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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295175

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome patients are at risk for fungal infections, especially aspergillosis and mucormycosis. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is differentiated in a pulmonary form and Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB). During the first wave of the pandemic, bronchoscopy for diagnosing Aspergillus superinfections was rarely performed in COVID-19 patients, so that detailed on data on ATB in CAPA patients is scarce. We analyzed prevalence and mortality of tracheobronchitis in patients with CAPA.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, single-centre study at the 14-bed intensive care unit (ICU) of the Department I of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital of Cologne, Germany from March 2020 to February 2021. CAPA patients were identified by twice weekly analysis of tracheal aspirates for Aspergillus growth, Aspergillus DNA (PCR) and galactomannan combined with serum galactomannan testing. In case of positive results, bronchoscopy with the examination of trachea and lower airways and bronchoalveolar lavage followed.Findings: A total of 69 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU, with 17 patients developing probable CAPA. All CAPA patients received bronchoscopy resulting in a clinical diagnosis of tracheobronchitis in 8 patients with signs of tracheal lesions, pseudomembranes or vulnerable bloody trachea. Seven bronchoalveolar lavages revealed culture and eight PCR positivity for Aspergillus fumigatus. In 7 of 8 tracheobronchitis patients, bronchoalveolar lavage samples tested positive for galactomannan antigen optical density index of >0.5. The overall mortality of CAPA patients was 52.9% and the overall mortality of ATB patients was 75%.Interpretation: Our data indicate a substantial prevalence of tracheobronchitis in this single-center cohort of CAPA patients. To facilitate early diagnosis bronchoscopic tracheal examination is crucial as computed tomography lacks diagnostic accuracy to enable timely initiation of therapy.Funding Information: This work was in part supported by the German Registry of COVID-19 Autopsies (www.DeRegCOVID.ukaachen.de), funded by the Federal Ministry of Health (ZMVI1-2520COR201), and the project DEFEAT PANDEMICs, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01KX2021).Declaration of Interests: PK reports grants or contracts from German Federal Ministry of Research and Education and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia;Consulting fees Ambu GmbH, Gilead Sciences, Noxxon N.V. and Pfizer Pharma;Honoraria for lectures from Akademie für Infektionsmedizin e.V., Ambu GmbH, Astellas Pharma, BioRad Laboratories Inc., European Confederation of Medical Mycology, Gilead Sciences, GPR Academy Ruesselsheim, medupdate GmbH, MedMedia, MSD Sharp & Dohme GmbH, Pfizer Pharma GmbH, Scilink Comunicación Científica SC and University Hospital and LMU Munich;Participation on an Advisory Board from Ambu GmbH, Gilead Sciences, Pfizer Pharma;A pending patent currently reviewed at the German Patent and Trade Mark Office;Other non-financial interests from Elsevier, Wiley and Taylor & Francis online outside the submitted work. SvS none. JGB reports scientific grants and travel expenses from Kite/Gilead outside the submitted work. FF has a clinician scientist position supported by the deans office, medical faculty, University of Cologne. JSG none. FP none. BB reports honoraria, travel expenses and advisory role from/for Astellas, Celgene, Johnson & Johnson, Kite/Gilead, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Takeda and financing of scientific research by Astellas, Celgene, Kite/Gilead, MSD and Takeda outside the submitted work. DAE received honoraria from Sanofi and TAKEDA outside the submitted work. ASV reports travel grants from Gilead Sciences outside the submitted work. OK reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations or speakers bureaus by Gilead and Pfizer and receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services by Pfizer MSD, Basilea, Gilead, Virotech and Wako Fujifilm outside the submitted work. PB none. MK reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations or speakers bureaus by Gilead, MSD and Pfizer outside the submitted work. OAC reports grants or contracts from Amplyx, Basilea, BMBF, Cidara, DZIF, EU-DG RTD (101037867), F2G, Gilead, Matinas, MedPace, MSD, Mundipharma, Octapharma, Pfizer, Scynexis;Consulting fees from Amplyx, Biocon, Biosys, Cidara, Da Volterra, Gilead, Matinas, MedPace, Menarini, Molecular Partners, MSG-ERC, Noxxon, Octapharma, PSI, Scynexis, Seres;Honoraria for lectures from Abbott, Al 344 Jazeera Pharmaceuticals, Astellas, Grupo Biotoscana/United Medical/Knight, Hikma, MedScape, MedUpdate, Merck/MSD, Mylan, Pfizer;Payment for expert testimony from Cidara;Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board from Actelion, Allecra, Cidara, Entasis, IQVIA, Jannsen, MedPace, Paratek, PSI, Shionogi;A pending patent currently reviewed at the German Patent and Trade Mark Office;Other interests from DGHO, DGI, ECMM, ISHAM, MSG-ERC, Wiley outside the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: Patients with CAPA were included in the FungiScope® global registry for emerging invasive fungal infections (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov;National Clinical Trials identifier NCT01731353), which was approved by the local ethics committee of the University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany (identifier 05-102).

