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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 101: 104706, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of socially isolated older adults has increased owing to the coronavirus disease pandemic, thus leading to a decrease in cognitive functions among this group. Smartphone use is expected to be a reasonable preventive measure against cognitive decline in this social context. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of social isolation and smartphone use on cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We divided 4,601 community-dwelling older adults into four groups based on their levels of social isolation and smartphone use. Then, we conducted cognitive functions tests including a word list memory task, trail-making test, and symbol digit substitution task. Social isolation was defined when participants met two or more of the following measures: domestic isolation, less social contact, and social disengagement. We used an analysis of covariance adjusted by background information to measure between-group differences in levels of cognitive functions and social isolation. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association of standardized scores of cognitive function tests with smartphone use. RESULTS: Smartphone users' scores of the symbol digit substitution task were superior compared with both non-users with social isolation and without. All cognitive functions were associated with smartphone use among non-socially and socially isolated participants. Socially isolated older adults showed an association only between trail making test- part A and smartphone use. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone use was associated with cognitive functions (memory, attentional function, executive function, and processing speed) even in socially isolated community-dwelling older adults.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Smartphone , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Social Isolation
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674684

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, intravitreal injections are performed with patients wearing masks. The risk of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection is reported to increase due to an influx of exhaled air containing oral bacteria from the upper part of the mask onto the ocular surface. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of endophthalmitis when intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections were performed using the same infection control measures before and during the pandemic. Vitreoretinal specialists performed intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents in the outpatient room of a university hospital. Infection control measures before and during the pandemic included covering the patient's eye with adhesive face drape and irrigating the ocular surface with 0.25% povidone-iodine before draping, and immediately before and after injection. Before the COVID-19 pandemic (February 2016 to December 2019), one case of endophthalmitis occurred among 31,173 injections performed (0.0032%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.000008-0.017872%). During the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020 to August 2021), one case of endophthalmitis occurred among 14,725 injections performed (0.0068%; 95% CI, 0.000017-0.037832%). There was no significant difference between the two periods (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.5387). Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, very low incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection can be maintained by implementing basic infection prophylactic measures, including face draping and 0.25% povidone-iodine irrigation, established before COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent longitudinal studies have reported proportion of frailty transition in older individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study aimed at clarifying the impact of social frailty in community-dwelling older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and at identifying factors that can predict transition to social frailty. METHODS: We performed this study from 2019 (before declaration of the state of emergency over the rising number of COVID-19 cases) to 2020 (after declaration of the emergency). We applied Makizako's social frail index to our study subjects at the baseline and classified into robust, social prefrailty, and social frailty groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using robust, social prefrailty, or social frailty status as dependent variable. RESULTS: Analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences in the score on the GDS-15 among the robust, social prefrailty, and social frailty groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis identified a significant association between the social frailty status and the score on GDS-15 (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-2.13; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increase in the rate of transition of elderly individuals to the social frailty group could have been related to the implementation of the stay-at-home order as part of the countermeasures for COVID-19. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms associated with the stay-at-home order could also have influenced the increase in the prevalence of social frailty during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104560, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to social isolation measures, forcing many people to stay indoors, stop daily outdoor activities, and limit face-to-face social interactions with friends, colleagues, and family. This study aimed to identify if non-face-to-face interaction affects depressive symptoms and frailty in older adults. METHODS: We included 3834 older adults (age: 71.1 ± 6.9 [mean ± standard deviation] years; range: 60-96 years; 2153 women) from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Interaction status was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were categorized into: "both interactions" (both face-to-face and non-face-to-face interactions), "face-to-face only" (only face-to-face interactions), "non-face-to-face only" (only non-face-to-face interactions), "no interactions" (neither face-to-face nor non-face-to-face interactions) groups. Depressive symptoms and frailty were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and Kihon Checklist, respectively. RESULTS: Potential confounding factors-adjusted odds ratios for both, face-to-face only and non-face-to-face only groups for developing depressive symptoms were 0.39 (95%CI, 0.26-0.57; p<0.001), 0.56 (95%CI, 0.38-0.84; p=0.004), and 0.51 (95%CI, 0.27-0.96; p=0.038), respectively, and those for development of frailty were 0.44 (95%CI, 0.30-0.65; p<0.001), 0.59 (95%CI, 0.39-0.87; p=0.008), and 0.63 (95%CI, 0.34-1.15; p=0.128), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that non-face-to-face interactions are also important in preventing the deterioration of mental health, which is a concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, non-face-to-face interactions alone may not be sufficient to maintain physical health, and it is important to maintain opportunities for face-to-face interaction among older adults, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
5.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 33(1): 28-34, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endophthamitis following intraocular surgery is rare using current antiseptic techniques, such as single application of 5% povidone-iodine to the ocular surface and adjuvant topical or intracameral antibiotics. Challenges remain, however, including increased multidrug-resistant bacterial endophthalmitis, increased fungal endophthalmitis, and the low but nonzero endophthalmitis rate attributable to the typical bacteria that colonize the ocular surface. RECENT FINDINGS: Povidone-iodine has a wide spectrum of activity, including activity against novel pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2. Povidone-iodine alternatives, such as hypochlorous acid can have significantly less efficacy in vitro against endophthalmitis isolates. Repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine has an excellent safety profile and strong evidence base for efficacy. SUMMARY: Povidone-iodine is widely available, inexpensive, and commonly used by ophthalmologists. The repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine is a well studied, well tolerated, and efficacious way to transiently sterilize the ocular surface during intraocular surgery. Additional benefits include activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and lack of inducible resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Humans , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Povidone-Iodine , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282481

