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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):138, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319031

ABSTRACT

Background: People with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) appear to be at higher risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms-including effects of COVID-19 and host factors on the broader humoral immune repertoire-are poorly understood. Method(s): REPRIEVE enrolled a global cohort of ART-treated PWH ages 40-75. COVID+ was defined by positive receptor binding domain IgG or IgA from annual visits 5/2020-2/2021. Antibody isotype, subclass, and Fc receptor Luminex arrays to SARS-CoV-2, CMV, EBV, HSV, HIV, influenza, pneumococcus, and RSV were assessed. Report of COVID diagnosis (collected every 4 months) was defined as mild, moderate, or severe (asymptomatic if no clinical diagnosis but IgG/ IgA+). FDR-corrected regression was used to assess effects of 1) COVID+ on non- SARS-CoV-2 repertoire in full cohort and 2) host factors on non-SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 repertoire in COVID- and COVID+ cohorts, respectively, adjusted for age, sex, region, nadir CD4, and HIV VL at entry. Result(s): Of 2,464 unvaccinated participants, 283 (11%) were COVID+;260 (92%) were asymptomatic. Median age was 53, 35% were women, 50% had nadir CD4 < 200, median current CD4 was 649, and 97% had HIV VL < 400. In the full cohort, COVID+ was associated with higher CMV PP65 IgG3 and FcgammaRIIA (P< 0.05);COVID severity was not associated with the non-SARS-CoV-2 repertoire. Among COVID-, older age, female sex, and lower nadir CD4 were associated with higher EBV and CMV responses;IgG1 levels were higher in women for all non-SARS-CoV-2 antigens assessed (P< 0.05). Among COVID+, higher BMI was associated with amplified SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, IgM, and FcgammaRIIA responses (P< 0.05). Lower nadir CD4 was associated with a SARSCoV- 2 repertoire shift toward IgM and FcgammaRIIB (P< 0.05). Age and sex were not associated with SARS-CoV-2-related repertoire changes in COVID+. Conclusion(s): Our analysis presents a comprehensive view of host factors associated with the humoral immune repertoire among a global cohort of ART-treated PWH. COVID's association with higher CMV responses may suggest increased susceptibility to or a consequence of persistent inflammation after infection. The striking amplification of SARS-CoV-2 responses with higher BMI suggests an excessive inflammatory response. Lower nadir CD4 was related to uncontrolled extra-follicular and inhibitory SARS-CoV-2 responses, which are unlikely to be protective. These findings may suggest mechanisms underlying factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes among PWH. (Figure Presented).

3.
56th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2023 ; 2023-January:3358-3366, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2303509

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has drawn noticeable attention due to the advancement of information technology, and it saw a surge in popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to understand telemedicine users' perceptions of their care services and identify the aspects of telemedicine that can be improved to enhance users' experience and satisfaction. Specifically, we utilized a topic modeling approach with Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to analyze telemedicine-related discussion posts on Reddit to discover the topics and themes that telemedicine service users are interested in, as well as the perceptions that users have of those topics and themes. 11 topics and 6 themes were discovered by the LDA algorithm. Lastly, we provide our suggestions and insights on how telemedicine services and practitioners can implement the themes, as well as directions for future study. © 2023 IEEE Computer Society. All rights reserved.

4.
Trees, Forests and People ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2301513

ABSTRACT

This study examined forest policy agendas developed in international policy-making process by analyzing international forest policy documents from 2001 to 2022 with power, perception, potency, and proximity. The forest policy agendas consistently addressed in the documents were agroforestry, biodiversity, climate change, certification, desertification, deforestation, forest landscape restoration, illegal logging and trade, non-timber forest products, sustainable forest management, traditional knowledge, governance, participation, partnerships, forest tenure, forest fire, forest disease, and community-based forest management. The emerging agendas since 2011 were ecosystem services, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+), resilience, urban forests, green economy/bioeconomy, and COVID-19. The changes in international forest policy discourse with long-standing and emerging agendas over time showed three characteristics: policy coherence by the power of international environmental conventions;expansion of forest policy targets and areas by perception and proximity of urban forests;and innovative approaches to resilience and bioeconomy by potency and perception. Therefore, this study offers new insights into the creation and transitions of forest policy agendas in the international forest policy discourse. © 2023

