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1.
2nd International Conference on Medical Imaging and Additive Manufacturing, ICMIAM 2022 ; 12179, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029448

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic nanobiosensors have an enormous application range. It has the capacity to detect a wide variety of substances including metal, protein and even nucleic acids due to the superiority of SPR and LSPR. Plasmonic biosensors have been widely applied in the field of disease diagnosis, environmental conservation and food safety, eliminating barriers of traditional diagnosis methods and providing sensitive, quick and label-free devices. The applications of plasmonic biosensors in detection of many concerned diseases like cancer and SARS-CoV-2 are making an improvement on our medical condition. In the field of environmental protection, plasmonic-based biosensors also show great potential. They can efficiently detect two main types of contaminants, inorganic heavy metals involving Pb, Cd, As and Hg, and organic pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Plasmonic biosensors could also overcome challenges on food allergen detection. This paper mainly focusses on SPR and LSPR-based nanobiosensors' application in environmental protection, food safety and health-care. © 2022 SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2027501

ABSTRACT

Children are the future of the world, but their health and future are facing great uncertainty because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In order to improve the management of children with COVID-19, an international, multidisciplinary panel of experts developed a rapid advice guideline at the beginning of the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. After publishing the first version of the rapid advice guideline, the panel has updated the guideline by including additional stakeholders in the panel and a comprehensive search of the latest evidence. All recommendations were supported by systematic reviews and graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Expert judgment was used to develop good practice statements supplementary to the graded evidence-based recommendations. The updated guideline comprises nine recommendations and one good practice statement. It focuses on the key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: identification of prognostic factors for death or pediatric intensive care unit admission;the use of remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids and antipyretics, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure;breastfeeding;vaccination;and the management of pediatric mental health. CONCLUSION: This updated evidence-based guideline intends to provide clinicians, pediatricians, patients and other stakeholders with evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Larger studies with longer follow-up to determine the effectiveness and safety of systemic glucocorticoids, IVIG, noninvasive ventilation, and the vaccines for COVID-19 in children and adolescents are encouraged. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Several clinical practice guidelines for children with COVID-19 have been developed, but only few of them have been recently updated. • We developed an evidence-based guideline at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak and have now updated it based on the results of a comprehensive search of the latest evidence. WHAT IS NEW: • The updated guideline provides key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: identification of prognostic factors for death or pediatric intensive care unit admission;the use of remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids and antipyretics, intravenous immunoglobulin for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure;breastfeeding;vaccination;and the management of pediatric mental health.

3.
Animals ; 12(17), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2023064

ABSTRACT

Simple Summary We successfully isolated and identified PEDV strain SC-YB73. The sequence analysis of the SC-YB73 genome identified a six-nucleotide insertion in the E gene, which has not previously been detected in PEDV strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that SC-YB73 was clustered in variant subgroup GII-a, which is widely prevalent in the Chinese pig population. The recombination analysis suggested that SC-YB73 originated from the recombination of GDS47, US PEDV prototype-like strains TW/Yunlin550/2018, and COL/Cundinamarca/2014. In future research, we aim to evaluate the function of E-gene insertions using in vitro cellular culture and in vivo animal experiments. Since 2010, a variant of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has re-emerged in several provinces of China, resulting in severe economic losses for the pork industry. Here, we isolated and identified a variant PEDV strain, SC-YB73, in Guangdong Province, China. The pathological observations of jejunum showed atrophy of villi and edema in the lamina propria. The sequence analysis of the viral genome identified a six-nucleotide insertion in the E gene, which has not previously been detected in PEDV strains. Furthermore, 50 nucleotide sites were unique in SC-YB73 compared with 27 other PEDV strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that SC-YB73 was clustered in variant subgroup GII-a, which is widely prevalent in the Chinese pig population. The recombination analysis suggested that SC-YB73 originated from the recombination of GDS47, US PEDV prototype-like strains TW/Yunlin550/2018, and COL/Cundinamarca/2014. In the present study, we isolated and genetically characterized a variant PEDV strain, thus providing essential information for the control of PED outbreaks in China.

