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1.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2349, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782690

ABSTRACT

Among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, physically active individuals may be at lower risk of fatal outcomes. However, to date, no meta-analysis has been carried out to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) and fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to explore the hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and mortality rates of COVID-19 patients with a history of PA participation before the onset of the pandemic, and to evaluate the reliability of the evidence. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and medRxiv was conducted for articles published up to January 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare disease severity and mortality rates of COVID-19 patients in physically active and inactive cases. Twelve studies involving 1,256,609 patients (991,268 physically active and 265,341 inactive cases) with COVID-19, were included in the pooled analysis. The overall meta-analysis compared with inactive controls showed significant associations between PA with reduction in COVID-19 hospitalisation (risk ratio (RR) = 0.58, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.46-0.73, P = 0.001), ICU admissions (RR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81, P = 0.001) and mortality (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.38-0.59, P = 0.001). The protective effect of PA on COVID-19 hospitalisation and mortality could be attributable to the types of exercise such as resistance exercise (RR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.49, P = 0.001) and endurance exercise (RR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.23-0.74, P = 0.003), respectively. Physical activity is associated with decreased hospitalisation, ICU admissions, and mortality rates of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, COVID-19 patients with a history of resistance and endurance exercises experience a lower rate of hospitalisation and mortality, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the biological mechanisms underlying these findings.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To meta-analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and mortality of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (VITT) after adenoviral vector vaccination. METHODS: Eighteen studies of VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine administration were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. The meta-analysis estimated the summary effects and between-study heterogeneity regarding the incidence, manifestations, sites of thrombosis, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The incidence of total venous thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was 28 (95% CI 12-52, I2=100%) per 100,000 doses administered. Of 664 patients in quantitative analysis (10 studies), the mean age of VITT patients was 45.6 years (95% CI 43.8-47.4, I2=57%), with a female predominance (70%). Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), and splanchnic vein thrombosis occurred in 54%, 36%, 19% of VITT patients, respectively. The pooled incidence rate of cerebral venous thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (23 per 100,000 person-years) was higher than the pre-pandemic rate (0.9 per 100,000 person-years). Intracranial haemorrhage and extracranial thrombosis accompanied 47% and 33% of all CVT patients, respectively. The antiplatelet factor 4 (anti-PF4) antibody positivity rate was 91% (95% CI 88-94, I2=0%) and the overall mortality was 32% (95% CI 24-41, I2=69%), and no significant difference was observed between heparin- and non-heparin-based anticoagulation treatments (risk ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.47-1.50, I2=0%). CONCLUSIONS: VITT patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination most frequently presented with CVT following DVT/PE and splanchnic vein thrombosis, and about one-third of patients had a fatal outcome. This meta-analysis should provide a better understanding of VITT and assist clinicians in identifying VITT early to improve outcomes and optimize management.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at high susceptibility and high risk of developing serious complications related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is clinically important in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and whether they have a higher risk of developing serious complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Korean nationwide population-based COVID-19 dataset for participants who underwent real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for COVID-19 between January 1 and June 4, 2020. A 1 : 3 ratio propensity score matching and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between AD and the susceptibility or severe complications (i.e., mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, or death) of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 195,643 study participants, 5,725 participants had AD and 7,334 participants were diagnosed with COVID-19. The prevalence of participants testing positive for COVID-19 did not differ according to the presence of AD (p = 0.234). Meanwhile, AD was associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 complications (OR 2.25 [95% CI 1.54-3.28]). Secondary outcome analyses showed that AD patients had an increased risk for mortality (OR 3.09 [95% CI 2.00-4.78]) but were less likely to receive mechanical ventilation (OR 0.42 [95% CI 0.20-0.87]). CONCLUSION: AD was not associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection, but was associated with severe COVID-19 complications, especially with mortality. Early diagnosis and active intervention are necessary for patients with AD suspected COVID-19 infection.

4.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730704

ABSTRACT

Patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. The international rollout of COVID-19 vaccines has provided varying degrees of protection and enabled the understanding of vaccine efficacy and safety. The immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is lower in most patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases; either related to immunosuppression or to co-morbidities and complications caused by the underlying disease. Humoral vaccine response, measured by the presence of antibodies, is impaired or absent in patients receiving rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), higher doses of glucocorticoids and likely other immunosuppressants, such as cyclophosphamide. Timing between the use of these agents and administration of vaccines associate with the level of immune response: with rituximab, vaccine response can only be expected once B cells start to recover and patients with transient discontinuation of MMF mount a humoral response more frequently. The emergence of new COVID-19 variants and waning of vaccine induced immunity highlight the value of booster dose and need to develop mutant proof vaccines. COVID-19 vaccines are safe, exhibiting a very low risk of de novo or relapsing immune-mediated kidney disease. Population-based studies will determine whether this is causal or co-incidental. Such cases respond to standard management, including the use of immunosuppression. The IWG and EUVAS recommend that patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases follow national guidance on vaccination. Booster doses based on antibody measurements could be considered.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1566-1580, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718403

