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1.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922149

ABSTRACT

The single-dose Ad.26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccine elicits lower levels of neutralizing antibodies and shows more limited efficacy in protection against infection than either of the two available mRNA vaccines. In addition, Ad.26.COV.2 has been less effective in protection against severe disease during the Omicron surge. Here, we examined the memory B cell response to single-dose Ad.26.COV.2 vaccination. Compared with mRNA vaccines, Ad.26.COV.2 recipients had significantly lower numbers of RBD-specific memory B cells 1.5 or 6 mo after vaccination. Despite the lower numbers, the overall quality of the memory B cell responses appears to be similar, such that memory antibodies elicited by both vaccine types show comparable neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 variants. The data help explain why boosting Ad.26.COV.2 vaccine recipients with mRNA vaccines is effective and why the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine can maintain some protective efficacy against severe disease during the Omicron surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336206

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted a global vaccination effort and the development of numerous COVID-19 vaccines at an unprecedented scale and pace. As a result, current COVID- 19 vaccination regimens comprise diverse vaccine modalities, immunogen combinations and dosing intervals. Here, we compare vaccine-specific antibody and memory B cell responses following two-dose mRNA, single-dose Ad26.COV2.S and two-dose ChAdOx1 or combination ChAdOx1/mRNA vaccination. Plasma neutralizing activity as well as the magnitude, clonal composition and antibody maturation of the RBD-specific memory B cell compartment showed substantial differences between the vaccination regimens. While individual monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells exhibited similar binding affinities and neutralizing potency against Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2, there were significant differences in epitope specificity and neutralizing breadth against viral variants of concern. Although the ChAdOx1 vaccine was inferior to mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S in several respects, biochemical and structural analyses revealed enrichment in a subgroup of memory B cell neutralizing antibodies with distinct RBD-binding properties resulting in remarkable potency and breadth.

3.
Nature ; 607(7917): 128-134, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805634

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected many vaccinated and convalescent individuals1-3. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals who received three doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from more serious consequences of infection4. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving three mRNA vaccine doses5,6. We find that the third dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the second dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared with antibodies obtained after the second dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells, which differed from persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analysed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment after the third mRNA vaccine dose neutralized the Omicron variant. Thus, individuals receiving three doses of an mRNA vaccine have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help to explain why a third dose of a vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Memory B Cells/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327676

ABSTRACT

The omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected very large numbers of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated and convalescent individuals. The penetrance of this variant in the antigen experienced human population can be explained in part by the relatively low levels of plasma neutralizing activity against Omicron in people who were infected or vaccinated with the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. The 3 rd mRNA vaccine dose produces an initial increase in circulating anti-Omicron neutralizing antibodies, but titers remain 10-20-fold lower than against Wuhan-Hu-1 and are, in many cases, insufficient to prevent infection. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals that received 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from the more serious consequences of infection. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving 3 mRNA vaccine doses. We find that the 3 rd dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, anti-receptor binding domain specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the 2 nd vaccine dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared to antibodies obtained after the 2 nd vaccine dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells that differed from the persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analyzed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment obtained from individuals receiving a 3 rd mRNA vaccine dose neutralized Omicron. Thus, individuals receiving 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine encoding Wuhan-Hu-1, have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help explain why a 3 rd dose of an mRNA vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.

5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294471

ABSTRACT

Summary Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B-cell responses that continue to evolve for at least one year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern 1 . As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines produces high levels of plasma neutralizing activity against all variants tested 1, 2 . Here, we examine memory B cell evolution 5 months after vaccination with either Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer- BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccines in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Between prime and boost, memory B cells produce antibodies that evolve increased neutralizing activity, but there is no further increase in potency or breadth thereafter. Instead, memory B cells that emerge 5 months after vaccination of naïve individuals express antibodies that are similar to those that dominate the initial response. While individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination. These results suggest that boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines will increase plasma neutralizing activity but may not produce antibodies with breadth equivalent to those obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.

6.
Nature ; 600(7889): 517-522, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454790

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B cell responses that continue to evolve for at least a year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern1. As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines produces high levels of plasma neutralizing activity against all variants tested1,2. Here we examine memory B cell evolution five months after vaccination with either Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals. Between prime and boost, memory B cells produce antibodies that evolve increased neutralizing activity, but there is no further increase in potency or breadth thereafter. Instead, memory B cells that emerge five months after vaccination of naive individuals express antibodies that are similar to those that dominate the initial response. While individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination. These results suggest that boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines will increase plasma neutralizing activity but may not produce antibodies with equivalent breadth to those obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Young Adult
7.
Nature ; 592(7855): 616-622, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075232

ABSTRACT

Here we report on the antibody and memory B cell responses of a cohort of 20 volunteers who received the Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine against SARS-CoV-21-4. Eight weeks after the second injection of vaccine, volunteers showed high levels of IgM and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and receptor-binding-domain (RBD) binding titre. Moreover, the plasma neutralizing activity and relative numbers of RBD-specific memory B cells of vaccinated volunteers were equivalent to those of individuals who had recovered from natural infection5,6. However, activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants that encode E484K-, N501Y- or K417N/E484K/N501-mutant S was reduced by a small-but significant-margin. The monoclonal antibodies elicited by the vaccines potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2, and target a number of different RBD epitopes in common with monoclonal antibodies isolated from infected donors5-8. However, neutralization by 14 of the 17 most-potent monoclonal antibodies that we tested was reduced or abolished by the K417N, E484K or N501Y mutation. Notably, these mutations were selected when we cultured recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing SARS-CoV-2 S in the presence of the monoclonal antibodies elicited by the vaccines. Together, these results suggest that the monoclonal antibodies in clinical use should be tested against newly arising variants, and that mRNA vaccines may need to be updated periodically to avoid a potential loss of clinical efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/ultrastructure , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
8.
Nature ; 591(7851): 639-644, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065898

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with the development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity, which can protect against infection in animal models1,2. Antibody levels decrease with time, but, to our knowledge, the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be required to produce antibodies upon reinfection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We find that titres of IgM and IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 decrease significantly over this time period, with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by fivefold in pseudotype virus assays. By contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remains unchanged at 6.2 months after infection. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies that they express have greater somatic hypermutation, resistance to RBD mutations and increased potency, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Immunofluorescence and PCR analyses of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals at 4 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and immunoreactivity in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 individuals. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Intestines/immunology , Middle Aged , Mutation , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Nature ; 584(7821): 437-442, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606946

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the infection of millions of people and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The entry of the virus into cells depends on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Although there is currently no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21-5. Here we report on 149 COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Plasma samples collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres; titres were less than 50 in 33% of samples, below 1,000 in 79% of samples and only 1% of samples had titres above 5,000. Antibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml-1. In conclusion, most convalescent plasma samples obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
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