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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(6): 322-331, 2023 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify a diagnostic blood transcriptomic signature that distinguishes multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from Kawasaki disease (KD), bacterial infections, and viral infections. METHODS: Children presenting with MIS-C to participating hospitals in the United Kingdom and the European Union between April 2020 and April 2021 were prospectively recruited. Whole-blood RNA Sequencing was performed, contrasting the transcriptomes of children with MIS-C (n = 38) to those from children with KD (n = 136), definite bacterial (DB; n = 188) and viral infections (DV; n = 138). Genes significantly differentially expressed (SDE) between MIS-C and comparator groups were identified. Feature selection was used to identify genes that optimally distinguish MIS-C from other diseases, which were subsequently translated into RT-qPCR assays and evaluated in an independent validation set comprising MIS-C (n = 37), KD (n = 19), DB (n = 56), DV (n = 43), and COVID-19 (n = 39). RESULTS: In the discovery set, 5696 genes were SDE between MIS-C and combined comparator disease groups. Five genes were identified as potential MIS-C diagnostic biomarkers (HSPBAP1, VPS37C, TGFB1, MX2, and TRBV11-2), achieving an AUC of 96.8% (95% CI: 94.6%-98.9%) in the discovery set, and were translated into RT-qPCR assays. The RT-qPCR 5-gene signature achieved an AUC of 93.2% (95% CI: 88.3%-97.7%) in the independent validation set when distinguishing MIS-C from KD, DB, and DV. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C can be distinguished from KD, DB, and DV groups using a 5-gene blood RNA expression signature. The small number of genes in the signature and good performance in both discovery and validation sets should enable the development of a diagnostic test for MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Hospitals , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , COVID-19 Testing
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2314291, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325464

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cardiac dysfunction and myocarditis have emerged as serious complications of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the role of autoantibodies in these conditions is essential for guiding MIS-C management and vaccination strategies in children. Objective: To investigate the presence of anticardiac autoantibodies in MIS-C or COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic study included children with acute MIS-C or acute vaccine myocarditis, adults with myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, healthy children prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and healthy COVID-19 vaccinated adults. Participants were recruited into research studies in the US, United Kingdom, and Austria starting January 2021. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA anticardiac autoantibodies were identified with immunofluorescence staining of left ventricular myocardial tissue from 2 human donors treated with sera from patients and controls. Secondary antibodies were fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antihuman IgG, IgM, and IgA. Images were taken for detection of specific IgG, IgM, and IgA deposits and measurement of fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence intensity. Data were analyzed through March 10, 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG, IgM and IgA antibody binding to cardiac tissue. Results: By cohort, there were a total of 10 children with MIS-C (median [IQR] age, 10 [13-14] years; 6 male), 10 with vaccine myocarditis (median age, 15 [14-16] years; 10 male), 8 adults with myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy (median age, 55 [46-63] years; 6 male), 10 healthy pediatric controls (median age, 8 [13-14] years; 5 male), and 10 healthy vaccinated adults (all older than 21 years, 5 male). No antibody binding above background was observed in human cardiac tissue treated with sera from pediatric patients with MIS-C or vaccine myocarditis. One of the 8 adult patients with myocarditis or cardiomyopathy had positive IgG staining with raised fluorescence intensity (median [IQR] intensity, 11 060 [10 223-11 858] AU). There were no significant differences in median fluorescence intensity in all other patient cohorts compared with controls for IgG (MIS-C, 6033 [5834-6756] AU; vaccine myocarditis, 6392 [5710-6836] AU; adult myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, 5688 [5277-5990] AU; healthy pediatric controls, 6235 [5924-6708] AU; healthy vaccinated adults, 7000 [6423-7739] AU), IgM (MIS-C, 3354 [3110-4043] AU; vaccine myocarditis, 3843 [3288-4748] AU; healthy pediatric controls, 3436 [3313-4237] AU; healthy vaccinated adults, 3543 [2997-4607] AU) and IgA (MIS-C, 3559 [2788-4466] AU; vaccine myocarditis, 4389 [2393-4780] AU; healthy pediatric controls, 3436 [2425-4077] AU; healthy vaccinated adults, 4561 [3164-6309] AU). Conclusions and Relevance: This etiological diagnostic study found no evidence of antibodies from MIS-C and COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis serum binding cardiac tissue, suggesting that the cardiac pathology in both conditions is unlikely to be driven by direct anticardiac antibody-mediated mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A , Fluoresceins , Immunoglobulin M
3.
AMIA Annual Symposium proceedings AMIA Symposium ; 2022:653-661, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2298418