5.
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022647

ABSTRACT

Drug addiction is a serious problem globally, recently exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is considered a potentially effective strategy for the treatment of addiction. Previous animal experiments have proven that GDNF has a good therapeutic effect on drug addiction, but its clinical application is limited due to its poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Low-frequency focused ultrasound, combined with microbubbles, is a non-invasive and reversible technique for locally-targeted BBB opening. In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging-guided low-frequency focused ultrasound, combined with GDNF microbubbles, was used to target BBB opening in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) region. The effects of GDNF on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and acute withdrawal symptoms in rats after a partially opened BBB were evaluated by behavioral observation. Western blot was used to detect changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression levels in the VTA region after different treatments, and high performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the changes in monoamine neurotransmitter content. The results showed that ultrasound combined with GDNF microbubbles targeted and opened the BBB in the VTA region, and significantly increased GDNF content, destroyed morphine-induced CPP, and reduced the withdrawal symptoms of morphine addiction in rats. Furthermore, the up-regulation of TH expression and the increase of norepinephrine and dopamine content induced by morphine were significantly reversed, and the increase of 5-hydroxytryptamine content was partially reversed. Therefore, ultrasound combined with GDNF microbubbles to target and open the BBB can effectively increase the content of central GDNF, thus playing a therapeutic role in morphine addiction. Our study provides a new approach to locally open the BBB and target delivery of neurotrophic factors, such as GDNF, to treat brain diseases like addiction.

6.
7th International Conference on Distance Education and Learning, ICDEL 2022 ; : 92-96, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020432

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the Flipped Classroom activities in the online learning environment. Due to the impact of COVID-19, distance learning became the mainstream of learning method for all levels and types of education. International Chinese language education is transforming to a blended learning mode in which online teaching and offline students' self-learning are carried out simultaneously, promoting the deep integration of online and offline learning. From the original simple classroom teaching to online guided teaching, the Flipped Classroom is used to keep students learning effectively online. Some students' inactive responses in distance learning process cause problems and impact their academic outcomes negatively. International students should actively adapt to the change of learning methods, and make full use of the teaching resources provided by teachers and resources on the overseas network. The specific implementation of the Flipped Classroom activities is very essential. Previewing before class, doing exercise in class, reviewing after class are three main stages in Flipped classroom. Group-discussion, performance and presentation online are effective ways to improve students' language skills and intercultural communication competence. © 2022 ACM.

7.
38th IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering, ICDE 2022 ; 2022-May:2845-2858, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018817

ABSTRACT

The potential impact of epidemics, e.g., COVID-19, H1N1, and SARS, is severe on public health, the economy, education, and society. Before effective treatments are available and vaccines are fully deployed, combining Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) and vaccination strategies is the main approaches to contain the epidemic or live with the virus. Therefore, research for deciding the best containment operations to contain the epidemic based on various objectives and concerns is much needed. In this paper, we formulate the problem of Containment Operation Optimization Design (COOD) that optimizes the epidemic containment by carefully analyzing contacts between individuals. We prove the hardness of COOD and propose an approximation algorithm, named Multi-Type Action Scheduling (MTAS), with the ideas of Infected Ratio, Contact Risk, and Severity Score to select and schedule appropriate actions that implement NPIs and allocate vaccines for different groups of people. We evaluate MTAS on real epidemic data of a population with real contacts and compare it against existing approaches in epidemic and misinformation containment. Experimental results demonstrate that MTAS improves at least 200% over the baselines in the test case of sustaining public health and the economy. Moreover, the applicability of MTAS to various epidemics of different dynamics is demonstrated, i.e., MTAS can effectively slow down the peak and reduce the number of infected individuals at the peak. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Biochemistry ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016509

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is an adenosine analogue that has a cyano substitution in the C1' position of the ribosyl moiety and a modified base structure to stabilize the linkage of the base to the C1' atom with its strong electron-withdrawing cyano group. Within the replication-transcription complex (RTC) of SARS-CoV-2, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12 selects remdesivir monophosphate (RMP) over adenosine monophosphate (AMP) for nucleotide incorporation but noticeably slows primer extension after the added RMP of the RNA duplex product is translocated by three base pairs. Cryo-EM structures have been determined for the RTC with RMP at the nucleotide-insertion (i) site or at the i + 1, i + 2, or i + 3 sites after product translocation to provide a structural basis for a delayed-inhibition mechanism by remdesivir. In this study, we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to extend the resolution of structures to the measurable maximum that is intrinsically limited by MD properties of these complexes. Our MD simulations provide (i) a structural basis for nucleotide selectivity of the incoming substrates of remdesivir triphosphate over adenosine triphosphate and of ribonucleotide over deoxyribonucleotide, (ii) new detailed information on hydrogen atoms involved in H-bonding interactions between the enzyme and remdesivir, and (iii) direct information on the catalytically active complex that is not easily captured by experimental methods. Our improved resolution of interatomic interactions at the nucleotide-binding pocket between remedesivir and the polymerase could help to design a new class of anti-SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

10.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:1001246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009916

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.904550.].

