally given Huashibaidu granule 10 g twice daily. Participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was worsening symptoms before the clinical endpoint. The secondary outcomes were cure and discharge before the clinical endpoint and alleviation of composite symptoms after the 7 days of treatment. Results: All 408 participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of worsening patients in the CM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%) with a significant difference between groups (P = 0.014). Eight foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups (P = 0.151). Conclusion: Seven days of early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced the likelihood of worsening symptoms in patients with mild COVID-19. Our study supports Huashibaidu granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar well-managed medical environments. Clinical Trial Registration:www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49408, identifier: ChiCTR2000029763.

8.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105290, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318948

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been almost controlled in China under a series of policies, including "early diagnosis and early treatment". This study aimed to explore the association between early treatment with Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) and favorable clinical outcomes. In this retrospective multicenter study, we included 782 patients (males, 56 %; median age 46) with confirmed COVID-19 from 54 hospitals in nine provinces of China, who were divided into four groups according to the treatment initiation time from the first date of onset of symptoms to the date of starting treatment with QFPDD. The primary outcome was time to recovery; days of viral shedding, duration of hospital stay, and course of the disease were also analyzed. Compared with treatment initiated after 3 weeks, early treatment with QFPDD after less than 1 week, 1-2 weeks, or 2-3 weeks had a higher likelihood of recovery, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of 3.81 (2.65-5.48), 2.63 (1.86-3.73), and 1.92 (1.34-2.75), respectively. The median course of the disease decreased from 34 days to 24 days, 21 days, and 18 days when treatment was administered early by a week (P < 0.0001). Treatment within a week was related to a decrease by 1-4 days in the median duration of hospital stay compared with late treatment (P<0.0001). In conclusion, early treatment with QFPDD may serve as an effective strategy in controlling the epidemic, as early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes, including faster recovery, shorter time to viral shedding, and a shorter duration of hospital stay. However, further multicenter, prospective studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the benefits of early treatment with QFPDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 233, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the long-term trajectories considering pneumonia volumes and lymphocyte counts with individual data in COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort of 257 convalescent COVID-19 patients (131 male and 126 females) were included. Group-based multi-trajectory modelling was applied to identify different trajectories in terms of pneumonia lesion percentage and lymphocyte counts covering the time from onset to post-discharge follow-ups. We studied the basic characteristics and disease severity associated with the trajectories. RESULTS: We characterised four distinct trajectory subgroups. (1) Group 1 (13.9%), pneumonia increased until a peak lesion percentage of 1.9% (IQR 0.7-4.4) before absorption. The slightly decreased lymphocyte rapidly recovered to the top half of the normal range. (2) Group 2 (44.7%), the peak lesion percentage was 7.2% (IQR 3.2-12.7). The abnormal lymphocyte count restored to normal soon. (3) Group 3 (26.0%), the peak lesion percentage reached 14.2% (IQR 8.5-19.8). The lymphocytes continuously dropped to 0.75 × 109/L after one day post-onset before slowly recovering. (4) Group 4 (15.4%), the peak lesion percentage reached 41.4% (IQR 34.8-47.9), much higher than other groups. Lymphopenia was aggravated until the lymphocytes declined to 0.80 × 109/L on the fourth day and slowly recovered later. Patients in the higher order groups were older and more likely to have hypertension and diabetes (all P values < 0.05), and have more severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new insights to understand the heterogeneous natural courses of COVID-19 patients and the associations of distinct trajectories with disease severity, which is essential to improve the early risk assessment, patient monitoring, and follow-up schedule.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Convalescence , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(8): 844-851, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123246

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In order to determine acute cardiac involvement in patients with COVID-19, we quantitatively evaluated tissue characteristics and mechanics by non-invasive cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in a cohort of patients within the first 10 days of the onset of COVID symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and at least one marker of cardiac involvement [cardiac symptoms, abnormal electrocardiograph (ECG), or abnormal cardiac biomarkers] and 25 healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited to the study. Patients were divided into those with elevated (n = 8) or normal TnI (n = 17). There were significant differences in global longitudinal strain among patients who were positive and negative for hs-TnI, and controls [-12.3 (-13.3, -11.5)%, -13.1 (-14.2, -9.8)%, and -15.7 (-18.3, -12.7)%, P = 0.004]. Native myocardial T1 relaxation times in patients with positive and negative hs-TnI manifestation (1169.8 ± 12.9 and 1113.2 ± 31.2 ms) were significantly higher than the normal (1065 ± 57 ms) subjects, respectively (P < 0.001). The extracellular volume (ECV) of patients who were positive and negative for hs-TnI was higher than that of the normal controls [32 (31, 33)%, 29 (27, 30)%, and 26 (24, 27.5)%, P < 0.001]. In our study, quantitative T2 mapping in patients who were positive and negative for hs-TnI [51 (47.9, 52.8) and 48 (47, 49.4) ms] was significantly higher than the normal [42 (41, 45.2) ms] subjects (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with early-stage COVID-19, myocardial oedema, and functional abnormalities are a frequent finding, while irreversible regional injury such as necrosis may be infrequent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 574562, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993408