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel disease identified during the COVID-19 pandemic that may lead to cardiac dysfunction or death in pediatric patients. Early detection of MIS-C remains a challenge given the lack of a diagnostic test and its clinical similarities to Kawasaki disease (KD) and other acute childhood illnesses. We developed and validated the KawasakI Disease vs Multisystem InflAmmaTory syndrome in CHildren (KIDMATCH) clinical decision support tool for screening patients for MIS-C, KD, or other febrile illnesses. Here we describe the implementation and iterative refinement of KIDMATCH with provider feedback as a web calculator in the clinical workflow within Rady Children's Hospital. Our findings demonstrate KIDMATCH and its underlying artificial intelligence model have clinical utility in aiding clinicians at the time of initial evaluation within the hospital setting to distinguish patients who have MIS-C, KD, or other febrile illnesses.

4.
Elife ; 112022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155745

ABSTRACT

Phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-seq) allows for unbiased, proteome-wide autoantibody discovery across a variety of disease settings, with identification of disease-specific autoantigens providing new insight into previously poorly understood forms of immune dysregulation. Despite several successful implementations of PhIP-seq for autoantigen discovery, including our previous work (Vazquez et al., 2020), current protocols are inherently difficult to scale to accommodate large cohorts of cases and importantly, healthy controls. Here, we develop and validate a high throughput extension of PhIP-seq in various etiologies of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including APS1, IPEX, RAG1/2 deficiency, Kawasaki disease (KD), multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and finally, mild and severe forms of COVID-19. We demonstrate that these scaled datasets enable machine-learning approaches that result in robust prediction of disease status, as well as the ability to detect both known and novel autoantigens, such as prodynorphin (PDYN) in APS1 patients, and intestinally expressed proteins BEST4 and BTNL8 in IPEX patients. Remarkably, BEST4 antibodies were also found in two patients with RAG1/2 deficiency, one of whom had very early onset IBD. Scaled PhIP-seq examination of both MIS-C and KD demonstrated rare, overlapping antigens, including CGNL1, as well as several strongly enriched putative pneumonia-associated antigens in severe COVID-19, including the endosomal protein EEA1. Together, scaled PhIP-seq provides a valuable tool for broadly assessing both rare and common autoantigen overlap between autoimmune diseases of varying origins and etiologies.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Humans , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens/metabolism , Autoimmunity , Bacteriophages/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins , Immunoprecipitation , Proteome
