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4.
Eacl 2021: The 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the System Demonstrations ; : 99-105, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068475

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the current milestones achieved in our ongoing project that aims to understand the surveillance of, impact of, and effective interventions against the COVID-19 misinfodemic on Twitter. Specifically, it introduces a public dashboard which, in addition to displaying case counts in an interactive map and a navigational panel, also provides some unique features not found in other places. Particularly, the dashboard uses a curated catalog of COVID-19 related facts and debunks of misinformation, and it displays the most prevalent information from the catalog among Twitter users in user-selected U.S. geographic regions. The paper explains how to use BERT-based models to match tweets with the facts and misinformation and to detect their stance towards such information. The paper also discusses the results of preliminary experiments on analyzing the spatiotemporal spread of misinformation.

5.
6th International Conference on Management Engineering, Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICMSS 2022 ; : 93-99, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018855

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019 has caused a profound impact on economic development. The catering, logistics and tourism industries have suffered a huge blow. This paper selects the catering industry as the research object, selects the 2019 and 2020 annual reports of five representative listed catering companies, classifies and summarizes the stated criteria for determination of the occurrence of self-interest attribution, calculates the degree of self-interest attribution, and compares and analyzes whether the self-interest attribution behavior of the five case companies before and after the COVID-19 pandemic stands out or amplifies the self-interest attribution behavior of the companies. The case studies showed that the degree of self-interest attribution was higher in the poor-performing companies, and that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the self-interest behavior of restaurant companies was prominent, and that the poor external environment was more likely to lead to a higher degree of self-interest attribution behavior. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 9(13):11376-11384, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932130

ABSTRACT

Up to now, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been sweeping across all over the world, which has affected individual's lives in an overwhelming way. To fight efficiently against the COVID-19, radiography and radiology images are used by clinicians in hospitals. This article presents an integrated framework, named COVIDNet, for classifying COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. Specifically, ResNet (i.e., ResNet-18 and ResNet-50) is adopted as a backbone network to extract the discriminative features first. Second, the spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) layer is adopted to capture the middle-level features from the features of ResNet. To learn the high-level features, the NetVLAD layer is used to aggregate the features representation from middle-level features. The context gating (CG) mechanism is adopted to further learn the high-level features for predicting the COVID-19 patients or not. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted on the collected database, showing the excellent performance of the proposed integrated architecture, with the sensitivity up to 97% and specificity of 99.5% of the ResNet-18, and with the sensitivity up to 99% and specificity of 99.4% of the ResNet-50. © 2014 IEEE.

7.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):302, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928108

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: We studied use of do not resuscitate (DNR) orders in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All hospitalized stroke cases were ascertained in Nueces County, Texas, USA during an equal time period before the pandemic (January, 2019-Feb, 2020) and during the pandemic (March, 2020-April, 2021). We compared use of DNR orders before and during the pandemic using logistic regression adjusted for demographic and clinical variables including initial stroke severity (NIHSS score). Nueces County is geographically isolated making complete case capture likely. Cases were validated by stroke physicians using source documentation. Results: There were more cases during the pandemic (N=716) than pre-pandemic (N=681). Median NIHSS score was 5 (IQR 9) during the pandemic and 4 (IQR 9) pre-pandemic (p=0.03). During the pandemic 18.0% of stroke patients had DNR orders compared with 13.3% prepandemic (p=0.016). Other demographic and risk factors were similar in the two time periods. In models adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, NIHSS score, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking and stroke history, DNR orders were not more common in the pandemic compared with pre-pandemic (p=0.2), but stroke severity (NIHSS score) remained significantly higher during the pandemic (p<0.01). Conclusions: In this population-based study, greater use of DNR orders were seen during the pandemic than before the pandemic. The greater use of DNR orders may be due, in part, to the worse stroke severity presenting to hospitals during the pandemic.

