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1.
Springer Series in Supply Chain Management ; 19:273-285, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2094361

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses risk management with a focus on the airline industry. The world has become acutely aware of major supply chain disruptions due to the COVID pandemic. Consumers, airline passengers, and companies are scrambling to understand and respond to these events. In that light, we begin the chapter with a brief overview of risk management, highlighting both common and catastrophic risks faced by companies and their supply chains. We then discuss approaches that companies employ to mitigate them. Our primary goal is to explore the risks that airlines face and the approaches they take to manage them, including fuel hedging, capacity management, and ticket pricing. Based on company interviews and our firsthand experience, we note that the airlines typically make these decisions in silos. Therefore, we introduce an analytical model that explicitly integrates them. We derive analytical results and propose directions for future research. We conclude with summary comments about managing risks once the world moves past COVID. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
British Journal of Social Work ; : 19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852945

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of child maltreatment is quite high during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in rural Hubei province, and children from vulnerable families are at greater risk of self-harm behaviours. The impact of lockdown measures in Wuhan, China during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on child maltreatment remains unknown. The present study attempted to estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment during this period, to identify risk factors, and the influence of child maltreatment. A representative sample of 1,062 school-aged children in rural Hubei province was surveyed. Results indicated that the prevalence of family violence, physical violence, emotional abuse and neglect during the lockdown period were 13.9, 13.7, 20.2 and 7.3 percent, respectively, and that of lifetime prevalence were 17.0, 13.9, 14.6 and 6.9 percent, respectively. And most victims did not seek official help. Boys were more likely to experience physical violence. Children from separated/divorced families tended to report more emotional abuse. Those having family members with a history of drug abuse and mental illness were more likely to experience neglect during the lockdown period. All types of child maltreatment were positively associated with self-harm behaviours. These findings highlight the importance of identifying at-risk children immediately and implementing timely intervention programmes to prevent self-harm behaviours for social workers and health professionals.

3.
2nd International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence for Medicine Sciences, ISAIMS 2021 ; : 557-561, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1613113

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the most severe global epidemic in recent years. Although the risk factors that influence the outbreak are unknown, it is known from the factors influencing past respiratory pandemics that ageing is one of the common factors affecting the spread of the disease. Therefore, this study uses R and SAS software to analyze the collected COVID-19 data from 191 different countries around the world in a progressive linear relationship, so as to explore whether ageing is one of the factors affecting the prevalence of COVID-19 in different countries around the world. According to the results, the factors affecting ageing are discussed, the limitations of the research method are analyzed, and advice on how older people can avoid getting COVID-19 is given. © 2021 ACM.

4.
Blood ; 138:985, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582151

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 (CO19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains a significant issue for global health, economics, and society. Several reports have shown that African Americans (AA) have been disproportionately affected by the CO19 pandemic. Limited data have suggested that sickle cell disease (SCD) could be one of the several reasons for higher morbidity and mortality related to CO19 among AA. Recent reports have suggested higher-than-average morbidity and mortality related to CO19 among patients with SCD. We conducted a retrospective, single-institution study in adult patients with SCD who were diagnosed with CO19 infection and their outcomes. Methods: After IRB approval, we conducted a chart review of adult patients (greater than 18 years) with SCD who were diagnosed with CO19 infection between March 1st, 2020, and March 31st, 2021. We recorded demographic data including age, gender, social factors (the type of insurance, availability of primary care provider (PCP), living alone/not), clinical parameters (type of SCD, co-morbidities), outpatient management of SCD, and how CO19 infection was managed like inpatient admission and complications. In patients who were admitted or seen in the emergency department (ED), we collected additional data including vitals, labs, the severity of illness, complications, length of stay, and outcomes. Computations were performed using statistical software SAS 9.4 for Windows. Results: We found a total of 51 patients with SCD diagnosed with CO19 infection in the above period. The median age of patients was 30 years. 61% were females and 39 % were males. All of them were AA. 11.76% were living alone, 49.02% were living with family, 1.96% (1 patient) was institutionalized, and the living situation was unknown in 37.25%. Most of the patients had Medicaid Insurance (52.94%), Medicare in 33.3%, private insurance in 13.73 % and 2% were uninsured. Only 64.71% of patients had a PCP. 60% had HbSS disease, 32% had HbSC disease, 4% had HbS-beta thalassemia, one patient each had HbSS with hereditary persistence of HbF and HbS/HbD. Comorbidities and previous history included acute chest syndrome in 65.96%, avascular necrosis in 36.96%, leg ulcers in 8.7%, hypertension in 8.7%, sickle cell retinopathy in 14.57%, cerebrovascular disease in 26.19%, chronic kidney disease in 7.69%, venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 20.41%, 10.41% were on anticoagulation, history of HIV and hepatitis C infection in 6.38%. 28.21% of patients were maintained on partial exchange transfusions as an outpatient for various indications. 72.73% were on hydroxyurea, 7.5% were on crizanlizumab, 5.26% were on voxelotor and 26.83% were on iron chelation. Vitals and pertinent lab values on initial assessment were recorded and many patients had missing data. On presentation, 25.53% were febrile, 29.17% of patients were tachycardic, 31.25% were hypoxic (SpO2 < 95%), 38.46% were tachypneic, 59.18% had a body mass index (BMI) of > 24.9. Median hemoglobin and hematocrit were 8.9/27.4 g/dL. The median white blood cell count was 9490/uL and platelets were 315,000/uL. Median ferritin was 1573 ug/L. Median bilirubin and creatinine were 2.05 mg/dL and 0.86 mg/dL. The patients were further stratified based on the clinical location where CO19 infection was managed (Table 1). 39.3% were diagnosed in the outpatient setting/ED and 60.3% in the inpatient setting. Among 51 patients, 5.71% (n=2) required ICU admission and was mechanically ventilated. 17.5% received dexamethasone, 7.69% received remdesivir, 2.76% received convalescent plasma, 17.07% had infections and 47% received antibiotics. Only one patient received an exchange transfusion during admission. One patient developed a new VTE after CO19 infection. On statistical analysis, the only factor which impacted the clinical location of management was tachycardia (P=0.007). Of the 51 patients, only 3.9% (2 patients) died of complications of CO19 infection, one with hypoxic respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, shock, and the other one with pulmonary mbolism. 13% were readmitted within a month, one of them was admitted with a new pulmonary embolism and the others were admitted for acute painful episodes. Conclusion: We found a mortality rate of 3.9% in our single-center study of patients with SCD and CO19 infection. This mortality rate is lower than other published experiences in patients with SCD and CO19 infection. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Master: Blue Bird Bio: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company.