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(10): e717-e726, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel disease that was identified during the COVID-19 pandemic and is characterised by systemic inflammation following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Early detection of MIS-C is a challenge given its clinical similarities to Kawasaki disease and other acute febrile childhood illnesses. We aimed to develop and validate an artificial intelligence algorithm that can distinguish among MIS-C, Kawasaki disease, and other similar febrile illnesses and aid in the diagnosis of patients in the emergency department and acute care setting. METHODS: In this retrospective model development and validation study, we developed a deep-learning algorithm called KIDMATCH (Kawasaki Disease vs Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children) using patient age, the five classic clinical Kawasaki disease signs, and 17 laboratory measurements. All features were prospectively collected at the time of initial evaluation from patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease or other febrile illness between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2019, at Rady Children's Hospital in San Diego (CA, USA). For patients with MIS-C, the same data were collected from patients between May 7, 2020, and July 20, 2021, at Rady Children's Hospital, Connecticut Children's Medical Center in Hartford (CT, USA), and Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CA, USA). We trained a two-stage model consisting of feedforward neural networks to distinguish between patients with MIS-C and those without and then those with Kawasaki disease and other febrile illnesses. After internally validating the algorithm using stratified tenfold cross-validation, we incorporated a conformal prediction framework to tag patients with erroneous data or distribution shifts. We finally externally validated KIDMATCH on patients with MIS-C enrolled between April 22, 2020, and July 21, 2021, from Boston Children's Hospital (MA, USA), Children's National Hospital (Washington, DC, USA), and the CHARMS Study Group consortium of 14 US hospitals. FINDINGS: 1517 patients diagnosed at Rady Children's Hospital between Jan 1, 2009, and June 7, 2021, with MIS-C (n=69), Kawasaki disease (n=775), or other febrile illnesses (n=673) were identified for internal validation, with an additional 16 patients with MIS-C included from Connecticut Children's Medical Center and 50 from Children's Hospital Los Angeles between May 7, 2020, and July 20, 2021. KIDMATCH achieved a median area under the receiver operating characteristic curve during internal validation of 98·8% (IQR 98·0-99·3) in the first stage and 96·0% (95·6-97·2) in the second stage. We externally validated KIDMATCH on 175 patients with MIS-C from Boston Children's Hospital (n=50), Children's National Hospital (n=42), and the CHARMS Study Group consortium of 14 US hospitals (n=83). External validation of KIDMATCH on patients with MIS-C correctly classified 76 of 81 patients (94% accuracy, two rejected by conformal prediction) from 14 hospitals in the CHARMS Study Group consortium, 47 of 49 patients (96% accuracy, one rejected by conformal prediction) from Boston Children's Hospital, and 36 of 40 patients (90% accuracy, two rejected by conformal prediction) from Children's National Hospital. INTERPRETATION: KIDMATCH has the potential to aid front-line clinicians to distinguish between MIS-C, Kawasaki disease, and other similar febrile illnesses to allow prompt treatment and prevent severe complications. FUNDING: US Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, US National Library of Medicine, the McCance Foundation, and the Gordon and Marilyn Macklin Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Machine Learning , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2979, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931398