5.
Journal of Substance Use ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2301076

ABSTRACT

Background: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) are vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission due to substance use, congregate living conditions, and underlying medical conditions. Yet, little is known about factors impacting drug use disorder among PEH during COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates associated with substance use disorder among PEH, both those who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and those who tested negative or never tested. Methods: A cross-sectional, structured survey was administered to PEH (N = 102) who were recruited from sheltered and unsheltered settings. Descriptive analysis, t-tests, Fisher's exact test or chi-squared test, and bivariate and multiple linear regression were conducted. Results: PEH with a COVID-19 diagnosis included male gender, and Latino race/ethnicity (p <.05). Moreover, substance use disorder scores (p -.037) and days on the street were negatively associated with COVID-19 (p <.001). Multivariable analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between days slept on the street and substance use disorder (p <.001), and a significant negative relationship with alcohol use (p <.05);COVID-19 remained negatively associated with substance use disorder, but it was not significant. Conclusions: This study provides evidence about correlates of drug use disorder among PEH. More studies are needed to understand successful individual and system-level strategies for reducing drug-related problems during COVID-19. © 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

6.
Journal of Chemistry ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2266433

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an attractive target for developing immune modulators to enhance innate immunity against ssRNA virus infections, including hepatitis C and COVID-19. Ten 3-(5-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenyl-2-pyrazolines were tested using TLR7 reporter cells, overexpressing TLR7 and the NF-B-inducible SEAP reporter gene to discover a novel TLR7 agonist enhancing innate immunity. Of these, 2-(3-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)thiazol-4(5H)-one (compound 6) showed the best TLR7 agonistic activity, and further experiments were carried out to study the immune-modulatory capability of compound 6. Treatment with compound 6 rapidly induced phosphorylation of IRAK4, IKKα/β, IBα, and p65/RelA in THP1 monocytic cells. In addition, it increased the expression of NF-B-regulated innate cytokines, such as TNFα and IL1β, in THP1 monocytic cells. These data suggest that compound 6 induces an innate immune response by agonizing TLR7 activity in THP1 human monocytic cells. Therefore, compound 6 can be used as an innate immune modulator to develop antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. © 2023 Ji Hwan Kim et al.

7.
Tourism Review ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2281191

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to explain how the impact of COVID-19 on human mobility is affected by the perceived risk of the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: Using a statistical analysis and a geographic visualization technique, we investigate whether and how changes in people's restaurant visiting patterns during COVID-19 vary with their level of risk perception. Findings: The changes in people's restaurant visiting patterns vary with their risk perception: the tendency to increase the number of visits to restaurants located in non-popular areas is related to the level of perceived risk. Originality/value: This research confirms the importance of risk perception when examining the pandemic's multi-dimensional impacts. © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited.

8.
14th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2022 ; 13818 LNAI:263-276, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2281190

ABSTRACT

Telecommunication devices can help mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 virus among the patients quarantined in hospitals. In contrast to the conventional telecommunication devices, a telepresence robot can deliver tangible communication cues from a remote sender to a receiver that vary according to level of interaction modalities. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommunication interactants can be divided into two categories based on their socio-relationships. The types include those engaged in social-oriented relationships such as that between patients and families or acquaintances, and task-oriented relationships such as those between patients and doctors or nurses. We hypothesize that the types of telecommunication device used and socio-relationship would be factors affecting the COVID-19 patients' telecommunication experiences and acceptance of telepresence robots. We conducted a user study comparing three types of telecommunication devices namely floor-based robot versus desk-based robot versus tablet with the aforementioned two types of socio-relationships. The results indicated that the participants preferred telecommunication service in a social-oriented relationship to a task-oriented relationship. A mediation analysis revealed that social presence, competency, and familiarity mediates the effects of socio-relationship type on the satisfaction of the telecommunication service. Based on the socio-relationship type, different tendencies on the effect of telecommunication device types on service evaluation were observed. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
37th International Conference on Information Networking, ICOIN 2023 ; 2023-January:224-229, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2248281

