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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245157

ABSTRACT

The anti-spike (S), anti-nucleocapsid (N), and neutralizing activities of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of pooled plasma derived from donors in Japan from January 2021 to April 2022 were evaluated. Anti-S titers and neutralizing activities showed a wave-like trend affected by daily vaccinations and/or the number of reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections, whereas anti-N titers remained at negative levels. These results suggest that anti-S and neutralizing titers would fluctuate in pooled plasma in future. Pooled plasma may be potentially used for mass-immunity evaluation, and titer estimation in intravenous immunoglobulin, a derivative of pooled plasma.

2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241674

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus (DENV) infections have unpredictable clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or minor febrile illness to severe and fatal disease. The severity of dengue infection is at least partly related to the replacement of circulating DENV serotypes and/or genotypes. To describe clinical profiles of patients and the viral sequence diversity corresponding to non-severe and severe cases, we collected patient samples from 2018 to 2022 at Evercare Hospital Dhaka, Bangladesh. Serotyping of 495 cases and sequencing of 179 cases showed that the dominant serotype of DENV shifted from DENV2 in 2017 and 2018 to DENV3 in 2019. DENV3 persisted as the only representative serotype until 2022. Co-circulation of clades B and C of the DENV2 cosmopolitan genotype in 2017 was replaced by circulation of clade C alone in 2018 with all clones disappearing thereafter. DENV3 genotype I was first detected in 2017 and was the only genotype in circulation until 2022. We observed a high incidence of severe cases in 2019 when the DENV3 genotype I became the only virus in circulation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clusters of severe cases in several different subclades of DENV3 genotype I. Thus, these serotype and genotype changes in DENV may explain the large dengue outbreaks and increased severity of the disease in 2019.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus , Dengue , Humans , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Serogroup , Genotype
3.
iScience ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2300394

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old patient with a primary immunodeficiency lacking immunoglobulin production experienced a relapse after a 239-day period of persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Viral genetic sequencing demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 had evolved during the infection period, with at least five mutations associated with host cellular immune recognition. Among them, the T32I mutation in ORF3a was found to evade recognition by CD4+ T cells. The virus found after relapse showed an increased proliferative capacity in vitro. SARS-CoV-2 may have evolved to evade recognition by CD4+ T cells and increased in its proliferative capacity during the persistent infection, likely leading to relapse. These mutations may further affect viral clearance in hosts with similar types of human leukocyte antigens. The early elimination of SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients is therefore important not only to improve the condition of patients but also to prevent the emergence of mutants that threaten public health. Graphical

4.
Microorganisms ; 11(4)2023 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300703

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon in which antibodies produced in the body after infection or vaccination may enhance subsequent viral infections in vitro and in vivo. Although rare, symptoms of viral diseases are also enhanced by ADE following infection or vaccination in vivo. This is thought to be due to the production of antibodies with low neutralizing activity that bind to the virus and facilitate viral entry, or antigen-antibody complexes that cause airway inflammation, or a predominance of T-helper 2 cells among the immune system cells which leads to excessive eosinophilic tissue infiltration. Notably, ADE of infection and ADE of disease are different phenomena that overlap. In this article, we will describe the three types of ADE: (1) Fc receptor (FcR)-dependent ADE of infection in macrophages, (2) FcR-independent ADE of infection in other cells, and (3) FcR-dependent ADE of cytokine production in macrophages. We will describe their relationship to vaccination and natural infection, and discuss the possible involvement of ADE phenomena in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 8(1)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280691

ABSTRACT

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition caused by infection within the endocardium of the heart and commonly involves the valves. The subsequent cascading inflammation leads to the appearance of a highly friable thrombus that is large enough to become lodged within the heart chambers. As a result, fever, fatigue, heart murmurs, and embolization phenomena may be seen in patients with IE. Embolization results in the seeding of bacteria and obstruction of circulation, causing cell ischemia. Of concern, bacteria with the potential to gain pan-drug resistance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are increasingly being identified as the causative agent of IE in hospitals and among intravenous drug abusers. We retrospectively reviewed de-identified clinical data to summarize the clinical course of a patient with MRSA isolated using an automated blood culture system. At the time of presentation, the patient showed a poor consciousness level, and the calculated Glasgow scale was 10/15. A high-grade fever with circulatory shock indicated an occult infection, and a systolic murmur was observed with peripheral signs of embolization. This case demonstrated the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance in the community and revealed clinical findings of IE that may be helpful to clinicians for the early recognition of the disease. The management of such cases requires a multi-specialty approach, which is not widely available in small-island developing states such as the Maldives.

