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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587254

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 patients have been reported to have digestive symptoms with poor outcome. Ivermectin, an antiparasitic drug, has been used in COVID-19 patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ivermectin has effects on gastrointestinal complications and ventilator-free days in ventilated patients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients who were mechanically ventilated in the ICU were included in this study. The ventilated patients who received ivermectin within 3 days after admission were assigned to the Ivermectin group, and the others were assigned to the Control group. Patients in the Ivermectin group received ivermectin 200 µg/kg via nasal tube. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications and ventilator-free days within 4 weeks from admission were evaluated as clinical outcomes using a propensity score with the inverse probability weighting method. RESULTS: We included 88 patients in this study, of whom 39 patients were classified into the Ivermectin group, and 49 patients were classified into the Control group. The hazard ratio for gastrointestinal complications in the Ivermectin group as compared with the Control group was 0.221 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.057 to 0.855; p = 0.029) in a Cox proportional-hazard regression model. The odds ratio for ventilator-free days as compared with the Control group was 1.920 (95% CI, 1.076 to 3.425; p = 0.027) in a proportional odds logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Ivermectin improved gastrointestinal complications and the number of ventilator-free days in severe COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Prevention of gastrointestinal symptoms by SARS-Cov-2 might be associated with COVID-19 outcome.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0108221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434911

ABSTRACT

We describe the results of testing health care workers, from a tertiary care hospital in Japan that had experienced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak during the first peak of the pandemic, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody seroconversion. Using two chemiluminescent immunoassays and a confirmatory surrogate virus neutralization test, serological testing revealed that a surprising 42% of overlooked COVID-19 diagnoses (27/64 cases) occurred when case detection relied solely on SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Our results suggest that the NAAT-positive population is only the tip of the iceberg and the portion left undetected might potentially have led to silent transmissions and triggered the spread. A questionnaire-based risk assessment was further indicative of exposures to specific aerosol-generating procedures (i.e., noninvasive ventilation and airway suctioning) having mediated transmission and served as the origins of the outbreak. Our observations are supportive of a multitiered testing approach, including the use of serological diagnostics, in order to accomplish exhaustive case detection along the whole COVID-19 spectrum. IMPORTANCE We describe the results of testing frontline health care workers, from a hospital in Japan that had experienced a COVID-19 outbreak, for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Antibody testing revealed that a surprising 42% of overlooked COVID-19 diagnoses occurred when case detection relied solely on PCR-based viral detection. COVID-19 clusters have been continuously striking the health care system around the globe. Our findings illustrate that such clusters are lined with hidden infections eluding detection with diagnostic PCR and that the cluster burden in total is more immense than actually recognized. The mainstays of diagnosing infectious diseases, including COVID-19, generally consist of two approaches, one aiming to detect molecular fragments of the invading pathogen and the other to measure immune responses of the host. Considering antibody testing as one trustworthy option to test our way through the pandemic can aid in the exhaustive case detection of COVID-19 patients with variable presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neutralization Tests , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(9): 1350-1356, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267752

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several clinical studies have reported the efficacy of favipiravir in reducing viral load and shortening the duration of symptoms. However, the viability of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of favipiravir therapy and the potential for resistance development is unclear. METHODS: We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal specimens collected from patients who participated in a randomized clinical trial of favipiravir at hospitals across Japan between March and May 2020. Paired genomes were sequenced from those who remained RT-PCR-positive 5-8 days into favipiravir therapy. Daily nasopharyngeal specimens from 69 patients who were RT-PCR-positive at randomization were examined for a cytopathic effect (CPE). RESULTS: Some strains early in the trial belonged to clade 19 B, whereas the majority belonged to clade 20 B. The median time from the disease onset to negative CPE was 9 days. CPE was strongly correlated with the time from disease onset, viral load, age, and male sex. Among 23 patients for whom paired genomes were available, all except one had identical genomes. Two mutations were observed in one patient who received favipiravir, neither in the RdRp gene. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 genome distribution in this clinical trial conducted in Japan reflected the early influx of strains from China followed by replacement by strains from Europe. CPE was significantly associated with age, male sex, and viral loads but not with favipiravir therapy. There was no evidence of resistance development during favipiravir therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Europe , Genomics , Humans , Japan , Male , Pyrazines , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 34, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183584

ABSTRACT

REMAP-CAP, a randomized, embedded, multifactorial adaptive platform trial for community-acquired pneumonia, is an international clinical trial that is rapidly expanding its scope and scale in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Japan is now joining REMAP-CAP with endorsement from Japanese academic societies. Commitment to REMAP-CAP can significantly contribute to population health through timely identification of optimal COVID-19 therapeutics. Additionally, it will promote the establishment of a national and global network of clinical trials to tackle future pandemics of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, in collaboration with multiple stakeholders, including front-line healthcare workers, governmental agencies, regulatory authorities, and academic societies.

5.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007048, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We sought to elucidate the effect of empagliflozin as an add-on therapy on decongestion and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS: The study was terminated early due to COVID-19 pandemic. We enrolled 59 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either empagliflozin add-on (n=30) or conventional glucose-lowering therapy (n=29). We performed laboratory tests at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after randomization. Percent change in plasma volume between admission and subsequent time points was calculated using the Strauss formula. RESULTS: There were no significant baseline differences in left ventricular ejection fraction and serum NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hematocrit, or serum creatinine levels between the 2 groups. Seven days after randomization, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.040), and hemoconcentration (≥3% absolute increase in hematocrit) was more frequently observed in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.020). The decrease in percent change in plasma volume between baseline and subsequent time points was significantly larger in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group 7 days after randomization (P=0.017). The incidence of worsening renal function (an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis, empagliflozin achieved effective decongestion without an increased risk of worsening renal function as an add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes with acute decompensated heart failure. Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm; Unique identifier: UMIN000026315.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Kidney/drug effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Glucosides/adverse effects , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Japan , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
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