ABSTRACT

The relationship between the incidence of disability and cognitive function has been clarified, but whether life satisfaction is related to this relationship is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify whether life satisfaction is related to the relationship between the incidence of disability and mild cognitive impairment. We included 2563 older adults from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Baseline measurements included cognitive, life satisfaction, and demographic characteristics. Life satisfaction was measured using the Life Satisfaction Scale, which was stratified into three levels based on the score: lower, moderate, and higher. Associations between disability incidence and mild cognitive impairment were examined for each group according to life satisfaction, and monthly assessment for disability was monitored through long-term care insurance certification for at least 2 years from the baseline. At a 35.5-month mean follow-up, 150 participants had developed a disability. The potential confounding factors adjusted hazard for incidence of disability in the group with lower life satisfaction was 1.88 (CI: 1.05-3.35; p = 0.034) for mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with disability incidence, and the effect was more pronounced among older adults with lower life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Disabled Persons , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Personal Satisfaction , Prospective Studies
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238900

ABSTRACT

Identifying the relationship between physical and social activity and disability among community-dwelling older adults may provide important information for implementing tailored interventions to prevent disability progression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the number of social activities on the relationship between walking habits and disability incidence in older adults. We included 2873 older adults (mean age, 73.1 years; SD, ±5.9 years) from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Baseline measurements, including frequencies of physical and social activities, health conditions, physical function, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, and other potential disability risk factors (for example, the number of years of education); monthly assessment for disability was monitored through long-term care insurance certification for at least 2 years from baseline. During a mean follow-up of 35.1 months (SD, 6.4 months), 133 participants developed disability. The disability incidence was 19.0 and 27.9 per 1000 person-years for participants who walked more (≥3 times per week) and less (≤3 times per week) frequently, respectively. The potential confounding factor-adjusted disability hazard ratio was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.96; p = 0.030). The relationship between habitual walking and the number of social activities was statistically significant (p = 0.004). The reduction of disability risk by walking was greater among participants with fewer social activities. Habitual walking was associated with disability incidence, with a more pronounced effect among older adults who were less likely to engage in social activities.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948963

ABSTRACT

Social engagement and networking deter depression among older adults. During the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults are especially at risk of isolation from face-to-face and non-face-to-face interactions. We developed the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Social Network Scale (NCGG-SNS) to assess frequency of, and satisfaction with, social interactions. The NCGG-SNS consists of four domains: face-to-face/non-face-to-face interactions with family/friends. Each domain score is obtained by multiplying frequency ratings by satisfaction ratings for each item; all scores were summed to obtain a total NCGG-SNS score (range: 0-64). Additionally, face-to-face and non-face-to-face subscores were calculated. Higher scores indicated satisfactory social networking. A cohort of 2445 older Japanese adults completed the NCGG-SNS and the Geriatrics Depression Scale-Short form. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression determined predictive validity for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were reported by 284 participants (11.6%). The optimal NCGG-SNS cut-off value to identify depressive symptoms was 26.5 points. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders, lower NCGG-SNS values were significantly associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms. Face-to-face and non-face-to-face subscores were associated with depressive symptoms. The NCGG-SNS is a valid and useful indicator of multidimensional social networking enabling identification of depressive symptoms in older adults.


Subject(s)
Depression , Social Networking , Aged , COVID-19 , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Geriatrics , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Support
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