8.
Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology (English Edition) ; 31(3):285-292, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1924761

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a rapidly increasing research area in biomedical signal processing. However, the high complexity of single-cell data makes efficient and accurate analysis difficult. To improve the performance of single-cell RNA data processing, two single-cell features calculation method and corresponding dual-input neural network structures are proposed. In this feature extraction and fusion scheme, the features at the cluster level are extracted by hierarchical clustering and differential gene analysis, and the features at the cell level are extracted by the calculation of gene frequency and cross cell frequency. Our experiments on COVID-19 data demonstrate that the combined use of these two feature achieves great results and high robustness for classification tasks. © 2021 Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology

9.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(3):1935-1939, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887391

ABSTRACT

Introduction: After the outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), there have been reports of impaired cardiac function in patients infected with this coronavirus. The tests are mostly based on myocardial injury markers and routine cardiac ultrasound examinations, which are mostly seen in critically ill patients. In this study, two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2DSTI) combined with Tei index and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were used to more sensitively diagnose cardiac function impairment in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: For some COVID-19 patients in our hospital, there were 68 cases of mild disease (including mild and common types) and 11 cases of severe disease (4 cases of severe death), and 10 healthy volunteers were included as the control group. On the basis of conventional echocardiography in all subjects, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LV-EDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LV-ESV), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) were obtained by Simpson method, the left ventricular Tei index by tissue Doppler, and the left ventricular global peak longitudinal strain (GLPS), left ventricular global peak radial strain (GRPS), and left ventricular global peak circumferential strain (GCPS) by 2DSTI offline analysis. The COVID-19 patients were subjected to quantitative detection of serum NT-proBNP for statistical analysis. Results: Left ventricular GLPS, left ventricular GRPS, and left ventricular GCPS in COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05): The left ventricular GLPS was more significant (P<0.01), and the severe group (including the death group) < the mild group < the control group. The left ventricular Tei index: The severe group (including the death group) of COVID-19 was significantly higher than the mild group and the control group (P<0.05), and there was no statistical significance between the mild group and the control group. NT-proBNP: The severe group of COVID-19 was significantly higher than the mild group (P<0.05). Although the LV-EF in the COVID-19 patients was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), except for 2 sever cases less than 50%, the rest were all ≥50%;although there was a significant difference in LV-ESV among multiple groups (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference for the pairwise comparison, and there was no significant difference in LV-EDV. Conclusion: 2DSTI can more sensitively detect latent cardiac function impairment in COVID-19 patients, and the left ventricular GLPS is the most sensitive. Tei index is an effective indicator to reflect the degree of cardiac function impairment. NT-proBNP has significant significance in predicting the severity of cardiac dysfunction. The combined application of the three can significantly increase the predictive performance of cardiac function impairment, provide a diagnostic basis for cardiac function impairment with preserved ejection fraction, and predict the degree of impairment. Our study demonstrated that the cardiac function of COVID-19 patients is impaired to varying degrees.

10.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(10): e752-e753, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883214
11.
5th International Conference on Software and e-Business, ICSEB 2021 ; : 121-128, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1784899

ABSTRACT

Organizational resilience plays a significant role for enterprises in dealing with both natural disasters and economic crises. Past studies have examined the possible antecedents of organizational resilience in crisis events. However, the existing research is based on the assumption that each antecedent variable acts independently on the result variable. In this study, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method is used to solve this limitation. Based on the background of COVID-19, this study takes 74 small and medium-sized enterprises as samples to explore the mechanism of seven antecedents on organizational resilience from three levels: resources, capacity and system. The results show that multiple asymmetric paths lead to the occurrence of high resilience and non-high resilience. Clarifying this conclusion can guide managers to decide how to allocate resources to improve the resilience of enterprises. © 2021 ACM.

12.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(1):86-90, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1771918

ABSTRACT

Risk communication is essential in dealing with public health emergencies. By collecting relevant literature at home and abroad, this paper summarized the development history, communication process and theoretical models of risk communication, focusing on the application of risk communication in public health emergencies. Theoretical research and practical experience have shown that risk communication should follow a specific process and adopt corresponding communication strategies according to the characteristics before, during, and after the public health event. After the outbreak of SARS in 2003, the risk communication mechanism in China has been continuously improved, and it has shown a good effect on coping with the epidemic of influenza A and COVID-19. However, public health emergencies frequently occur in the world, and the demand for risk communication is increasing. There are still deficiencies in the theory and practice of risk communication in China, which needs continuous improvement.