2.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666211053990, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reactivation of viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are common in critically ill patients and have been described in patients with severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether these reactivations are associated with increased mortality and whether targeted treatments are beneficial. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center cohort study, patients with severe COVID-19 treated on our intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for EBV and CMV reactivation as detected by polymerase chain reaction. If present, patient characteristics, temporal connections to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnosis and corticosteroid use, the use of targeted treatments as well as the course of disease and outcome were analyzed. As control group, non-COVID-19 patients with sepsis, treated within the same time period on our ICU, served as control group to compare incidences of viral reactivation. RESULTS: In 19 (16%) of 117 patients with severe COVID-19 treated on our ICU EBV reactivations were identified, comparable 18 (14%) of 126 in the non-COVID-19 control group (P = .672). Similarly, in 11 (9%) of 117 patients CMV reactivations were identified, comparable to the 16 (13%) of 126 in the non-COVID-19 sepsis patients (P = .296). The majority of EBV (58%) and CMV reactivations (55%) were detected in patients under systemic corticosteroid treatment. 7 (37%) of 19 patients with EBV reactivation survived the ICU stay, 2 (29%) of 7 patients with rituximab treatment and 5 (42%) of 12 patients without treatment (P = .568). Five (50%) of 10 patients with CMV reactivation survived the ICU stay, 5 (83%) of 6 patients with ganciclovir treatment and 0 of 4 patients without treatment (P = .048). Follow-up analysis in these patients showed that the initiation of treatment lead to decrease in viral load. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at a high risk for EBV and CMV reactivations. Whether these reactivations are a cause of hyperinflammation and require targeted treatment remains uncertain. However, in patients with clinical deterioration or signs of hyperinflammation targeted treatment might be beneficial and warrants further studying.

3.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 908-910, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493269

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to challenge health-care systems and ICUs around the globe more than one year into the pandemic and in spite of all advances in diagnosis and treatment of the disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2. Many open questions remain concerning optimal medical therapy, respiratory management and resource allocation, particuly in times of limited available health care personell. In the following short article, we summarized current knowlegde on management of COVID-19 in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Intensive Care Units/standards , Intensive Care Units/trends
4.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410328

ABSTRACT

The alpha variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with higher transmissibility and possibly higher mortality compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. However, few data are available on the clinical course of infections with the alpha variant compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to our ICU due to SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant infection and compared characteristics and course to patients with SARS-CoV-2 wild-type infection. The median age of patients with Alpha variant infections was 57 years compared to 62 years in the wild-type group. ICU survival was 41/80 (51%) in the Alpha variant group and 35/80 (44%) in the wild-type group (p = 0.429). Results of a matched-pair analysis based on age and sex illustrated that 45/58 patients (77.6%) in the Alpha variant group and 38/58 (65.5%) patients in the wild-type group required mechanical ventilation (p = 0.217). ICU survival was documented for 28/58 patients (48.3%) in the Alpha variant group and 27/58 patients (46.6%) in the wild-type group (p = 1). Thus, ICU mortality among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections remains high. Although the Alpha variant group included younger patients requiring mechanical ventilation, no significant differences between patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant and the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type, respectively, were detected with respect to clinical course and ICU mortality. For future VOCs, we believe it would be important to obtain valid and rapid data on the clinical course of critically ill patients who test positive for COVID-19 in order to perform appropriate epidemiological planning of intensive care capacity.

5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(15): 1057-1062, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691155

ABSTRACT

Approx. 93 % of COVID-19 infections are mild, and not all severely ill patients are transferred to the intensive care unit. But the Corona crisis implies high demands on intensive care medicine. Many treatment modalities of COVID patients are "best practice", but some aspects remain unclear at present. This article deals with diagnostics, monitoring and therapy with COVID-19 patients in intensive care units and with a suitable hygiene concepts.A hygiene concept is obligatory and must ensure - in addition to general measures - the training of employees and the hygienic discharge of material. Ideally, a cohort isolation is implemented.Monitoring of patients with COVID-19 is not different from other intensive care patients and should be adapted to the clinical situation of the individual patient. In laboratory analysis the typical abnormality of COVID-19 patients should be taken into account. In case of increasing inflammatory parameters, fungal infections should be tested.Due to the formation of aerosols, disconnection of the respiratory system must be avoided in invasive ventilation. If a disconnection from the respirator is necessary, the tube should be disconnected. After extubation, an intermittent NIV treatment for atelectase prophylaxis can be performed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mycoses ; 63(6): 528-534, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to viral infection are at risk for secondary complications like invasive aspergillosis. Our study evaluates coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) associated invasive aspergillosis at a single centre in Cologne, Germany. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS admitted to the medical or surgical intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. RESULTS: COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was found in five of 19 consecutive critically ill patients with moderate to severe ARDS. CONCLUSION: Clinicians caring for patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 should consider invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and subject respiratory samples to comprehensive analysis to detect co-infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Germany , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Mannans/analysis , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Paramyxoviridae Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
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