ABSTRACT

To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to the intensive care unit and recovery with conservative care. Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n = 58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favorable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (odds ratio: 20.3, 95% confidence interval 1.90-217, p = 0.013). The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. However, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, and a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
6.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718380

ABSTRACT

Infection is associated with occurrence and worsening of heart failure (HF). However, studies on the association of susceptibility and severe complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with HF history are limited. From the Korean nationwide COVID-19 data set, 212,678 participants with at least one severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test were included between January 1 and June 4, 2020. To investigate the association of HF with susceptibility and severe complications of COVID-19, 1:4 ratio propensity score matching (PSM) and logistic regression analysis were performed. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. After PSM, COVID-19 PCR positivity did not show a significant difference according to HF history in multivariable analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.79-1.04), p = 0.146). Of 7630 individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection, 310 (4.1%) had HF history. The overall primary outcome occurred in 426 (5.6%) individuals, including 159 (2.1%) cases of mechanical ventilation, 254 (3.3%) cases of ICU admission, and 215 (2.8%) cases of death. In multivariate logistic analysis, presence of HF history was associated independently with primary outcome (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.42-2.79, p < 0.001), particularly mortality (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.36-3.00, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated that HF history is associated poor prognosis, particularly mortality, in COVID-19. Patients with HF can have severe complication if infected with COVID-19; therefore, careful management are necessary.

7.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2336, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712178

ABSTRACT

The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of N95, surgical/medical and non-medical facemasks as personal protective equipment against respiratory virus infection. The study incorporated 35 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating specific mask effectiveness against influenza virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and medRxiv databases for studies published up to 5 February 2021 (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020214729). The primary outcome of interest was the rate of respiratory viral infection. The quality of evidence was estimated using the GRADE approach. High compliance to mask-wearing conferred a significantly better protection (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.82) than low compliance. N95 or equivalent masks were the most effective in providing protection against coronavirus infections (OR, 0.30; CI, 0.20-0.44) consistently across subgroup analyses of causative viruses and clinical settings. Evidence supporting the use of medical or surgical masks against influenza or coronavirus infections (SARS, MERS and COVID-19) was weak. Our study confirmed that the use of facemasks provides protection against respiratory viral infections in general; however, the effectiveness may vary according to the type of facemask used. Our findings encourage the use of N95 respirators or their equivalents (e.g., P2) for best personal protection in healthcare settings until more evidence on surgical and medical masks is accrued. This study highlights a substantial lack of evidence on the comparative effectiveness of mask types in community settings.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315045

ABSTRACT

Background: The association between increased time spent on social media and mental health had not been fully summarized systematically during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine. We investigated the association between the time spent on social media during the COVID-19 quarantine and mental health indicators.Methods: We included 327 studies from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases in our meta-analysis. These studies evaluated the association between social media use and mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and distress ascertained by a screening tool with a validated cutoff value. Based on how the findings were presented in the original studies, we summarized the final 14 studies in terms of the odds ratios (ORs), regression coefficient (beta), and correlation coefficient (Pearson's r). Data analyses included a random-effect model and an assessment of inter-study heterogeneity.Findings: Pooled results indicated a direct relationship between the time spent on social media and symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1·55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·31–1·83, I2 = 26·77%), and depression (OR = 1·43, 95% CI 1·14–1·80, I2 = 67·16%). No significant association was observed with psychological distress (β = 0·09, 95% CI -0·29–0·46, I2 = 80·53%).Interpretation: Our analysis demonstrated that the time spent on social media was associated with a higher likelihood of anxiety and depression, but no significant association was observed with symptoms of psychological distress.Funding Information: This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Science (2020R1C1C1003502), awarded to Sun Jae Jung.Declaration of Interests: None.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328657

ABSTRACT

Background: Public isolated due to the early quarantine regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increasingly used more social media platforms. Contradictory claims regarding the effect of social media use on mental health needs to be resolved. We aimed to summarise the association between the time spent on social media platform during the COVID-19 quarantine and mental health outcomes (i.e., anxiety and depression). Methods: We searched 327 studies from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. These studies evaluated the association between use of social media platform and mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, ascertained by various screening tools. We summarised the final 14 studies in terms of the odds ratios (ORs). Data analyses included a random-effect model and an assessment of inter-study heterogeneity. This meta-analysis review was registered in PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, registration No CRD42021260223, 15 June 2021). Results: In studies regarding anxiety, overall studies had a pooled OR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.30–1.85;OR that would be categorized as having anxiety when increasing from "less" to "frequent") and mild inter-study heterogeneity (I2 = 26.77%). In studies regarding depression, overall studies had a pooled OR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.14–1.80;OR that would be categorized as having depression when increasing from "less" to "frequent") and moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 67.16%). Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrated that the excessive time spent on social media platform was associated with a greater likelihood of having symptoms of anxiety and depression.