11.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1685, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009040

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel Coronavirus pneumonia 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic infectious disease with prominent involvement of the respiratory tract, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[1]. Systemic lupus erythematosus is charcterized by an aberrant immune response with the presence of circulating autoantibodies, lymphopenia, and proinfammatory[2]. They are immune-compromised and vulnerable to infections with immune-suppressants treatment. However, data regarding the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in patients with SLE and drug use were relatively scarce. Objectives: The prevalence of COVID-19 in SLE patients was estimated by means of meta-analysis, and the effect of the use of anti-rheumatic drugs on the clinical outcome of SLE patients with COVID-19 was investigated. Methods: Cross-sectional investigations and case series on SLE and COVID-19 published by CBM, CNKI, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Wan Fang Data, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Medline from its establishment to November 10, 2021 were searched. Random effects model was used to pool data. Heterogeneity and risk of bias was examined with I-squared index (I2) statistic. Inconsistency was evaluated by using the I2. Egger tests were used for the evaluation of potential publication bias (STATA v.12.0). Results: A total of 14 studies comprising 5365 patients were identifed (Table 1). Overall prevalence of COVID-19 in SLE patients was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.2%-1.8%). Eight of the studies included patients who used hydroxychloroquine as part of their treatment regimen, with 29.8% (95%CI: 25.8%-33.8%) hospitalization rates and 14.6% (95%CI: 11.5%-17.8%) adverse outcome rates. Among patients treated with hydroxychloroquine throughout the course of disease, the prevalence was 0.7% (95%CI: 0.4%-1.0%, Figure 1). Conclusion: Patients with SLE had a higher risk of COVID-19. Hydroxychloro-quine might beneft to reduce the overall hospitalization rate and prevalence rate of COVID-19, and alleviate infammatory damage in the chronic stage of viral infection by inhibiting over activation of the immune system.

12.
Journal of chemical information and modeling ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008239

ABSTRACT

Five major variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged and posed challenges in controlling the pandemic. Among them, the current dominant variant, viz., Omicron, has raised serious concerns about its infectiousness and antibody neutralization. However, few studies pay attention to the effect of the mutations on the dynamic interaction network of Omicron S protein trimers binding to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study, we conducted molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to explore the binding strength and mechanism of wild type (WT), Delta, and Omicron S protein trimers to ACE2. The results showed that the binding capacities of both the two variants' S protein trimers to ACE2 are enhanced in varying degrees, indicating possibly higher cell infectiousness. Energy decomposition and protein-protein interaction network analysis suggested that both the mutational and conserved sites make effects on the increase in the overall affinity through a variety of interactions. The experimentally determined KD values by biolayer interferometry (BLI) and the predicted binding free energies of the RBDs of Delta and Omicron to mAb HLX70 revealed that the two variants may have the high risk of immune evasion from the mAb. These results are not only helpful in understanding the binding strength and mechanism of S protein trimer-ACE2 but also beneficial for drug, especially for antibody development.

13.
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 5(7):732, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003614

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While virtual primary care appointments were essential during COVID-19 pandemic, routine vitals were not available, prohibiting the assessment of hypertension control. As a potential solution, a federally qualified health center in Omaha, Nebraska, provided validated home blood pressure monitors (HBPM) to patients at no-cost. Research Question or Hypothesis: Did providing a validated HBPM to underserved patients over the age of 50 during COVID-19 result in lower blood pressure (BP) compared to those without a HBPM? Study Design: Retrospective, cohort study using data from electronic health records. Methods: This study included patients over 50 years old with hypertension or elevated BP. Intervention patients were provided a HBPM between 3/16/2020 and 9/15/2021 (index date). Primary outcome was change in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups using inferential statistics as appropriate for the data. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of receiving a HBPM and BP change controlling for baseline BP and other confounders. Results: A total of 60 HBPM and 121 comparison patients were included. Mean (sd) baseline SBP did not differ between HBPM and comparison patients at 146 mmHg (26.0) and 147 mmHg (23.8) respectively, p = 0.858. Mean (sd) baseline DBP was lower in the HBPM group at 79 mmHg (13.5) vs 84 mmHg (12.5), p=0.013. SBP change from baseline was -13.7 mmHg (28.7) and -12.8 mmHg (26.2) (p = 0.832) while DBP change was -3.6 mmHg (12.7) versus -5.7 (14.2) (p = 0.346) in HBPM and comparison groups respectively. In multivariable analysis, the HBPM group had a significantly greater reduction in SBP at follow-up versus comparison patients (coefficient: -7.20 [95% CI -13.79, -0.62]). Conclusion: HBPM was a useful tool for maintaining or improving BP in underserved patients during COVID-19.