ABSTRACT

Neutralization capacity of antibodies against Omicron after a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is not well studied. Therefore, we evaluated virus-neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants by age-stratified analyses (<5, 5-11, 12-21 years) in 177 pediatric patients hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19, acute MIS-C, and in convalescent samples of outpatients with mild COVID-19 during 2020 and early 2021. Across all patients, less than 10% show neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron. Children <5 years of age hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19 have lower neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with patients >5 years of age. As expected, convalescent pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C cohorts demonstrate higher neutralization titers than hospitalized acute COVID-19 patients. Overall, children and adolescents show some loss of cross-neutralization against all variants, with the most pronounced loss against Omicron. In contrast to SARS-CoV-2 infection, children vaccinated twice demonstrated higher titers against Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. These findings can influence transmission, re-infection and the clinical disease outcome from emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and supports the need for vaccination in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Viral Envelope Proteins
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(9): 1645-1648, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915538

ABSTRACT

Our study demonstrates that children who developed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination-induced myocarditis and may not receive another vaccination, could be susceptible to infection with Omicron and emerging variants. We observed higher neutralizing antibody titers in myocarditis patients vs. healthy vaccinated children, but significantly lower neutralization titers against Omicron in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Myocarditis/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2217436, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898503

ABSTRACT

Importance: Public health measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic had widespread effects on population behaviors, transmission of infectious diseases, and exposures to environmental pollutants. This provided an opportunity to study how these factors potentially influenced the incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD), a self-limited pediatric vasculitis of unknown etiology. Objectives: To examine the change in KD incidence across the United States and evaluate whether public health measures affected the prevalence of KD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included consecutive, unselected patients with KD who were diagnosed between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020 (multicenter cohort with 28 pediatric centers), and a detailed analysis of patients with KD who were diagnosed between January 1, 2002, and November 15, 2021 (Rady Children's Hospital San Diego [RCHSD]). Main Outcomes and Measures: For the multicenter cohort, the date of fever onset for each patient with KD was collected. For RCHSD, detailed demographic and clinical data as well as publicly available, anonymized mobile phone data and median household income by census block group were collected. The study hypothesis was that public health measures undertaken during the pandemic would reduce exposure to the airborne trigger(s) of KD and that communities with high shelter-in-place compliance would experience the greatest decrease in KD incidence. Results: A total of 2461 KD cases were included in the multicenter study (2018: 894; 2019: 905; 2020: 646), and 1461 cases (median [IQR] age, 2.8 years [1.4-4.9 years]; 900 [61.6%] males; 220 [15.1%] Asian, 512 [35.0%] Hispanic, and 338 [23.1%] White children) from RCHSD between 2002 and 2021 were also included. The 28.2% decline in KD cases nationally during 2020 (646 cases) compared with 2018 (894 cases) and 2019 (905 cases) was uneven across the United States. For RCHSD, there was a disproportionate decline in KD cases in 2020 to 2021 compared with the mean (SD) number of cases in earlier years for children aged 1 to 5 years (22 vs 44.9 [9.9]; P = .02), male children (21 vs 47.6 [10.0]; P = .01), and Asian children (4 vs 11.8 [4.4]; P = .046). Mobility data did not suggest that shelter-in-place measures were associated with the number of KD cases. Clinical features including strawberry tongue, enlarged cervical lymph node, and subacute periungual desquamation were decreased during 2020 compared with the baseline period (strawberry tongue: 39% vs 63%; P = .04; enlarged lymph node: 21% vs 32%; P = .09; periungual desquamation: 47% vs 58%; P = .16). School closures, masking mandates, decreased ambient pollution, and decreased circulation of respiratory viruses all overlapped to different extents with the period of decreased KD cases. KD in San Diego rebounded in the spring of 2021, coincident with lifting of mask mandates. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of epidemiological and clinical features of KD during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, KD cases fell and remained low during the period of masking and school closure. Mobility data indicated that differential intensity of sheltering in place was not associated with KD incidence. These findings suggest that social behavior is associated with exposure to the agent(s) that trigger KD and are consistent with a respiratory portal of entry for the agent(s).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675

ABSTRACT

The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but potentially severe illness that follows exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Kawasaki disease (KD) shares several clinical features with MIS-C, which prompted the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a mainstay therapy for KD. Both diseases share a robust activation of the innate immune system, including the IL-1 signaling pathway, and IL-1 blockade has been used for the treatment of both MIS-C and KD. The mechanism of action of IVIG in these 2 diseases and the cellular source of IL-1ß have not been defined.METHODSThe effects of IVIG on peripheral blood leukocyte populations from patients with MIS-C and KD were examined using flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) and live-cell imaging.RESULTSCirculating neutrophils were highly activated in patients with KD and MIS-C and were a major source of IL-1ß. Following IVIG treatment, activated IL-1ß+ neutrophils were reduced in the circulation. In vitro, IVIG was a potent activator of neutrophil cell death via PI3K and NADPH oxidase, but independently of caspase activation.CONCLUSIONSActivated neutrophils expressing IL-1ß can be targeted by IVIG, supporting its use in both KD and MIS-C to ameliorate inflammation.FUNDINGPatient Centered Outcomes Research Institute; NIH; American Asthma Foundation; American Heart Association; Novo Nordisk Foundation; NIGMS; American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cell Death/immunology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Fas Ligand Protein/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/classification , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
11.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(1): 123-137, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441963