13.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-331562

ABSTRACT

The test-negative design (TND) has become a standard approach to evaluate vaccine effectiveness against the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in real-world settings, such as Influenza, Rotavirus, Dengue fever, and more recently COVID-19. In a TND study, individuals who experience symptoms and seek care are recruited and tested for the infectious disease which defines cases and controls. Despite TND's potential to reduce unobserved differences in healthcare seeking behavior (HSB) between vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects, it remains subject to various potential biases. First, residual confounding bias may remain due to unobserved HSB, occupation as healthcare worker, or previous infection history. Second, because selection into the TND sample is a common consequence of infection and HSB, collider stratification bias may exist when conditioning the analysis on testing, which further induces confounding by latent HSB. In this paper, we present a novel approach to identify and estimate vaccine effectiveness in the target population by carefully leveraging a pair of negative control exposure and outcome variables to account for potential hidden bias in TND studies. We illustrate our proposed method with extensive simulation and an application to study COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness using data from the University of Michigan Health System.

15.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1539593
16.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-292234

ABSTRACT

Background : SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity are influenced by viral entry (VE) gene expression patterns in airway epithelium. The similarities and differences of VE gene expression (ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL) across nasal and bronchial compartments has not been fully characterized using matched samples from large cohorts. Results : Gene expression data from 793 nasal and 1,673 bronchial brushes obtained from individuals participating in lung cancer screening or diagnostic workup revealed that smoking was the only clinical factor significantly and reproducibly associated with VE gene expression. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression were higher in smokers in the bronchus but not in the nose. scRNA-seq of nasal brushings indicated that ACE2 co-expressed genes were highly expressed in club and C15orf48 <sup>+</sup> secretory cells while TMPRSS2 co-expressed genes were highly expressed in keratinizing epithelial cells. In contrast, these ACE2 and TMPRSS2 modules were highly expressed in goblet cells in scRNA-seq from bronchial brushings. Cell-type deconvolution of the RNA-seq confirmed that smoking increased the abundance of several secretory cell populations in the bronchus, but only goblet cells in the nose. Conclusions : The association of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with smoking in the bronchus is due to their high expression in goblet cells which increase in abundance in current smoker airways. In contrast, in the nose these genes are not predominantly expressed in cell populations modulated by smoking. Smoking-induced VE gene expression changes in the nose likely has minimal impact on SARS-CoV-2 infection, but in the bronchus, smoking may lead to higher viral loads and more severe disease.

17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1059-1066, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463875