14.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0105622, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001788

ABSTRACT

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a severe threat to global public health. The current study revealed that several inhibitors of protein kinases C (PKCs) possess protective activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Four pan-PKC inhibitors, Go 6983, bisindolylmaleimide I, enzastaurin, and sotrastaurin, reduced the replication of a SARS-CoV-2 replicon in both BHK-21 and Huh7 cells. A PKCdelta-specific inhibitor, rottlerin, was also effective in reducing viral infection. The PKC inhibitors acted at an early step of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, PKC inhibitors blocked the replication of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2-expressing A549 cells. Our work highlights the importance of the PKC signaling pathway in infection by SARS-CoV-2 and provides evidence that PKC-specific inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need for effective therapeutic drugs to control the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We found that several inhibitors of protein kinases C (PKCs) dramatically decrease the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in cultured cells. These PKC inhibitors interfere with an early step of viral infection. Therefore, the rapid and prominent antiviral effect of PKC inhibitors underscores that they are promising antiviral agents and suggests that PKCs are important host factors involved in infection by SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Journal of Virology ; : e0090722, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001774

ABSTRACT

The rapid global emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused serious health problems, highlighting the urgent need for antiviral drugs. The viral main protease (Mpro) plays an important role in viral replication and thus remains the target of choice for the prevention or treatment of several viral diseases due to high sequence and structural conservation. Prolonged use of viral protease inhibitors can lead to the development of mutants resistant to those inhibitors and to many of the available antiviral drugs. Here, we used feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) as a model to investigate its development of resistance under pressure from the Mpro inhibitor GC376. Passage of wild-type (WT) FIPV in the presence of GC376 selected for a mutation in the nsp12 region where Mpro cleaves the substrate between nsp12 and nsp13. This mutation confers up to 3-fold resistance to GC376 and nirmatrelvir, as determined by EC50 assay. In vitro biochemical and cellular experiments confirmed that FIPV adapts to the stress of GC376 by mutating the nsp12 and nsp13 hydrolysis site to facilitate cleavage by Mpro and release to mediate replication and transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that GC376 cannot treat FIP-resistant mutants that cause FIP in animals. Taken together, these results suggest that Mpro affects the replication of coronaviruses (CoVs) and the drug resistance to GC376 by regulating the amount of RdRp from a distant site. These findings provide further support for the use of an antiviral drug combination as a broad-spectrum therapy to protect against contemporary and emerging CoVs. IMPORTANCE CoVs cause serious human infections, and antiviral drugs are currently approved to treat these infections. The development of protease-targeting therapeutics for CoV infection is hindered by resistance mutations. Therefore, we should pay attention to its resistance to antiviral drugs. Here, we identified possible mutations that lead to relapse after clinical treatment of FIP. One amino acid substitution in the nsp12 polymerase at the Mpro cleavage site provided low-level resistance to GC376 after selection exposure to the GC376 parental nucleoside. Resistance mutations enhanced FIPV viral fitness in vitro and attenuated the therapeutic effect of GC376 in an animal model of FIPV infection. Our research explains the evolutionary characteristics of coronaviruses under antiviral drugs, which is helpful for a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of virus resistance and provides important basic data for the effective prevention and control of CoVs.