6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 8(2)2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257029

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was the worst public-health crisis in recent history. The impact of the pandemic in tropical regions was further complicated by other endemic tropical diseases, which can cause concurrent infections along with COVID-19. Here, we describe the clinical course of a patient with concurrent COVID-19 and scrub typhus infection. The patient's de-identified clinical data were retrieved retrospectively. The patient had progressive breathlessness at the time of presentation and was hospitalized for COVID-19. Respiratory examination revealed dyspnea, tachypnea, and coarse crepitations bilaterally over the entire lung field. Oxygenation was impaired, and a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 229 suggested acute respiratory distress syndrome. Laboratory tests indicated leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, ferritinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and transaminitis. Upon revaluation for persistent fever, physical examination revealed an eschar in the right antecubital fossa. Serology further confirmed scrub typhus, with IgM and IgG antibody positivity. A remarkable clinical recovery was achieved with doxycycline. The COVID-19 pandemic might have masked endemic tropical diseases. Clinicians working in endemic regions must always consider common tropical diseases that may present as a co-infection, as in our case. Travel and exposure history are critical guides for narrowing down a differential diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications.

8.
Biocontrol Sci ; 27(4): 223-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202199

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major burden for health care systems worldwide, and is a threat to our daily lives. Various effective ingredients against SARS-CoV-2 were already reported, however, since products contain various ingredients, it is also important to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available disinfectants per se. In this study, the virucidal efficacy of forty-eight commercially available products were evaluated according to the standardized suspension method EN 14476 and the following results were obtained: Alcohol-based disinfectants, hand soaps, wet wipes, alkaline cleaners, quaternary ammonium compound sanitizers and oxygen bleach had great virucidal efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are among the most susceptible of pathogens to formulated microbicidal actives and detergents, but as the results of this study showed, it is also necessary to pay attention to the concentration at the time of use and the required contact time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15612, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036890

ABSTRACT

Many therapeutic antibodies (Abs) and mRNA vaccines, both targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein), have been developed and approved in order to combat the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In consideration of these developments, a common concern has been the potential for Ab-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection caused by inoculated or induced Abs. Although the preventive and therapeutic effects of these Abs are obvious, little attention has been paid to the influence of the remaining and dwindling anti-S-protein Abs in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that certain monoclonal Abs (mAbs) approved as therapeutic neutralizing anti-S-protein mAbs for human usage have the potential to cause ADE in a narrow range of Ab concentrations. Although sera collected from mRNA-vaccinated individuals exhibited neutralizing activity, some sera gradually exhibited dominance of ADE activity in a time-dependent manner. None of the sera examined exhibited neutralizing activity against infection with the Omicron strain. Rather, some ADE of Omicron infection was observed in some sera. These results suggest the possible emergence of adverse effects caused by these Abs in addition to the therapeutic or preventive effect.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immune Sera , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Serotherapy
10.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 70(4): 103348, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796171

ABSTRACT

To fight against the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, the development of an effective and safe vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is required. As potential pandemic vaccines, DNA/RNA vaccines, viral vector vaccines and protein-based vaccines have been rapidly developed to prevent pandemic spread worldwide. In this study, we designed plasmid DNA vaccine targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein (S protein) as pandemic vaccine, and the humoral, cellular, and functional immune responses were characterized to support proceeding to initial human clinical trials. After intramuscular injection of DNA vaccine encoding S protein with alum adjuvant (three times at 2-week intervals), the humoral immunoreaction, as assessed by anti-S protein or anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody titers, and the cellular immunoreaction, as assessed by antigen-induced IFNγ expression, were up-regulated. In IgG subclass analysis, IgG2b was induced as the main subclass. Based on these analyses, DNA vaccine with alum adjuvant preferentially induced Th1-type T cell polarization. We confirmed the neutralizing action of DNA vaccine-induced antibodies by a binding assay of RBD recombinant protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and neutralization assays using pseudo-virus, and live SARS-CoV-2. Further B cell epitope mapping analysis using a peptide array showed that most vaccine-induced antibodies recognized the S2 and RBD subunits. Finally, DNA vaccine protected hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, DNA vaccine targeting the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 might be an effective and safe approach to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(3)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715734