10.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2422-2430, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669587

ABSTRACT

Infection is associated with the occurrence, recurrence, and progression of atrial fibrillation (AF), and is also closely related to poor prognosis. However, studies of the relationship between infectivity and severe complications of coronavirus infectious disease-19  (COVID-19) with a history of AF are limited. To estimate infectivity and severity of complications in COVID-19 patients with a history of AF, this study was done. From the Korean nationwide COVID-19 dataset, 212 678 participants with at least one severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) test were included between January 1 and June 4, 2020. AF was defined according to at least two outpatient hospital visits or one admission with an ICD-10 code of "I48" before the COVID-19 test. To investigate the association of AF with infectivity and severe complications of COVID-19, 1:4 ratio propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. Severe complications of COVID-19 were defined as a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death within 2 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. Among 212 678 participants who underwent the COVID-19 test, there were 7713 COVID-19 positive patients. After PSM, COVID-19 PCR positivity did not show a significant difference according to the presence of AF (odds ratio [OR]: 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.60-1.04]). Of 7713 COVID-19 patients, 62 (0.8%) had a history of AF and severe complications occurred in 444 (5.7%) patients. After PSM, AF was associated with the development of severe complications (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: [1.10-3.79]) and mortality (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: [1.01-4.31]) of COVID-19. We found that AF was associated with an increased risk of severe complications in COVID-19 infected patients.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(39): 4053-4063, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633402

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The clinical manifestation and outcomes of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration are largely unknown due to the rare nature of the disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, outcomes, and prognostic factors of adenoviral TTS, as well as identify predictors for mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched and the resulting articles were reviewed. A total of 6 case series and 13 case reports (64 patients) of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were included. We performed a pooled analysis and developed a novel scoring system to predict mortality. The overall mortality of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 35.9% (23/64). In our analysis, age ≤60 years, platelet count <25 × 103/µL, fibrinogen <150 mg/dL, the presence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were significantly associated with death and were selected as predictors for mortality (1 point each). We named this novel scoring system FAPIC (fibrinogen, age, platelet count, ICH, and CVT), and the C-statistic for the FAPIC score was 0.837 (95% CI 0.732-0.942). Expected mortality increased with each point increase in the FAPIC score, at 2.08, 6.66, 19.31, 44.54, 72.94, and 90.05% with FAPIC scores 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The FAPIC scoring model was internally validated through cross-validation and bootstrapping, then externally validated on a panel of TTS patients after Ad26.COV2.S administration. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen levels, age, platelet count, and the presence of ICH and CVT were significantly associated with mortality in patients with TTS, and the FAPIC score comprising these risk factors could predict mortality. The FAPIC score could be used in the clinical setting to recognize TTS patients at high risk of adverse outcomes and provide early intensive interventions including intravenous immunoglobulins and non-heparin anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(11): 871-880, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580280

ABSTRACT

Objective: Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( n = 52) during the first wave of the pandemic (weeks 10-16 of 2020). Methods: We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces. Results: We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population. Conclusion: The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Weather , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 114-121, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare, serious complication after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration that can involve various organ systems. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in patients with VITT. METHODS: We searched PubMed ePubs, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published until April 28, 2021, involving patients with VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including laboratory measurements, were collected and compared. RESULTS: Four case series and three case reports involving 48 cases of VITT were included. Hepatosplenic thrombosis was present in 8 cases (17%). Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had lower platelet counts (13,000 vs. 29,500/µL, p=0.016) and higher D-dimer levels (140.0 vs. 57.3 times upper limit of normal range, p=0.028). Multiple-site thrombosis was also associated with hepatosplenic thrombosis (88% vs. 15%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study comparing clinical profiles of patients with VITT according to the presence of hepatosplenic thrombosis. Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had more severe presentations with lower platelet counts, higher D-dimer levels, and a higher rate of multiple-site thrombosis. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish definitive evidence regarding the significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(2): 501-513, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494654

ABSTRACT

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
16.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493394

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Athletic Performance/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Humans
17.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). INTERPRETATION: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.

18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Eur Heart J ; 42(39): 4053-4063, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429203

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The clinical manifestation and outcomes of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration are largely unknown due to the rare nature of the disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, outcomes, and prognostic factors of adenoviral TTS, as well as identify predictors for mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched and the resulting articles were reviewed. A total of 6 case series and 13 case reports (64 patients) of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were included. We performed a pooled analysis and developed a novel scoring system to predict mortality. The overall mortality of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 35.9% (23/64). In our analysis, age ≤60 years, platelet count <25 × 103/µL, fibrinogen <150 mg/dL, the presence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were significantly associated with death and were selected as predictors for mortality (1 point each). We named this novel scoring system FAPIC (fibrinogen, age, platelet count, ICH, and CVT), and the C-statistic for the FAPIC score was 0.837 (95% CI 0.732-0.942). Expected mortality increased with each point increase in the FAPIC score, at 2.08, 6.66, 19.31, 44.54, 72.94, and 90.05% with FAPIC scores 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The FAPIC scoring model was internally validated through cross-validation and bootstrapping, then externally validated on a panel of TTS patients after Ad26.COV2.S administration. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen levels, age, platelet count, and the presence of ICH and CVT were significantly associated with mortality in patients with TTS, and the FAPIC score comprising these risk factors could predict mortality. The FAPIC score could be used in the clinical setting to recognize TTS patients at high risk of adverse outcomes and provide early intensive interventions including intravenous immunoglobulins and non-heparin anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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