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1.
Otolaryngol Case Rep ; 25: 100475, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008186

ABSTRACT

Background: Persistent anosmia following COVID-19 disease affects a significant subset of patients. Symptoms of this olfactory dysfunction negatively impact patient quality of life, and effective treatments are lacking; therefore, novel therapies that restore the ability to smell have tremendous clinical potential. Case report: A 46-year-old female enrolled in a phase I clinical trial to assess the safety of targeted intranasal administration of a novel acellular secretome therapy (ST266) in patients diagnosed as glaucoma suspects. The patient reported greater than one year history of loss of smell that started following a presumed positive case of COVID-19. Following a 28-day treatment course of bilateral intranasal administration of ST266, the patient had resolution of her long-standing anosmia. Conclusion: This case demonstrates resolution of COVID-19-induced persistent anosmia after intranasal treatment with a novel acellular secretome therapy. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of ST266 and its components to treat anosmia.

2.
Virology ; 569: 13-28, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740261

ABSTRACT

Emerging mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome pose a challenge for vaccine development and antiviral therapy. The antiviral efficacy of Azadirachta indica bark extract (NBE) was assessed against SARS-CoV-2 and m-CoV-RSA59 infection. Effects of in vivo intranasal or oral NBE administration on viral load, inflammatory response, and histopathological changes were assessed in m-CoV-RSA59-infection. NBE administered inhibits SARS-CoV-2 and m-CoV-RSA59 infection and replication in vitro, reducing Envelope and Nucleocapsid gene expression. NBE ameliorates neuroinflammation and hepatitis in vivo by restricting viral replication and spread. Isolated fractions of NBE enriched in Nimbin isomers shows potent inhibition of m-CoV-RSA59 infection in vitro. In silico studies revealed that NBE could target Spike and RdRp of m-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity. NBE has a triterpenoids origin that may allow them to competitively target panoply of viral proteins to inhibit mouse and different strains of human coronavirus infections, suggesting its potential as an antiviral against pan-ß-Coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Azadirachta , COVID-19 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Limonins , Mice , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
3.
J Biol Chem ; 295(20): 6926-6935, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830746

ABSTRACT

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV; murine coronavirus) causes meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and optic neuritis followed by axonal loss and demyelination. This murine virus is used as a common model to study acute and chronic virus-induced demyelination in the central nervous system. Studies with recombinant MHV strains that differ in the gene encoding the spike protein have demonstrated that the spike has a role in MHV pathogenesis and retrograde axonal transport. Fusion peptides (FPs) in the spike protein play a key role in MHV pathogenesis. In a previous study of the effect of deleting a single proline residue in the FP of a demyelinating MHV strain, we found that two central, consecutive prolines are important for cell-cell fusion and pathogenesis. The dihedral fluctuation of the FP was shown to be repressed whenever two consecutive prolines were present, in contrast to the presence of a single proline in the chain. Using this proline-deleted MHV strain, here we investigated whether intracranial injection of this strain can induce optic neuritis by retrograde axonal transport from the brain to the retina through the optic nerve. We observed that the proline-deleted recombinant MHV strain is restricted to the optic nerve, is unable to translocate to the retina, and causes only minimal demyelination and no neuronal death. We conclude that an intact proline dyad in the FP of the recombinant demyelinating MHV strain plays a crucial role in translocation of the virus through axons and subsequent neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Axonal Transport/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Axonal Transport/physiology , Axons/metabolism , Axons/virology , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Optic Nerve/metabolism , Optic Nerve/virology , Peptides/metabolism , Proline/metabolism , Sequence Deletion/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
4.
J Virol ; 94(14)2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823496

ABSTRACT

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a murine betacoronavirus (m-CoV) that causes a wide range of diseases in mice and rats, including hepatitis, enteritis, respiratory diseases, and encephalomyelitis in the central nervous system (CNS). MHV infection in mice provides an efficient cause-effect experimental model to understand the mechanisms of direct virus-induced neural-cell damage leading to demyelination and axonal loss, which are pathological features of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common disabling neurological disease in young adults. Infiltration of T lymphocytes, activation of microglia, and their interplay are the primary pathophysiological events leading to disruption of the myelin sheath in MS. However, there is emerging evidence supporting gray matter involvement and degeneration in MS. The investigation of T cell function in the pathogenesis of deep gray matter damage is necessary. Here, we employed RSA59 (an isogenic recombinant strain of MHV-A59)-induced experimental neuroinflammation model to compare the disease in CD4-/- mice with that in CD4+/+ mice at days 5, 10, 15, and 30 postinfection (p.i.). Viral titer estimation, nucleocapsid gene amplification, and viral antinucleocapsid staining confirmed enhanced replication of the virions in the absence of functional CD4+ T cells in the brain. Histopathological analyses showed elevated susceptibility of CD4-/- mice to axonal degeneration in the CNS, with augmented progression of acute poliomyelitis and dorsal root ganglionic inflammation rarely observed in CD4+/+ mice. Depletion of CD4+ T cells showed unique pathological bulbar vacuolation in the brain parenchyma of infected mice with persistent CD11b+ microglia/macrophages in the inflamed regions on day 30 p.i. In summary, the current study suggests that CD4+ T cells are critical for controlling acute-stage poliomyelitis (gray matter inflammation), chronic axonal degeneration, and inflammatory demyelination due to loss of protective antiviral host immunity.IMPORTANCE The current trend in CNS disease biology is to attempt to understand the neural-cell-immune interaction to investigate the underlying mechanism of neuroinflammation, rather than focusing on peripheral immune activation. Most studies in MS are targeted toward understanding the involvement of CNS white matter. However, the importance of gray matter damage has become critical in understanding the long-term progressive neurological disorder. Our study highlights the importance of CD4+ T cells in safeguarding neurons against axonal blebbing and poliomyelitis from murine betacoronavirus-induced neuroinflammation. Current knowledge of the mechanisms that lead to gray matter damage in MS is limited, because the most widely used animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), does not present this aspect of the disease. Our results, therefore, add to the existing limited knowledge in the field. We also show that the microglia, though important for the initiation of neuroinflammation, cannot establish a protective host immune response without the help of CD4+ T cells.


Subject(s)
Axons/immunology , Axons/metabolism , CD4 Antigens/deficiency , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Poliomyelitis/etiology , Animals , Axons/pathology , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Ganglia, Spinal/immunology , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Ganglia, Spinal/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Mice
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