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research aims to analyze the application regularity of Chinese patent medicine during the COVID-19 epidemic by collecting the names of the top three Chinese patent medicines used by 24 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in four time periods (January 20-22, February 16-18, March 01-03, April 01-03, 2020), and explore its contribution to combating the disease. Methods: 1) We built a database of the top three Chinese patent medicines used by 24 hospitals. 2) The frequency and efficacy distribution of Chinese patent medicine were analyzed with risk areas, regions, and hospitals of different properties as three factors. 3) Finally, we analyzed the differences in the use of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicines among the three factors (χ2 test) and the correlation between the Chinese patent medicine and COVID-19 epidemic (correlation analysis) with SPSS 23.0 statistical software. Results: 1) The heat-clearing medicine was the main use category nationwide during January 20-22, 2020. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in the utilization rate of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicine in different risk areas (p < 0.01). 2) The variety of Chinese patent medicine was increased nationwide during February 16-18, 2020, mainly including tonics, blood-activating and resolving-stasis, and heat-clearing medicines. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in the utilization rate of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicine in the southern and northern regions (p < 0.05). 3) Tonics, and blood-activating and resolving-stasis medicines became the primary use categories nationwide during March 01-03, 2020. 4) The tonics class, and blood-activating and resolving-stasis medicine were still the primary categories nationwide during April 01-03, 2020. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in the utilization rate of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicine in different risk areas (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Chinese patent medicine has a certain degree of participation in fighting against the COVID-19. The efficacy distribution is related to the risk area, region, and hospital of different properties, among which the risk area is the main influencing factor. It is hoped that future research can further collect the application amount of Chinese patent medicine used in hospitals all over the country, so as to perfectly reflect the relationship between Chinese patent medicine and the epidemic situation.

12.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 1922-1931, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969321

