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1.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(5): 716-725, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852420

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to cause waves of new infections globally. Developing effective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants is an urgent task. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive drug target because of its central role in viral replication and its conservation among variants. We herein report a series of potent α-ketoamide-containing Mpro inhibitors obtained using the Ugi four-component reaction. The prioritized compound, Y180, showed an IC50 of 8.1 nM against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and had oral bioavailability of 92.9%, 31.9% and 85.7% in mice, rats and dogs, respectively. Y180 protected against wild-type SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and P.3 (Theta), with EC50 of 11.4, 20.3, 34.4 and 23.7 nM, respectively. Oral treatment with Y180 displayed a remarkable antiviral potency and substantially ameliorated the virus-induced tissue damage in both nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-infected K18-human ACE2 (K18-hACE2) transgenic mice. Therapeutic treatment with Y180 improved the survival of mice from 0 to 44.4% (P = 0.0086) upon B.1.617.1 infection in the lethal infection model. Importantly, Y180 was also highly effective against the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our study provides a promising lead compound for oral drug development against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Rats
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820286

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected using a web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020, accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from the pre-pandemic for moderate (12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 1971-1979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817635

ABSTRACT

Aim: To analyze the possible risk factors of delayed virus clearance in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the isolation wards from our hospital from 19th Jan 2020 to 18th March 2020. We were collected patient's data including demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical information, as well as laboratory and radiologic findings. The possible confounding risk factors for prolonged viral RNA shedding of COVID-19 during hospitalization were explored by univariate analysis and any variables with a p value less than 0.05 after univariate analysis were included in a subsequent multivariate logistic regression model analysis. Results: The 104 patients included 30 mild patients and 74 severe or critically ill patients. The median duration of viral RNA positivity in sputum was 11 days, and the longest duration of viral RNA positivity was 49 days after admission. Multivariate analysis shown that the used with darunavir/cobicistat treatment (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-14.42, p = 0.020), duration of fever (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30, p = 0.015) and time to radiological improvement (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30, p = 0.033) were associated with delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in sputum from COVID-19 patients. Then adjusted in the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis model in severe COVID-19 and found that critical COVID-19 patients (OR: 13.25, 95% CI: 1.45-12.07, p = 0.022), lower virus cycle threshold (CT) values of RT-PCR (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99, p = 0.004) and used with darunavir/cobicistat treatment (OR: 8.44, 95% CI: 2.21-32.28, p = 0.022) were associated with delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in sputum from COVID-19 patients. Conclude: Clearance of viral RNA in sputum was delayed in severe COVID-19 patients, especially with lower virus CT value. And antivirals with darunavir/cobicistat has little advantage in eliminating SARS-CoV-2.

4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 194, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 affects healthcare resource allocation, which could lead to treatment delay and poor outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AMI outcomes. METHODS: We compared outcomes of patients admitted for acute ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) during a non-COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2019; Group 1, n = 254) and a COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2020; Group 2, n = 124). RESULTS: For STEMI patients, the median of first medical contact (FMC) time, door-to-balloon time, and total myocardial ischemia time were significantly longer in Group 2 patients (all p < 0.05). Primary percutaneous intervention was performed significantly more often in Group 1 patients than in Group 2 patients, whereas thrombolytic therapy was used significantly more often in Group 2 patients than in Group 1 patients (all p < 0.05). However, the rates of and all-cause 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) were not significantly different in the two periods (all p > 0.05). For NSTEMI patients, Group 2 patients had a higher rate of conservative therapy, a lower rate of reperfusion therapy, and longer FMC times (all p < 0.05). All-cause 30-day mortality and MACE were only higher in NSTEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic causes treatment delay in AMI patients and potentially leads to poor clinical outcome in NSTEMI patients. Thrombolytic therapy should be initiated without delay for STEMI when coronary intervention is not readily available; for NSTEMI patients, outcomes of invasive reperfusion were better than medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330344