ABSTRACT

The immunopathogenesis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children that may follow exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is incompletely understood. Here, we studied SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in MIS-C, Kawasaki disease (KD), and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent controls using peptide pools derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike or nonspike proteins, and common cold coronaviruses (CCC). Coordinated CD4+ and CD8+ SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected in five MIS-C subjects with cross-reactivity to CCC. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses alone were documented in three and one subjects, respectively. T-cell specificities in MIS-C did not correlate with disease severity and were similar to SARS-CoV-2 convalescent controls. T-cell memory and cross-reactivity to CCC in MIS-C and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent controls were also similar. The chemokine receptor CCR6, but not CCR9, was highly expressed on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ but not on CD8+ T cells. Only two of 10 KD subjects showed a T-cell response to CCC. Enumeration of myeloid APCs revealed low cell precursors in MIS-C subjects compared to KD. In summary, children with MIS-C mount a normal T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 with no apparent relationship to antecedent CCC exposure. Low numbers of tolerogenic myeloid DCs may impair their anti-inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology
13.
JAMA ; 324(3): 259-269, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574774

ABSTRACT

Importance: In communities with high rates of coronavirus disease 2019, reports have emerged of children with an unusual syndrome of fever and inflammation. Objectives: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized children who met criteria for the pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (PIMS-TS) and compare these characteristics with other pediatric inflammatory disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 58 children from 8 hospitals in England admitted between March 23 and May 16, 2020, with persistent fever and laboratory evidence of inflammation meeting published definitions for PIMS-TS. The final date of follow-up was May 22, 2020. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were abstracted by medical record review, and were compared with clinical characteristics of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) (n = 1132), KD shock syndrome (n = 45), and toxic shock syndrome (n = 37) who had been admitted to hospitals in Europe and the US from 2002 to 2019. Exposures: Signs and symptoms and laboratory and imaging findings of children who met definitional criteria for PIMS-TS from the UK, the US, and World Health Organization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of children meeting definitional criteria for PIMS-TS, and comparison with the characteristics of other pediatric inflammatory disorders. Results: Fifty-eight children (median age, 9 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 5.7-14]; 20 girls [34%]) were identified who met the criteria for PIMS-TS. Results from SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests were positive in 15 of 58 patients (26%) and SARS-CoV-2 IgG test results were positive in 40 of 46 (87%). In total, 45 of 58 patients (78%) had evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. All children presented with fever and nonspecific symptoms, including vomiting (26/58 [45%]), abdominal pain (31/58 [53%]), and diarrhea (30/58 [52%]). Rash was present in 30 of 58 (52%), and conjunctival injection in 26 of 58 (45%) cases. Laboratory evaluation was consistent with marked inflammation, for example, C-reactive protein (229 mg/L [IQR, 156-338], assessed in 58 of 58) and ferritin (610 µg/L [IQR, 359-1280], assessed in 53 of 58). Of the 58 children, 29 developed shock (with biochemical evidence of myocardial dysfunction) and required inotropic support and fluid resuscitation (including 23/29 [79%] who received mechanical ventilation); 13 met the American Heart Association definition of KD, and 23 had fever and inflammation without features of shock or KD. Eight patients (14%) developed coronary artery dilatation or aneurysm. Comparison of PIMS-TS with KD and with KD shock syndrome showed differences in clinical and laboratory features, including older age (median age, 9 years [IQR, 5.7-14] vs 2.7 years [IQR, 1.4-4.7] and 3.8 years [IQR, 0.2-18], respectively), and greater elevation of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (median, 229 mg/L [IQR 156-338] vs 67 mg/L [IQR, 40-150 mg/L] and 193 mg/L [IQR, 83-237], respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of hospitalized children who met criteria for PIMS-TS, there was a wide spectrum of presenting signs and symptoms and disease severity, ranging from fever and inflammation to myocardial injury, shock, and development of coronary artery aneurysms. The comparison with patients with KD and KD shock syndrome provides insights into this syndrome, and suggests this disorder differs from other pediatric inflammatory entities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , England , Female , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
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