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the characteristics and risk factors of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents of different ages and genders in long-term home-schooling during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Further, to provide scientific basis for more targeted psychological intervention and coping strategies in the future. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was conducted on students aged 6-16 years old in five representative cities of North (Beijing), East (Shanghai), West (Chongqing), South (Guangzhou) and Middle (Wuhan) in China. In this study, the social behavior and psychological abnormalities which was defined as the positive of any dimension were investigated in multiple dimensions during long-term home-schooling. The influencing factors of psycho-behavioral problems were analyzed by Logistic regression, and the confounding factors were corrected with graded multivariable adjustment. Results: A total of 6 906 valid questionnaires were collected including 3 592 boys and 3 314 girls, of whom 3 626 were children (6-11 years old) and 3 280 were adolescents (12-16 years old). The positive detection rate of psychosocial-behavioral problems were 13.0% (900/6 906) totally, 9.6% (344/3 592) in boys and 16.8% (556/3 314) in girls respectively, and 7.3%(142/1 946) in boys aged 6-11, 14.0%(235/1 680) in girls aged 6-11, 12.3%(202/1 646) in boys aged 12-16, 19.6%(321/1 634) in girls aged 12-16 respectively. There were significant differences between the psychological problems group and the non-psychological problems group in gender, parent-offspring conflict, number of close friends, family income change, sedentary time, homework time, screen exposure time, physical activity, dietary problems (χ²=78.851, 285.264, 52.839, 26.284, 22.778, 11.024, 10.688, 36.814, 70.982, all P<0.01). The most common symptoms in boys aged 6-11 years were compulsive activity, schizoid and depression, in girls aged 6-11 years were schizoid/compulsive activity, hyperactivity and social withdrawal, in boys aged 12-16 years were hyperactivity, compulsive activity and aggressive behavior, and in girls aged 12-16 years were schizoid, anxiety/compulsive activity and depression/withdrawal, respectively. After graded multivariable adjustment, besides the common risk factors, homework time and online study time were the risk factors of 6-11 years old groups [boys OR(95%CI): 1.750 (1.32-2.32), 1.214(1.00-1.47), girls: 1.579(1.25-1.99), 1.222(1.05-1.42), all P<0.05], videogames time were the risk factors of 12-16 years old groups [ boys: 2.237 (1.60-3.13), girls: 1.272 (1.00-1.61), all P<0.05]. Conclusions: Some children and adolescents may have psychological and behavioral problems during long-term home-schooling. The psychological and behavioral manifestations differed in age and gender subgroups, which deserve special attention in each subgroups. Schools, families and specialists should actively provide precise psychological support and comprehensive intervention strategies according to special features and risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Child , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review ; 155, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1454557

ABSTRACT

Resilience amidst a crisis is vital to survival in the turbulent contemporary business environment. Diversifying the supply chain has been proposed as an important means to build this capability. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence demonstrating the merits of supply chain diversification during a crisis. Sampling 1434 Chinese manufacturing firms amidst the COVID-19 crisis, our two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression analyses show that firms with a diversified supply base are associated with a larger supply stream (increased abnormal inventory) and increased profitability during the COVID-19 crisis, including both the disruption and recovery periods. In addition, firms with a diversified customer base are associated with a larger demand stream (reduced abnormal inventory) during the COVID-19 crisis (both disruption and recovery periods) but show increased profitability only during the recovery period. Our study contributes to the literature on supply chain risk, disruption, diversification, and inventory management. We also discuss the practical implications of supply chain structure design in building resilience. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

19.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i560, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate a new team-based remote teaching model (TRTM) among M.D and Ph.D. candidates major in nephrology to improve their scientific research training and reduce stresses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: From February 1 to April 30 in 2020, we set up TRTM (Fig 1) via online conferencing systems as: (i) Plan-Do-Check-Action cycle every two to three days to promote project progress, (ii) weekly lab meetings for sharing experiences and ideas;and (iii) weekly journal clubs for literature reading and knowledge expansion. We recruited nine students in TRTM training, and another 25 students as control group, who arranged their schedule by themselves during the quarantine. RESULTS: 1. A survey about the remote teaching: 25 mentors and 34 students had received a survey and all believed that teamwork, lab meeting, and short-term academic goals were essential in remote training. Non-scheduled discussion (72.0%,18/ 25) and regular online lab meetings (60.0%,15/25) were the most common traditional methods. About 85.3% of students and 28.0% of the mentors agreed that 'poor selfcontrol' was the main cause of remote-teaching difficulty. 2. The effectiveness of TRTM training: Compared to the control group, students in TRTM had more self-reported benefits from 'mentors' feedback', 'team support', and 'team communication' (All P<0.05), despite no significant differences in learning productivity or daily work progress. Meanwhile, the TRTM group presented with lower 'anxiety related to the COVID-19 pandemic' and lower 'stress-related to scientific research' (Both P<0.05). For TRTM students, the academic ability was also evaluated at the baseline and after three months of practice, by team members (7 teachers and 9 students). They made progress in varied aspects during the pandemic, such as executing planned tasks, self-improvement based on feedback, and teamwork ability (All P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our team-based remote teaching model helped students gain more supports and growth in academics and reduce psychological pressures caused by isolation.

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