ABSTRACT

Influenza is one of the most common respiratory virus infections. We analyzed hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments of viruses isolated from influenza patients who visited Evercare Hospital Dhaka, Bangladesh, in early 2020 immediately before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. All of them were influenza virus type A (IAV) H1N1pdm. Sequence analysis of the HA segments of the virus strains isolated from the clinical specimens and the subsequent phylogenic analyses of the obtained sequences revealed that all of the H1N1pdm recent subclades 6B.1A5A + 187V/A, 6B.1A5A + 156K, and 6B.1A5A + 156K with K209M were already present in Bangladesh in January 2020. Molecular clock analysis results suggested that the subclade 6B.1A5A + 156K emerged in Denmark, Australia, or the United States in July 2019, while subclades 6B.1A5A + 187V/A and 6B.1A5A + 156K with K209M emerged in East Asia in April and September 2019, respectively. On the other hand, sequence analysis of NA segments showed that the viruses lacked the H275Y mutation that confers oseltamivir resistance. Since the number of influenza cases in Bangladesh is usually small between November and January, these results indicated that the IAV H1N1pdm had spread extremely rapidly without acquiring oseltamivir resistance during a time of active international flow of people before the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23713, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565736

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), many vaccine trials have been initiated. An important goal of vaccination is the development of neutralizing antibody (Ab) against SARS-CoV-2. However, the possible induction of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, which is known for other coronaviruses and dengue virus infections, is a particular concern in vaccine development. Here, we demonstrated that human iPS cell-derived, immortalized, and ACE2- and TMPRSS2-expressing myeloid cell lines are useful as host cells for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The established cell lines were cloned and screened based on their function in terms of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2-infection or IL-6 productivity. Using the resulting K-ML2 (AT) clone 35 for SARS-CoV-2-infection or its subclone 35-40 for IL-6 productivity, it was possible to evaluate the potential of sera from severe COVID-19 patients to cause ADE and to stimulate IL-6 production upon infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Humans , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Patients , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
14.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(4)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481006

ABSTRACT

The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a novel syndrome observed during COVID-19 outbreaks. This hyper-inflammatory syndrome is seen predominantly in children and adolescents. The case of an adult from the Maldives who had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection three weeks before presenting to the hospital with fever, rash, and shock is presented. De-identified clinical data were retrospectively collected to summarize the clinical progression and treatment during hospitalization and the six-month follow-up. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. Other laboratory findings included anemia (hemoglobin: 9.8 g/dL), leukocytosis (leukocytes: 20,900/µL), neutrophilia (neutrophils: 18,580/µL) and lymphopenia (lymphocytes: 5067/µL), and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (34.8 mg/dL) and ferritin (2716.0 ng/dL). The electrocardiogram had low-voltage complexes, and the echocardiogram showed hypokinesia, ventricular dysfunction, and a pericardial effusion suggestive of myocardial dysfunction compromising hemodynamics and causing circulatory shock. These findings fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of MIS-A. The case was managed in the intensive care unit and required non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, inotropes, and steroids. With the new surges of COVID-19 cases, more cases of MIS-A that require the management of organ failure and long-term follow-up to recovery are anticipated. Clinicians should therefore be vigilant in identifying cases of MIS-A during the pandemic.

15.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480879

ABSTRACT

To help control the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we developed a diagnostic method targeting the spike protein of the virus that causes the infection, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We applied an ultrasensitive method by combining a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the thio-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) cycling reaction to quantify spike S1 proteins. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.62 × 10-19 moles/assay for recombinant S1 proteins and 2.6 × 106 RNA copies/assay for ultraviolet B-inactivated viruses. We have already shown that the ultrasensitive ELISA for nucleocapsid proteins can detect ultraviolet B-inactivated viruses at the 104 RNA copies/assay level, whereas the nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are difficult to distinguish from those in conventional coronaviruses and SARS-CoV. Thus, an antigen test for only the nucleocapsid proteins is insufficient for virus specificity. Therefore, the use of a combination of tests against both spike and nucleocapsid proteins is recommended to increase both the detection sensitivity and testing accuracy of the COVID-19 antigen test. Taken together, our present study, in which we incorporate S1 detection by combining the ultrasensitive ELISA for nucleocapsid proteins, offers an ultrasensitive, antigen-specific test for COVID-19.