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected using a cross-sectional web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020 accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before the pandemic and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from pre-pandemic for both moderate (from 12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (from 2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324166

ABSTRACT

Utilizing computed tomography (CT) images to quickly estimate the severity of cases with COVID-19 is one of the most straightforward and efficacious methods. Two tasks were studied in this present paper. One was to segment the mask of intact lung in case of pneumonia. Another was to generate the masks of regions infected by COVID-19. The masks of these two parts of images then were converted to corresponding volumes to calculate the physical proportion of infected region of lung. A total of 129 CT image set were herein collected and studied. The intrinsic Hounsfiled value of CT images was firstly utilized to generate the initial dirty version of labeled masks both for intact lung and infected regions. Then, the samples were carefully adjusted and improved by two professional radiologists to generate the final training set and test benchmark. Two deep learning models were evaluated: UNet and 2.5D UNet. For the segment of infected regions, a deep learning based classifier was followed to remove unrelated blur-edged regions that were wrongly segmented out such as air tube and blood vessel tissue etc. For the segmented masks of intact lung and infected regions, the best method could achieve 0.972 and 0.757 measure in mean Dice similarity coefficient on our test benchmark. As the overall proportion of infected region of lung, the final result showed 0.961 (Pearson's correlation coefficient) and 11.7% (mean absolute percent error). The instant proportion of infected regions of lung could be used as a visual evidence to assist clinical physician to determine the severity of the case. Furthermore, a quantified report of infected regions can help predict the prognosis for COVID-19 cases which were scanned periodically within the treatment cycle.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321385

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a considerable morbidity and mortality, mainly in China. The study is to investigate the intrinstic features of infected patients that associated with severe type of this disease. Method: A total of 487 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in analysis. The demographic and epidemiological of patients representing as mild and severe at admission were compared. A step-wise multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 . A score systemc incorporating risk factors was established for risk stratification and validated in a small cohort during in-hospital follow-up. Results: Of all patients, 49 (10.1%) cases are severe at admission. Severe cases are elder [56(17) vs. 45(19), P<0.001), with more male (73.5% vs. 50.9%, P=0.003). They have a higher incidence of hypertension (53.1% vs. 16.7%, P<0.001), diabetes (14.3% vs. 5.0%, P=0.009), cardiovascular diseases (8.2% vs. 1.6%, P=0.003) and malignancy (4.1% vs. 0.7%, P=0.025), and less exposure to epidemic area (49.0% vs. 65.1%, P=0.027), but more infected familiy members(P=0.031). On multivariate analysis, elder age, male and presence of hypertension are independently associated with severe disease at admission. A host risk score, incorporating age, sex and hypertension history, clearly stratifies risk of developing severe type of COVID-19 both in patients at admission and during in-hospital follow-up. Conclusions: : Elder age, male and presence of hypertension are associated with host susceptibility to developing severe COVID-19. The host risk score may be a useful tool to identify high risk indiviuals but requires validation.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311009

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis (RM) in patients with COVID-19. Method: A single center retrospective cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan hospital in Wuhan, China, between February 17 and April 12, 2020. Results: : The overall incidence of RM was 2.2%. Comparing with patients without RM, patients with RM tended to have a higher risk of deterioration, representing by higher ratio to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (90.9 % vs 5.3%, P <0.001), and to undergo mechanical ventilation (86.4 % vs 2.7% P <0.001). Compared with patients without RM, patients with RM had laboratory test abnormalities, including indicators of inflammation, coagulation activation and kidney injury. Patients with RM had a higher risk of hospital death ( P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression model confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase (CK) >1000 IU/L (HR=6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86), peak serum myoglobin (MYO) >1000 ng/mL (HR=9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. Additionally, patients with COVID-19 that developed RM tended to have a delayed virus clearance. Conclusion: RM might be an important factor contributing to adverse outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Early detection and effective intervention of RM may help reduce deaths of patients with COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325228

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is mostly causes lung damages, but also lead to gastroenterology injury. SARS-CoV-2 - associated acute pancreatitis has been reported, however, clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and the pancreatitis was not clear. Case presentation: A 62 year old diabetic female patient suffer from coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) and detection of SARS-CoV-2 turned negative on day 11 and day 12 in sputum. Two days latter, the patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. Through the support treatment, the patient got better and discharged from our hospital 18 days later. Conclusions: : Our case provided an initial view of SARS-CoV-2 infection with acute pancreatitis and the acute pancreatitis may occur in COVID-19 patients with clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in lung.