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of antiviral drugs on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Patients confirmed with COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled and divided into seven groups according to the treatment option. Information including age, sex, and duration from illness onset to admission, clinical manifestations, and laboratory data at admission, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. The chest computed tomography (CT) imaging obtained at admission and after a 5-day treatment cycle were assessed. The clinical symptoms and laboratory tests at discharge were also assessed. At admission, no significant differences were found among the groups, including the duration from illness onset to admission, clinical symptoms, and main laboratory results. No significant differences were found among the groups in terms of the proportion of patients with pneumonia resolution (P = .151) after treatment or the length of hospital stay (P = .116). At discharge, 7 of 184 (4%) patients had a mild cough while their other symptoms had disappeared, and the proportion of patients with abnormal liver function and with increased leukocytes, neutrophils or erythrocyte sedimentation rate among the 184 patients were close to those at admission. According to the results, the inclusion of antiviral drugs in therapeutic regimens based on symptomatic treatment had no significant additional impact on the improvement in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the results of chest CT imaging, clinical manifestations, and laboratory tests at discharge were not completely consistent.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
13.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153433, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies mainly reported the clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infections, but the research on clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with stroke is still rare. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted at 11 hospitals in 4 provinces of China, and COVID-19 patients with stroke were enrolled from February 24 to May 4, 2020. We analyzed epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of cases as well as the laboratory test results, treatment regimens and outcomes, and the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes were compared between severe and nonsevere patients, and by age group, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients [mean age: 66.41 (SD 12.1) years] were enrolled. Among them, 9 (33.3%) were severe patients and 18 (66.7%) were nonsevere patients; 17 (63.0%) were female; 19 (70.4%) were aged 60 years and above. The most common symptoms were fever [19 (70.4%)], fatigue [12 (44.4%)] and cough [11 (40.7%)], respectively. Abnormal laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients with stroke included high levels of C-reactive protein [19 (73.1%)], D-dimer [14 (58.3%)], blood glucose [14 (53.8%)], fibrinogen [13 (50.0%)], and decreased lymphocytes [12 (44.4%)]. Comparing to nonsevere cases with stroke, severe patients with stroke were likely to be older, susceptible to receiving oxygen inhalation, and had more complications (p < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in lymphocytes, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase between the severe cases and nonsevere cases (p < 0.05). The older patients had a decreased platelet count and elevated fibrinogen, compared with the younger (p < 0.05). All patients (100%) received antiviral treatment, 12 (44.4%) received antibiotics treatment, 26 (96.3%) received Traditional Chinese Medicine (Lung cleansing & detoxifying decoction), and oxygen inhalation was in 18 (66.7%). The median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. By May 4, 2020, a total of 26 (96.3%) patients were cured and discharged, and 1 (3.7%) patients died. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with stroke had poor indicators of coagulation system, and severe and older patients might have a higher risk of complications and unfavorable coagulation system. However, the overall treatment outcome is favorable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(6): 891-896, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practice in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide timely clinical practice guidance. METHODS: The guidelines were developed in accordance with the World Health Organization rapid guideline process. The evidence on TCM for COVID-19 from published guidelines, direct and indirect published clinical evidence, first hand clinical data, and expert experience and consensus were collected. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) method was used to grade the evidence and make the recommendations. RESULTS: Based on the available evidence, the guidelines recommended 17 Chinese medicines for COVID-19: 2 Chinese herbal granules, 7 Chinese patent medicines, and 8 Chinese herbal injections. CONCLUSION: As the literature search was conducted on March, any subsequent versions of these guidelines require an up-to-date literature review. We hope that the evidence summary in these will be helpful in global efforts to address COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Med Phys ; 48(4): 1633-1645, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography (CT) provides rich diagnosis and severity information of COVID-19 in clinical practice. However, there is no computerized tool to automatically delineate COVID-19 infection regions in chest CT scans for quantitative assessment in advanced applications such as severity prediction. The aim of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL)-based method for automatic segmentation and quantification of infection regions as well as the entire lungs from chest CT scans. METHODS: The DL-based segmentation method employs the "VB-Net" neural network to segment COVID-19 infection regions in CT scans. The developed DL-based segmentation system is trained by CT scans from 249 COVID-19 patients, and further validated by CT scans from other 300 COVID-19 patients. To accelerate the manual delineation of CT scans for training, a human-involved-model-iterations (HIMI) strategy is also adopted to assist radiologists to refine automatic annotation of each training case. To evaluate the performance of the DL-based segmentation system, three metrics, that is, Dice similarity coefficient, the differences of volume, and percentage of infection (POI), are calculated between automatic and manual segmentations on the validation set. Then, a clinical study on severity prediction is reported based on the quantitative infection assessment. RESULTS: The proposed DL-based segmentation system yielded Dice similarity coefficients of 91.6% ± 10.0% between automatic and manual segmentations, and a mean POI estimation error of 0.3% for the whole lung on the validation dataset. Moreover, compared with the cases with fully manual delineation that often takes hours, the proposed HIMI training strategy can dramatically reduce the delineation time to 4 min after three iterations of model updating. Besides, the best accuracy of severity prediction was 73.4% ± 1.3% when the mass of infection (MOI) of multiple lung lobes and bronchopulmonary segments were used as features for severity prediction, indicating the potential clinical application of our quantification technique on severity prediction. CONCLUSIONS: A DL-based segmentation system has been developed to automatically segment and quantify infection regions in CT scans of COVID-19 patients. Quantitative evaluation indicated high accuracy in automatic infection delineation and severity prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Humans
16.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 5896-5905, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To retrospectively evaluate several clinical indicators related to the improvement of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included. The CT scores based on lesion patterns and distributions in serial CT were investigated. The improvement and deterioration of pneumonia was assessed based on the changes of CT scores. Grouped by using the temperature, serum lymphocytes and high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) on admission respectively, the CT scores on admission, at peak time and at discharge were evaluated. Correlation analysis was carried out between the time to onset of pneumonia resolution on CT images and the recovery time of temperature, negative conversion of viral nucleic acid, serum lymphocytes and hs-CRP. RESULTS: The CT scores of the fever group and lymphopenia group were significantly higher than those of normal group on admission, at peak time and at discharge; and the CT scores of normal hs-CRP group were significantly lower than those of the elevated hs-CRP group at peak time and at discharge (P all<0.05). The time to onset of pneumonia resolution on CT image was moderately correlated with negative conversion duration of viral nucleic acid (r =0.501, P<0.05) and the recovery time of hs-CPR (r =0.496, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pneumonia patients with no fever, normal lymphocytes and hs-CRP had mild lesions on admission, and presented with more absorption and fewer pulmonary lesions on discharge. The negative conversion duration of viral nucleic acid and the recovery time of hs-CPR may be the indicator of the pneumonia resolution.