ABSTRACT

The widespread adoption of deep learning (DL) solutions in the healthcare organizations is obstructed by their compute intensive nature and dependability on massive datasets. In this regard, cloud-services such as cloud storage and computational resources are emerging as an effective solution. However, when the image data are outsourced to avail such services, there is a privacy concern that the data should be kept protected not only during transmission but during computations as well. To meet these requirements, this study proposed a privacy-preserving DL (PPDL) scheme that enable computations without the need of decryption. The encryption is based on perceptual encryption (PE) that only hides the perceivable information in an image while preserves other characteristics that are necessary for DL computations. Precisely, we have implemented a binary classifier based on EfficientNetV2 for the COVID-19 screening in the chest X-ray (CXR) images. For the PE algorithm, the suitability of two pixel-based and two block-based PE methods was analyzed. The analysis have shown that when global contents are left unmodified (pixel-based PE), then the DL-based model achieved the classification accuracy same as that of the plain images. On the other hand, for block-based PE algorithms, there is up to 3% drop in the model's accuracy and sensitivity scores. © 2023 IEEE.

10.
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine ; 29(3):155-160, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2232533

ABSTRACT

Children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) generally have mild symptoms. Severe infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involving multiorgan dysfunction is rare in this population. Herein, we present an unusual case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection with multiorgan involvement followed by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in a vaccinated 16-year-old boy. The patient was unconscious on initial presentation, and had severe paralytic ileus. On laboratory examination, there was severe metabolic acidosis, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated inflammatory markers, elevated liver enzymes, and evidence of acute kidney injury with proteinuria and hematuria. His symptoms improved with the administration of remdesivir and dexamethasone. The patient briefly experienced MIS-C 2 weeks after the diagnosis of COVID-19, but the patient was discharged without any complications. © 2022 The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

11.
Hawai'i journal of health & social welfare ; 82(1):2023/09/03 00:00:00.000, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2230259

ABSTRACT

This study explored how undergraduate students at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa sought and consumed information about the virus that causes COVID-19. This study also examined student perceptions of the severity of and their susceptibility to the virus and their main concerns about it. Four hundred fifty-six students completed online surveys between October and early December of 2020 and 2021. Students reported low to moderate levels of information seeking across four domains: (1) knowledge about COVID-19 and its symptoms;(2) preventing the spread of the virus;(3) the current state of the pandemic in Hawai'i;and (4) the likely future of the pandemic in Hawai'i. Overall, websites, television, and Instagram were the top 3 channels used by students to seek information for these domains. Students reported primarily paying attention to information from government and news organizations as sources. However, students' preferred channels and sources varied with the type of information they sought. Students also reported believing that COVID-19 is severe and that they are susceptible to being infected with it. The more time students reported seeking information, the greater their perceptions of COVID-19's severity across all domains. Students' primary concerns about COVID-19 centered on state regulations/policies, vaccines, tourism/travel, the economy, and pandemic/post-pandemic life. These findings can help public health practitioners in Hawai'i determine how best to reach an undergraduate student population with information related to COVID-19. ©Copyright 2023 by University Health Partners of Hawai'i (UHP Hawai'i).

12.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S210-S211, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189635

ABSTRACT

Background. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a great threat to the severely immunocompromised and patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, diagnosis of IA is often difficult due to need for invasive biopsy and low sensitivity of other diagnostic tests. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of plasma cell free DNA (cfDNA) can be a novel non-invasive diagnostic modality. We evaluated the clinical accuracy and utility of microbial cfDNA NGS for the diagnosis of IA in patients with hematologic malignancy (HM) and COVID-19. Methods. A single-center prospective study of plasma microbial cfDNA NGS was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital in South Korea. We enrolled adult patients with HM and COVID-19, who suspected IA and performed conventional diagnostic tests for IA. The results of NGS were compared with the diagnosis of IA through conventional methods. IA cases were diagnosed according to EORTC/MSG definitions in patients with HM, and modified AspICU criteria in patients with COVID-19. (Figure 1). Figure 1. Flow chart for the participant selection method used in this study Results. Between March 2021 and January 2022, a total of 33 participants (22 [64.7%] male, median age 66.0 [50.5, 72.0]) were enrolled;19 participants with HM and 15 with COVID-19 were analyzed (Figure1 and Table1). In participants with HM, aspergillus cfDNA was detected in 100% of both proven (1/1) and probable (12/12) IA cases, and 33.3% of both possible (1/3) and no IA (1/3) cases. In participants with COVID-19, 46.2% of probable IA (6/13) showed positive aspergillus cfDNA. Detection rate of aspergillus cfDNA was significantly higher in proven/probable IA cases in participants with HM compared to participants with COVID-19. (100% vs 46.2%, p=0.005) (Figure 2). As shown in Table 2, among proven/probable IA cases, participants with positive aspergillus cfDNA showed significantly higher rate of having uncontrolled hematologic disease, receiving stem cell transplantation and recent chemotherapy. In three participants with HM, non-aspergillus strains confirmed by cfDNA NGS were in accordance with pathogens identified through conventional culture methods. Conclusion. Detection of aspergillus cfDNA showed high concordance in the results of conventional diagnostic methods in proven/probable IA of patients with HM and could be a helpful non-invasive approach to IA diagnosis in those populations.