16.
Big Data Mining and Analytics ; 5(4):318-338, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988911

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still raging (in year 2021) in many countries worldwide. Various response strategies to study the characteristics and distributions of the virus in various regions of the world have been developed to assist in the prevention and control of this epidemic. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis on COVID-19 data from different countries were conducted in this study to compare and evaluate various regression models. Results showed that the extreme random forest regression (ERFR) model had the best performance, and factors such as population density, ozone, median age, life expectancy, and Human Development Index (HDI) were relatively influential on the spread and diffusion of COVID-19 in the ERFR model. In addition, the epidemic clustering characteristics were analyzed through the spectral clustering algorithm. The visualization results of spectral clustering showed that the geographical distribution of global COVID-19 pandemic spread formation was highly clustered, and its clustering characteristics and influencing factors also exhibited some consistency in distribution. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the international community regarding the global COVID-19 pandemic to develop measures for countries worldwide to mitigate potential large-scale outbreaks and improve the ability to respond to such public health emergencies. © 2018 Tsinghua University Press.

17.
Psychiatria Danubina ; 34:S23-S23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1976280
18.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 45(1):36-44, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1911768

ABSTRACT

Objective To screen the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of immune-mediated demyelinating diseases by tandem mass tags (TMT) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. Methods Twenty patients with demyelinating diseases (demyelinating group) and 10 patients with noninflammatory neurological diseases (NND group) from Beijing Tiantan Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2020 to January 2021 were enrolled in this study. The demyelinating group included 10 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS subgroup) and 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS subgroup). TMT proteomics was used to screen out the different protein expression patterns between the demyelinating group and the NND group and between the GBS subgroup and the MS subgroup (difference>2 or<0.5 and with statistical significance), and String database was used to perform gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of gene and genomes (KEGG) analysis on the pathways involved in the differently expressed proteins between the groups. In addition, 80 demyelinating patients (demyelinating diseases validation group) and 40 healthy subjects (healthy control group) were selected for retrospective analysis of general lipid indexes. The demyelinating diseases validation group included 40 GBS patients (GBS validation group) and 40 MS patients (MS validation group). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to evaluate the value of general lipid indexes for the diagnosis of demyelinating diseases and the differential diagnosis between GBS and MS groups. Results A total of 362 proteins were detected by TMT proteomics. There were 101 differentially expressed proteins between the demyelinating group and the NND group, and 45 differentially expressed proteins between the GBS group and the MS group. Compared with the NND group, GO enrichment analysis showed that the top five enrichment pathways in the demyelinating group were macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor complex, negative regulation of cholesterol input, negative regulation of very low density lipoprotein particle clearance, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling, and cholesterol reverse transport. Compared with MS group, the top five enriched pathways in GBS group were high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding, negative regulation of very low density lipoprotein particle remodeling, negative regulation of cholesterol input, negative regulation of very low density lipoprotein particle clearance, and medium density lipoprotein particle. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that differentially expressed proteins in the demyelinating group and the NND group were enriched in 8 pathways, including phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases-protein kinase B signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascade reaction, extracellular matrix and its receptor interaction, Staphylococcus aureus infection, cholesterol metabolism, RAS signaling pathway, phagosome, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Differentially expressed proteins in GBS group and MS group were enriched in 9 pathways: cholesterol metabolism, complement and coagulation cascade, platelet activation, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors signaling pathway, vitamin digestion and absorption, novel coronavirus infection, fat digestion and absorption, axon guidance, and neutrophil extracellular trap formation pathway. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) were significantly higher, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels were significantly lower in the demyelinating disease validation group than in the healthy control group (all P<0.05 or 0.01). Area under the curve (AUC) of TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoA1 and apoB alone or in combination for the diagnosis of immune-mediated demyelinating diseases was 0.746, 0.643, 0.798, 0.703, 0.806, 0.708 and 0.868, respectively. The AUC of HDL-C, apoA1, LDL-C and apoB for differential diagnosis between GBS and MS was 0.692, 0.653, 0.632, 0.695 and 0.718, respectively. Conclusions There are differences in cerebrospinal fluid proteomics between patients with immune-mediated demyelinating disease and patients with NND, GBS and MS, and the differentially expressed protein patterns mainly exist in the pathways related to lipid metabolism. Lipid related indicators may be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of immune-mediated demyelinating disease. © 2022 Chinese Medical Journals Publishing House Co.Ltd. All rights reserved.