16.
J Exp Med ; 218(12)2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467277

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immunity is a fundamental component in controlling COVID-19. In this process, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that mediate the production of protective antibodies; however, the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes activating Tfh cells are not well characterized. Here, we identified and crystallized TCRs of public circulating Tfh (cTfh) clonotypes that are expanded in patients who have recovered from mild symptoms. These public clonotypes recognized the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) epitopes conserved across emerging variants. The epitope of the most prevalent cTfh clonotype, S864-882, was presented by multiple HLAs and activated T cells in most healthy donors, suggesting that this S region is a universal T cell epitope useful for booster antigen. SARS-CoV-2-specific public cTfh clonotypes also cross-reacted with specific commensal bacteria. In this study, we identified conserved SARS-CoV-2 S epitopes that activate public cTfh clonotypes associated with mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 734838, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463485

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, has been used to treat severely to critically ill patients with COVID-19. A living systematic review with meta-analysis of recent RCTs indicates that the combination therapy of corticosteroids and tocilizumab produce better outcomes, while previous observational studies suggest that tocilizumab monotherapy is beneficial for substantial numbers of patients. However, what patients could respond to tocilizumab monotherapy remained unknown. Methods: In this retrospective study we evaluated the effects of tocilizumab monotherapy on the clinical characteristics, serum biomediator levels, viral elimination, and specific IgG antibody induction in 13 severely to critically ill patients and compared with those of dexamethasone monotherapy and dexamethasone plus tocilizumab. Results: A single tocilizumab administration led to a rapid improvement in clinical characteristics, inflammatory findings, and oxygen supply in 7 of 11 patients with severe COVID-19, and could recover from mechanical ventilation management (MVM) in 2 patients with critically ill COVID-19. Four patients exhibited rapidly worsening even after tocilizumab administration and required MVM and additional methylprednisolone treatment. Tocilizumab did not delay viral elimination or inhibit IgG production specific for the virus, whereas dexamethasone inhibited IgG induction. A multiplex cytokine array system revealed a significant increase in the serum expression of 54 out of 80 biomediators in patients with COVID-19 compared with that in healthy controls. Compared with those who promptly recovered in response to tocilizumab, patients requiring MVM showed a significantly higher ratio of basal level of ferritin/CRP and a persistent increase in the levels of CRP and specific cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1. The basal high ratio of ferritin/CRP was also associated with clinical deterioration even in patients treated with dexamethasone and tocilizumab. Conclusion: Tocilizumab as monotherapy has substantial beneficial effects in some patients with severe COVID-19, who showed a relatively low level of the ratio of ferritin/CRP and prompt reduction in CRP, IL-6, IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1. The high ratio of ferritin/CRP is associated with rapid worsening of pneumonia. Further evaluation is warranted to clarify whether tocilizumab monotherapy or its combination with corticosteroid is preferred for severely to critically ill patients with COVID-19.

18.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(9): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388871

ABSTRACT

Antigen tests for infectious diseases are inexpensive and easy-to-use, but the limit of detection (LOD) is generally higher than that of PCR tests, which are considered the gold standard. In the present study, we combined a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) cycling to improve the LOD of antigen tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the LOD of our ELISA with thio-NAD cycling was 2.95 × 10-17 moles/assay. When UV-irradiated inactive SARS-CoV-2 was used, the minimum detectable virions corresponding to 2.6 × 104 RNA copies/assay were obtained using our ELISA with thio-NAD cycling. The assay volume for each test was 100 µL. The minimum detectable value was smaller than that of the latest antigen test using a fluorescent immunoassay for SARS-CoV-2, indicating the validity of our detection system for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , NAD/analogs & derivatives , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5917-5923, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272212

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, laboratory diagnosis has mainly been conducted using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Detecting the presence of an infectious virus in the collected sample is essential to analyze if a person can transmit infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there have been no quantitative investigations conducted for infectious SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. Therefore, in the present study, a rapid and simple focus-forming assay using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique was developed to quantify infectious SARS-CoV-2 titers in 119 samples (n = 52, nasopharyngeal swabs [NPS]; n = 67, saliva) from patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, the study findings were compared with the cycle threshold (Ct) values of real-time RT-PCR. The infectious virus titers in NPS samples and Ct values were inversely correlated, and no infectious virus could be detected when the Ct value exceeded 30. In contrast, a low correlation was observed between the infectious virus titers in saliva and Ct values (r = -0.261, p = 0.027). Furthermore, the infectious virus titers in the saliva were significantly lower than those in the NPS samples. Ten days after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, the infectious virus was undetectable, and Ct values were more than 30 in NSP and saliva samples. The results indicate that patients whose symptoms subsided 10 days after onset, with Ct values more than 30 in NSP and saliva samples, were less likely to infect others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Plaque Assay , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva/virology , Viral Load , Young Adult
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