11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296428

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathological features of severe cardiac injury induced by COVID-19 and relevant clinical features is unknown.<br><br>Methods: This autopsy cohort study, including hearts from 26 deceased patients hospitalized in intensive care unit due to COVID-19, was conducted at four sites in Wuhan, China. Cases were divided into neutrophil-infiltration group and no-neutrophil group according to histopathological identification of neutrophilic infiltrates or not.<br><br>Findings: Among 26 cases, four cases had active myocarditis with histopathological examination. All cases with myocarditis accompanied with extensive neutrophil infiltration, while cases without myocarditis did not. Detection rates of interleukin-6 (100% vs 4.6%) and tumor necrosis factor-α (100% vs 31.8%) in neutrophil-infiltration group were significantly higher compared to no-neutrophil group (p<0.05 for both). At admission, patients with neutrophil infiltration in myocardium had significantly higher baseline values of aspartate aminotransferase, D dimer and high-sensitivity C reactive protein compared to other 22 patients (p<0.05 for all). During hospitalization, patients with neutrophil infiltration had a significantly higher maximum of creatine kinase (CK)-MB (median 280.0 vs 38.7IU/L, p=0.04), and a quantitatively higher top Troponin I (median 1.112 vs 0.220ng/ml, p=0.56) than patients without neutrophil infiltration.<br><br>Interpretation: In hearts from deceased patients with severe COVID-19 , active myocarditis was commonly infiltrated with neutrophils. Cases with neutrophil-infiltrated myocarditis had a series of severe abnormal laboratory tests at admission, and a high maximum of CK-MB during hospitalization. Role of neutrophil on severe heart injury and even systemic condition in COVID-19 should be emphasized.<br><br>Funding Information: : Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory, Grant No. EKPG21-32. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: None exist.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: Full autopsy was performed after patient death with the approval of the ethics committees and written consent of patient relatives in accordance with regulations issued by the National Health Commission of China and the Helsinki Declaration.

13.
Phytomedicine ; 96: 153853, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that major Camellia sinensis (tea) catechins can inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), inspiring us to study 3CLpro inhibition of the recently discovered catechins from tea by our group. METHODS: Autodock was used to dock 3CLpro and 16 tea catechins. Further, a 3CLpro activity detection system was used to test their intra and extra cellular 3CLpro inhibitory activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to analyze the dissociation constant (KD) between the catechins and 3CLpro. RESULTS: Docking data suggested that 3CLpro interacted with the selected 16 catechins with low binding energy through the key amino acid residues Thr24, Thr26, Asn142, Gly143, His163, and Gln189. The selected catechins other than zijuanin D (3) and (-)-8-(5''R)-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone-3-O-cinnamoylepicatechin (11) can inhibit 3CLpro intracellularly. The extracellular 3CLpro IC50 values of (-)-epicatechin 3-O-caffeoate (EC-C, 1), zijuanin C (2), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), etc-pyrrolidinone A (9), (+)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) are 1.58 ± 0.21, 41.2 ± 3.56, 0.90 ± 0.03, 46.71 ± 10.50, 3.38 ± 0.48, and 71.78 ± 8.36 µM, respectively. The KD values of 1, 6, and GCG are 4.29, 3.46, and 3.36 µM, respectively. CONCLUSION: Together, EC-C (1), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), and GCG are strong 3CLpro inhibitors. Our results suggest that structural modification of catechins could be conducted by esterificating the 3-OH as well as changing the configuration of C-3, C-3''' or C-5''' to discover strong SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Camellia sinensis , Catechin , Catechin/analysis , Catechin/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea
14.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(1): 513-527, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the status of public service motivation and explains it's the positive association with public cooperation during the initial stage of the COVID-19 crisis. Moreover, potential causes of Chinese citizens' public service motivation have been explored. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 30 provinces in China was conducted using an online questionnaire. The study was conducted in February 2020 during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Socio-demographic factors, public service motivation, public satisfaction, public confidence, and public cooperation were assessed using questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to identify clusters of interrelationships among public service motivation, public satisfaction, public confidence, and public cooperation among Chinese citizens. RESULTS: We found that participants' public satisfaction with COVID-19-related public services had a positive association with public confidence (B = 0.456, p < 0.001) and public service motivation (B = 0.177, p < 0.001). Moreover, public confidence regarding anti-COVID-19 measures had a positive influence on public service motivation (B = 0.308, p < 0.001) while mediating the relationship between public satisfaction and public service motivation. Public service motivation were positively associated with public cooperation with anti-COVID-19 measures during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: A considerably high level of public service motivation among Chinese citizens appeared during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in an increase in public cooperation. Moreover, the findings prove that a high degree of satisfaction with the government's initiatives regarding anti-COVID-19 measures encouraged greater personal public service motivation in respondents by increasing confidence in governmental responses and performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(10): 876-884, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463354