5.
12th International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics, ICEME 2021 ; : 291-294, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1575596

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 pandemic period, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve started a radical monetary simulation plan to save the economy. The current capital market experiences more fluctuation and are more unpredictable. Capital asset pricing tools are more important at such a special time. This article uses the Fama-French five-factor Model and analyzes the clothing industry in the United States from July 2019 to November 2020, separating into pre and post pandemic periods. The regression analysis performed contains five coefficient factors, and each corresponds to a specific property of the clothing industry after Covid-19 emerged. The market factor indicates that the clothing industry is negatively affected by the pandemic. SMB shows that small businesses are more favorable to investors. HML indicates that value stocks are more preferred. RMW shows that investors tend to look for companies with higher profitability, whereas CMA indicates a minimal change to the clothing industry. It is recommended that more attention should be paid to the companies with small-cap, high BM ratio and stable profitability. © 2021 ACM.

6.
27th Annual Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1513706

ABSTRACT

Robots have vastly influenced the healthcare practices. Ample studies have investigated the use of industrial robots, while leaving social robots an under-explored area. This research investigates human's prejudicial attitude on the social robots that conduct online mental counseling services. 80 participants are recruited, who have been told to receive counseling services either delivered by a human counselor or a robotic counselor. Given that the actual counseling services are all completed by the same human profession with carefully maintained quality consistency, the participants' diverged counseling satisfaction becomes a substantial proxy for their prejudiced attitudes on the robotic counselor. With significant lower counseling satisfaction, participants in the robot group particularly show bias on the "helpfulness", "support", and "inclusion" of counseling services. Furthermore, the personality trait of “openness” is found to significantly narrow the magnitude of human bias on social robot. Overall, this research contributes profound insights to post-Covid healthcare research and practices. © AMCIS 2021.

8.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277162

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Lung ultrasound B-lines artifacts represent abnormal interstitial thickening or edema, have been related to patient mortality, and are often visualized when imaging the anteroapex of the lung. Unlike other probe locations, these 2 sites on the upper chest can be readily accessed by healthcare givers and patients alike. In COVID-19 infection, the potential value of these sites for detecting early lung involvement depends not only on accessibility, but also on the relationship of its findings with significant disease. Therefore, as few ultrasound data exist from the lung apex in hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia, we sought to report the prevalence of apical lung B-line artifacts in inpatients and their association with illness severity. Methods: In a 300-bed community hospital, medical and imaging data from inpatients with known COVID-19 infection who had been referred for echocardiography with lung imaging or who had received a lung point-of-care ultrasound study was reviewed for the presence of ≥3 B-lines (COMETS) in either anteroapex of the lungs. COVID-19 disease was categorized by the CDC Clinical Severity Scale on presentation as mild (no dyspnea, normal CXR/CT), moderate (abnormal CXR/CT, O2 sat>94%), severe (tachypnea, O2 sat <94%, infiltrates >50%), or critical (respiratory failure, shock, multiorgan system failure). Age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and time from onset of symptoms to the imaging study were analyzed for univariable associations with COMET presence and then considered with severity category in a reduced multivariable model using backwards elimination. Results: Of n=56 patients, age (mean±SD) was 63±16 years. COMETS were present in 35/56 (63%) of patients overall, and in 30/37 (81%) of severe-critical disease vs. 5/19 (26)% of mild-moderate disease (p=0.0002). Of the patients with vs. without COMETS, 31 (76%) vs. 10 (24%) had an abnormal CXR and 30 (79%) vs. 8 (21%) had O2 sat<94% on admission, respectively (p<0.05). In the multivariable model, obesity (OR=9.64[95%CI:2.19-68.48], p<0.007) and severe/critical disease (OR=19.47[95%CI:4.33-142.28], p<0.0006) best predicted the presence of COMETs. Conclusions: Ultrasound B-lines in the anteroapex of the lung are a prevalent finding in hospitalized COVID-19 infection and increase with disease severity and obesity, reaching >80% in severe/critical disease. This imaging site, in particular, may be ideal for outpatient screening, ER triage, or patient home imaging, where it may herald the need for early respiratory diagnosis, therapies or hospitalization. Future studies involving the prevalence, timing and outcome of outpatient ultrasound lung imaging may consider the use of this easily-accessed site on the chest wall. .

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