19.
47th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2022 ; 2022-May:9012-9016, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891401

ABSTRACT

Traditional face-to-face subjective listening test has become a challenge due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed a remote assessment system with Tencent Meeting, a video conferencing application, to address this issue. This paper presents our work on evaluating the reliability of the remote assessment system. Two speech reception threshold (SRT) experiments were conducted to study the effects of noise suppression and maxima selection number on cochlear implant (CI) hearing. Both experiments were conducted locally and remotely, the correlations between the respective results were analyzed. Results showed that remote tests replicated the differences among testing conditions observed in local tests, but the absolute SRT values for individual conditions varied significantly between the two modes. The variations could be attributed to multiple reasons, such as online data transmission issues, audio playback devices, environmental conditions, and the training of participants. In conclusion, the relative variation of SRTs for CIs can be measured reliably, but the absolute SRT values should be carefully compared and explained according to objective and subjective experimental conditions. © 2022 IEEE

20.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337444

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 first emerged on the Chinese mainland in January 2022 in Tianjin and caused a large wave of infections. During mass PCR testing, a total of 430 cases infected with Omicron were recorded between January 8 and February 7, 2022, with no new infections detected for the following 16 days. Most patients had been vaccinated with SARSCoV-2 inactivated vaccines. The disease profile associated with BA.1 infection, especially after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, is unclear. Whether BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving inactivated vaccine could create a strong enough humoral immunity barrier against Omicron is not yet investigated. Methods We collected the clinical information and vaccination history of the 430 COVID-19 patients infected with Omicron BA.1. Re-positive cases and inflammation markers were monitored during the patient’s convalescence phase. Ordered multiclass logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity. Authentic virus neutralization assays against SARS-CoV-2 wildtype, Beta and Omicron BA.1 were conducted to examine the plasma neutralizing titers induced after post-vaccination Omicron BA.1 infection, and were compared to a group of uninfected healthy individuals who were selected to have a matched vaccination profile. Findings Among the 430 patients, 316 (73.5%) were adults with a median age of 47 years, and 114 (26.5%) were under-age with a median age of 10 years. Female and male patients account for 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with mild (47.7%) to moderate diseases (50.2%), with only 2 severe cases (0.5%) and 7 (1.6%) asymptomatic infections. No death was recorded. 341 (79.3%) of the 430 patients received inactivated vaccines (54.3% BBIBP-CorV vs. 45.5% CoronaVac), 49 (11.4%) received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (Ad5-nCoV), 2 (0.5%) received recombinant protein subunit vaccines (ZF2001), and 38 (8.8%) received no vaccination. No vaccination is associated with a substantially higher ICU admission rate among Omicron BA.1 infected patients (2.0% for vaccinated patients vs. 23.7% for unvaccinated patients, P<0.001). Compared with adults, child patients presented with less severe illness (82.5% mild cases for children vs. 35.1% for adults, P<0.001), no ICU admission, fewer comorbidities (3.5% vs. 53.2%, P<0.001), and less chance of turning re-positive on nucleic acid tests (12.3% vs. 22.5%, P=0.019). For adult patients, compared with no prior vaccination, receiving 3 doses of inactivated vaccine was associated with significantly lower risk of severe disease (OR 0.227 [0.065-0.787], P=0.020), less ICU admission (OR 0.023 [0.002-0.214], P=0.001), lower re-positive rate on PCR (OR 0.240 [0.098-0.587], P=0.002), and shorter duration of hospitalization and recovery (OR 0.233 [0.091-0.596], P=0.002). At the beginning of the convalescence phase, patients who had received 3 doses of inactivated vaccine had substantially lower systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and C-reactive protein than unvaccinated patients, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio, activated Treg cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were higher compared to their 2-dose counterparts, suggesting that receipt of 3 doses of inactivated vaccine could step up inflammation resolution after infection. Plasma neutralization titers against Omicron, Beta, and wildtype significantly increased after breakthrough infection with Omicron. Moderate symptoms were associated with higher plasma neutralization titers than mild symptoms. However, vaccination profiles prior to infection, whether 2 doses versus 3 doses or types of vaccines, had no significant effect on post-infection neutralization titer. Among recipients of 3 doses of CoronaVac, infection with Omicron BA.1 largely increased neutralization titers against Omicron BA.1 (8.7x), Beta (4.5x), and wildtype (2.2x), compared with uninfected healthy individuals who have a matched vaccination profile. Interpretation Receipt of 3-dose inactivated vaccines can substantially reduce the disease severity of Omicr n BA.1 infection, with most vaccinated patients presenting with mild to moderate illness. Child patients present with less severe disease than adult patients after infection. Omicron BA.1 convalescents who had received inactivated vaccines showed significantly increased plasma neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron BA.1, Beta, and wildtype SARS-CoV-2 compared with vaccinated healthy individuals.

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