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) discovered in December 2019, the disease has emerged as a global pandemic (Shi et al., 2020; World Health Organization, 2020). Several studies have shown a higher incidence of COVID-19, as well as related poor outcomes in patients with malignancies as compared with those without them (Liang et al., 2020; Tian et al., 2020). The impact of cancer on COVID-19 may be attri­buted to the use of antitumor treatments that may disturb the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection (Wang et al., 2020), while the current studies on this topic have drawn controversial conclusions. Some implied that anticancer treatments might elevate the risk of death (García-Suárez et al., 2020; Liu et al., 2020). On the contrary, others pointed out that this association is not significant (Brar et al., 2020; Lee et al., 2020a). Although previous systematic reviews have investigated this important issue (Wang and Huang, 2020), the heterogeneity of findings is obvious and the general conclusion has remained unclear. Considering this ambiguity, it is difficult for clinicians to make therapeutic decisions when facing patients with both cancer and COVID-19; therefore, a high-quality and accurate evaluation of the impact of anticancer treatments on COVID-19 patients is necessary. Accordingly, we conducted a pooled analysis with the original data of each patient for the first time to provide a comprehensive perspective into the association between anticancer regimens and the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1371-1378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic may increase the development of psychiatric disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among medical staff. A brief validated screening tool is essential for the early diagnosis of PTSD. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validation of a Chinese version of the Primary Care-PTSD-5 (C-PC-PTSD-5) and determine an appropriate cutoff score with optimal sensitivity and specificity for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted on medical staff (n = 1104) from 17 medical institutions in Shanghai. Questionnaires comprising general information, medical-related traumatic event experiences, the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5), and C-PC-PTSD-5 were distributed to participants using the online Questionnaire Star electronic system. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy and the optimal cutoff score of the C-PC-PTSD-5 for medical staff. RESULTS: We included 1062 valid questionnaires for the analysis. Data of 838 traumatic experiences were analyzed. Internal consistency of the C-PC-PTSD-5 was satisfied (Cronbach's α = 0.756). The total score of the C-PC-PTSD-5 showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.746). We found a strong correlation between the C-PC-PTSD-5 score and PCL-5 total score (r = 0.669, p < 0.001), which indicated good convergent validity. The ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.81 ± 0.016. A cutoff score of 2 provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for the C-PC-PTSD-5 (sensitivity = 0.632, specificity = 0.871, Youden index = 0.503, and overall efficiency = 0.768). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the C-PC-PTSD-5 can be employed as a brief and efficient screening instrument for medical staff exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic. A score of 2 was identified as the optimal threshold for probable clinical PTSD symptoms.