13.
Health Promotion Practice ; 23(1 Suppl), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2138544

ABSTRACT

On April 8, 2020, the Navajo Nation issued an administrative order limiting business operations. Facing high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rates and limited food infrastructure, a survey was conducted among Navajo Nation store managers to assess: (1) COVID-19 adaptations;(2) challenges;(3) changes in customer volume and purchasing;and (4) suggestions for additional support. Purposive sampling identified 29 stores in Navajo communities. Representatives from 20 stores (19 store managers/owners, 1 other;7 grocery, and 13 convenience/other stores) were interviewed by phone or in-person to reach saturation (new information threshold < 5%). Responses were coded using frequencies and inductive thematic analysis. All 20 stores implemented COVID-19 guidelines (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]/Navajo Nation) and most received orientation/support from local chapters, community organizations, or health centers. Stores implemented staff policies (50%, handwashing, vaccinations, protective personal equipment (PPE), sick leave, temperature checks), environmental changes (50%, hand sanitizer, checkout dividers), customer protocols (40%, limit customers, mask requirements, closed restrooms), and deep cleaning (40%). Most stores (65%) reported challenges including stress/anxiety, changing guidelines, supply chain and customer compliance;30% reported infection or loss of staff. Weekday customer volume was slightly higher vs. pre-COVID, but weekend lower. Stores reported consistent or more healthy food purchases (50%), more nonfood essentials (20%), or shelf-stable foods (10%). Desired support included further orientation (30%), leadership support (20%), overtime/time to learn guidelines (20%), and signage/handouts (15%). Despite a high COVID-19 burden and limited food store infrastructure, Navajo Nation stores adapted by implementing staff, environmental and customer policies. Local support, staffing, and small store offerings were key factors in healthy food access.

15.
European journal of public health ; 32(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102082

ABSTRACT

Introduction There was and still is much speculation about the COVID-19 pandemic impact on suicide rates. We aimed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. Methods We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or countries areas through a systematic internet search (official websites of Ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents), recourse to our networks (e.g. ICSPRC) and the published literature (a living systematic review). We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 in each country or country area, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). We have now updated this work to cover the first 15 months of the pandemic and stratified analyses by age and sex and method. We will present findings from the new updated data (35 countries) at the conference. Results Initially we sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas. Conclusions This was the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. Early on high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers remained largely unchanged or declined compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. We will present updated findings with more recent data.

16.
Asian Economic Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097702

ABSTRACT

Despite the growing importance of migrants and their role in the South Korean economy, how much and in which ways COVID-19, as an adverse labor market shock, has affected them has received too little attention, with no single study published to date yet. Motivated by such a paucity, this paper investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis on employment for migrants in South Korea, with special emphasis on quantifying the magnitude of its causal effect. In doing so, this study exploits the unique fact that only one specific region in South Korea had a substantial number of COVID-19 infections in the early stage of the pandemic so that estimations can be made using a difference-in-differences (DD) model. The DD estimates suggest that COVID-19 lowered migrants’ overall employment probability by 2.5 to 3.2 percent points. However, strong heterogeneity between the genders is apparent: the pandemic severely hurts female migrants’ employment, with male migrants weathering it relatively unscathed. Furthermore, female migrants seem considerably harder hit than female host populations. Heterogeneity analyses reveal that (i) a duration of stay exceeding 5 years and (ii) fluency in Korean (as a local language) protect migrants from being heavily affected by the COVID-driven employment shock. © 2022 East Asian Economic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