17.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(7): 1511-1521, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910319

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus has become a profound threat to human health. As the use of medication without established effectiveness may result in adverse health consequences, the development of evidence-based guidelines is of critical importance for the clinical management of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This research presents methods used to develop rapid advice guidelines on treating COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). We have followed the basic approach for developing WHO rapid guidelines, including preparing, developing, disseminating and updating each process. Compared with general guidelines, this rapid advice guideline is unique in formulating the body of evidence, as the available evidence for the treatment of COVID-19 with TCM is from either indirect or observational studies, clinical first-hand data together with expert experience in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, our search of evidence not only focuses on clinical studies of treating COVID-19 with TCM but also of similar diseases, such as pneumonia and influenza. Grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) methodology was adopted to rate the quality of evidence and distinguish the strength of recommendations. The overall certainty of the evidence is graded as either high, moderate, low or very low, and to give either "strong" or "weak" recommendations of each TCM therapy. The output of this paper will produce the guideline on TCM for COVID-19 and will also provide some ideas for evidence collection and synthesis in the future development of rapid guidelines for COVID-19 in TCM as well as other areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(20): 19867-19879, 2020 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875021

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 has been announced by the World Health Organization as a worldwide public health emergency. The aim of this study was to distinguish between severe and non-severe patients in early diagnosis. The results showed that the mortality of COVID-19 patients increased accompanied by age. Host factors CRP, IL-1ß, hs-CRP, IL-8, and IL-6 levels in severe pneumonia patients were higher than in non-severe patients. CD3, CD8, and CD45 counts were decreased in COVID-19 patients. The results of this study suggest that the K-values of CD45 might be useful in distinguishing between severe and non-severe cases. The cut-off value for CD45 was -94.33. The K-values for CD45 in non-severe case were above the cut-off values, indicating a 100% prediction success rate for severe and non-severe cases following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results confirmed that immune system dysfunction is a potential cause of mortality following COVID-19 infection, particularly for the elderly. CD45 deficiency dysfunction the naïve and memory T lymphocytes which may affects the long-term effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. K-values of CD45 might be useful in distinguishing between severe and non-severe cases in the early infection. May be CD45 could increase the diagnostic sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD3 Complex/deficiency , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/deficiency , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153367, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited by suboptimal efficacy. METHODS: From January 30, 2020 to March 23, 2020, we conducted a non-randomised controlled trial, in which all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were assigned to three groups non-randomly and given supportive treatments: Group A, Lopinavir-Ritonavir; Group B, Huashi Baidu Formula (a Chinese medicineformula made by the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences to treat COVID-19, which is now in the clinical trial period) and Lopinavir-Ritonavir; and Group C, Huashi Baidu Formula. The use of antibiotics, antiviruses, and corticosteroids was permitted in Group A and B. Traditional Chinese medicine injections were permitted in Group C. The primary outcomes were clinical remission time (interval from admission to the first time the patient tested negatively for novel coronavirus or an obvious improvement was observed from chest CT) and clinical remission rate (number of patients whose clinical time was within 16 days/total number of patients). RESULTS: A total of 60 adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled at sites in Wuhan, China, and the sample size of each group was 20. In Groups A, B and C, the clinical remission rates were 95.0%%(19/20), 100.0%%(20/20) and 100.0%%(20/20), respectively. Compared with Groups A and B, the clinical remission time of Group C was significantly shorter (5.9 days vs. 10.8 days, p < 0.05; 5.9 days vs. 9.7 days, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference among Groups A, B, and C in terms of the time taken to be released from quarantine. The clinical biochemical indicators and safety indexes showed no significant differences among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Lopinavir-Ritonavir has some efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19, and the Huashi Baidu Formula might enhance this effect to an extent. In addition, superiority was displayed in the treatment of COVID-19 through a combination of the Huashi Baidu Formula and traditional Chinese medicine injection. In future, well-designed prospective double-blinded randomised control trials are required to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
20.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1851

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have examined the association between treatment given time and clinical outcomes, which is indeed of great importance to clinical manage

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