18.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 343-360, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352746

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. By Feb. 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations that typically include fever, dry cough, and fatigue, often with pulmonary involvement. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and most individuals within the population at large are susceptible to infection. Wild animal hosts and infected patients are currently the main sources of disease which is transmitted via respiratory droplets and direct contact. Since the outbreak, the Chinese government and scientific community have acted rapidly to identify the causative agent and promptly shared the viral gene sequence, and have carried out measures to contain the epidemic. Meanwhile, recent research has revealed critical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 biology and disease pathogenesis; other studies have focused on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, as well as drug and vaccine development. This review aims to summarize the latest research findings and to provide expert consensus. We will also share ongoing efforts and experience in China, which may provide insight on how to contain the epidemic and improve our understanding of this emerging infectious disease, together with updated guidance for prevention, control, and critical management of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 651556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295655

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia are highly contagious diseases. We aimed to characterize initial computed tomography (CT) and clinical features and to develop a model for differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia from H1N1 pneumonia. Methods: In total, we enrolled 291 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from January 20 to February 13, 2020, and 97 patients with H1N1 pneumonia from May 24, 2009, to January 29, 2010 from two hospitals. Patients were randomly grouped into a primary cohort and a validation cohort using a seven-to-three ratio, and their clinicoradiologic data on admission were compared. The clinicoradiologic features were optimized by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression analysis to generate a model for differential diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for assessing the performance of the model in the primary and validation cohorts. Results: The COVID-19 pneumonia mainly presented a peripheral distribution pattern (262/291, 90.0%); in contrast, H1N1 pneumonia most commonly presented a peribronchovascular distribution pattern (52/97, 53.6%). In LASSO logistic regression, peripheral distribution patterns, older age, low-grade fever, and slightly elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, whereas, a peribronchovascular distribution pattern, centrilobular nodule or tree-in-bud sign, consolidation, bronchial wall thickening or bronchiectasis, younger age, hyperpyrexia, and a higher level of AST were associated with H1N1 pneumonia. For the primary and validation cohorts, the LASSO model containing above eight clinicoradiologic features yielded an area under curve (AUC) of 0.963 and 0.943, with sensitivity of 89.7 and 86.2%, specificity of 89.7 and 89.7%, and accuracy of 89.7 and 87.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Combination of distribution pattern and category of pulmonary opacity on chest CT with clinical features facilitates the differentiation of COVID-19 pneumonia from H1N1 pneumonia.

20.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 208: 106257, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quantitative changes of respiratory functions for critically ill COVID-19 patients with mechanical ventilation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed based on patient-specific three-dimensional airway geometry. METHODS: 37 cases of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of Huangshi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital from February 1st to March 20th, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. 5 patients whose clinical data met the specific criteria were finally cataloged into death group (2 patients) and survival group (3 patients). The patient-specific three-dimensional airways were reconstructed from the central airways down to the 4th-5th bifurcation of the tracheobronchial tree. The volume changes of bronchi were calculated during the disease progression according to the comparison of two CT scans. Additionally, the changes of air flow resistance were analyzed using numerical simulation of CFD. RESULTS: Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that there was negative correlation between the change of volume (ΔV) and the change of resistance (ΔR) for all COVID-19 patients (r=-0.7025). For total airway volume, an average decrease of -11.41±15.71% was observed in death group compared to an average increase of 1.86±10.80% in survival group (p=0.0232). For air flow through airways in lower lobe, the resistance increases for death group by 10.97±77.66% and decreases for survival group by -45.49±42.04% (p=0.0246). CONCLUSION: The variation of flow resistance in the airway could be used as a non-invasive functional evaluation for the prognosis and outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. The 'virtual' pulmonary function test by integrating follow-up CT scans with patient-derived CFD analysis could be a potentially powerful way in improving the efficiency of treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Airway Resistance , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Lung , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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