17.
17th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2022 ; 2022-March:1040-1044, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097601

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent COVID-19 infection in the hospital environment, the medical staff is handling many treatments for patients non face-to-face, which reduces the efficiency of medical services. Robots may enable smooth non face-to-face interactions between medical staff and patients by providing cognitive and physical support to the medical staff. In this paper, we identified the medical staff's pain points and needs about the robots which would help them. In addition, researchers and medical staff together participated in generating the design concept of a robot needed in times of COVID-19 as design participants. We conducted qualitative interviews about robots with nurses working in a negative pressure isolation room (NPIR) where patients with COVID-19 are isolated while treatment. As a result, the needs for supporting increased workload including inventory monitoring, waste management, meal delivery, and medicine delivery as well as supporting communication in emergency including communication in patient's emergency and communication in medical staff's emergency were discovered. Based on the findings from the interview, we proposed a robot design concept that can satisfy medical staff's need in NPIR. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
Journal of the International Network for Korean Language and Culture ; 19(2):259-280, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082858

ABSTRACT

Journal of the International Network for Korean Language and Culture 19-2, 259-280. This article aims to examine the state of Korean ww .e tic e et language education in Guatemala's public elementary schools and suggest future directions for its stable settlement and continuous development in Guatemala's public education. In March 2020, four public elementary schools in Guatemala adopted Korean as a regular foreign language subject for the first time. As of February 2022, ten elementary schools are offering regular Korean language courses. In Guatemalan public schools, Korean language education has grown quantitatively over the past two years despite COVID-19. However, some tasks need to be solved for the Korean language to have a stable footing in Guatemala's public education, ensure internal stability, and promote qualitative growth together. First, the most urgent task is to secure Korean language teachers. For the stable production of professional Korean teachers, it is essential to establish a training course for Korean language teachers and offer a major in Korean studies as a degree program within universities. Additionally, developing customized Korean textbooks considering the age, level, and culture of elementary school students in Guatemala is essential. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a Korean language curriculum so that the Korean language can establish its status as an official foreign language of Guatemala. Lastly, to expand the base of Korean language education in Guatemala, an institution in charge of spreading the Korean language and culture should be rapidly established.(Sogang University, Yonsei University, Myongji University)

19.
Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing ; 31(3):293-303, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080977

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore family members’ caring experiences of schizophrenia patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Seventeen family caregivers participated in this study. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted from February to March 2022. Content analysis was applied for the data analysis. Results: Three categories were derived. First, healthcare aspects with three subcategories: increased difficulties in hospitalization process, complete separation of mental health inpatient, and difficulties in implementing quarantine guidelines. Second, rehabilitation aspects with three subcategories: broken daily lives, pity for lost recovery chance, a ruled out life, and nothing different from the pre-pandemic period. Finally, familial aspects with three subcategories: necessity of reorganizing medical system, necessity of national-led care system, and necessity of face-to-face programs. Conclusion: Family members’ of schizophrenia patients had various challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides evidence for mental health professionals to expand their perspectives of families of schizophrenia during possible infectious disease disasters in the future. © 2022 The Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing.

20.
1st ACM Workshop on Security Implications of Deepfakes and Cheapfakes, WDC 2022, co-located with ACM AsiaCCS 2022 ; : 27-30, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1962389

ABSTRACT

Hyper-realistic face image generation and manipulation have given rise to numerous unethical social issues, e.g., invasion of privacy, threat of security, and malicious political maneuvering, which resulted in the development of recent deepfake detection methods with the rising demands of deepfake forensics. Proposed deepfake detection methods to date have shown remarkable detection performance and robustness. However, none of the suggested deepfake detection methods assessed the performance of deepfakes with the facemask during the pandemic crisis after the outbreak of the COVID-19. In this paper, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of state-of-The-Art deepfake detection models on the deepfakes with the facemask. Our result shows that fake facial images with facemask can deceive well-known deepfake detection models, thereby evading the real-world security systems. © 2022 ACM.

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