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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1870100

ABSTRACT

Factors associated with mortality are important for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19 and reflects the viral load in the upper respiratory tract. This study enrolled 523 patients. Four hundred forty-one and 75 patients were performed PCR testing in nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum specimens, respectively, within 20 days from the onset. We investigated the association between RNA copy number and the severity and mortality of COVID-19, and its effect on the predictive performance for the severity and mortality. RNA copy numbers in nasopharyngeal swabs were higher in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that the high RNA copy number (≥ 9 log10 /swab) in nasopharyngeal swabs was a factor associated with mortality (odds ratio, 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.510 - 13.100; p = 0.008). Furthermore, in severe cases, adding RNA copy number (≥ 9 log10 /swab), which was adjusted by duration from onset to PCR, improved mortality predictive performance based on known factors. The RNA copy number is a factor associated with the mortality of COVID-19 and can improve the predictive performance of mortality in severe cases.

2.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730699

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of proteinase 3 (PR3)- antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) with predominant ears, nose, and throat (ENT) manifestations following COVID-19 vaccination. A 63-year-old woman presented with aural fullness three days after vaccination. She presented with progressive rhinosinusitis and otitis media leading to profound hearing loss within three weeks. Clinical imaging revealed soft-tissue shadows in the paranasal sinuses with multiple pulmonary nodules, and histopathology was consistent with a diagnosis of GPA. It is crucial to be wary of the possibility of GPA in patients who received COVID-19 vaccines due to its rapid disease progression.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 767074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555880

ABSTRACT

Background: Thrombosis is a characteristic complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since coagulopathy has been observed over the entire clinical course, thrombosis might be a clue to understanding the specific pathology in COVID-19. Currently, there is limited epidemiological data of COVID-19-associated thrombosis in the Japanese population and none regarding variant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we elucidate the risk factors and the pattern of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The patients consecutively admitted to Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/interest (VOC/VOI) carrying the spike protein mutants E484K, N501Y, or L452R were identified by PCR-based analysis. All thrombotic events were diagnosed by clinical symptoms, ultrasonography, and/or radiological tests. Results: Among the 516 patients, 32 patients experienced 42 thromboembolic events. Advanced age, severe respiratory conditions, and several abnormal laboratory markers were associated with the development of thrombosis. While thrombotic events occurred in 13% of the patients with a severe respiratory condition, those events still occurred in 2.5% of the patients who did not require oxygen therapy. Elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels on admission were independent risk factors of thrombosis (adjusted odds ratio 9.39 and 3.11, 95% confidence interval 2.08-42.3, and 1.06-9.17, respectively). Of the thrombotic events, 22 were venous, whereas 20 were arterial. While patients with thrombosis received anticoagulation and antiinflammatory therapies with a higher proportion, the mortality rate, organ dysfunctions, and bleeding complications in these patients were higher than those without thrombosis. The incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 became less frequent over time, such as during the replacement of the earlier strains of SARS-CoV-2 by VOC/VOI and during increased use of anticoagulatory therapeutics. Conclusion: This study elucidated that elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels are useful biomarkers of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. The comparable incidence of arterial thrombosis with venous thrombosis and the development of thrombosis in less severe patients required further considerations for the management of Japanese patients with COVID-19. Further studies would be required to identify high-risk populations and establish appropriate interventions for thrombotic complications in COVID-19.

4.
FEBS Open Bio ; 12(1): 285-294, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540045

ABSTRACT

Cepharanthine (CEP) is a natural biscoclaurine alkaloid of plant origin and was recently demonstrated to have anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) activity. In this study, we evaluated whether natural analogues of CEP may act as potential anti-coronavirus disease 2019 drugs. A total of 24 compounds resembling CEP were extracted from the KNApSAcK database, and their binding affinities to target proteins, including the spike protein and main protease of SARS-CoV-2, NPC1 and TPC2 in humans, were predicted via molecular docking simulations. Selected analogues were further evaluated by a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay. In addition, the efficacies of CEP and its analogue tetrandrine were assessed. A comparison of the docking conformations of these compounds suggested that the diphenyl ester moiety of the molecules was a putative pharmacophore of the CEP analogues.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry , Benzylisoquinolines/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus M Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Plant Preparations/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stephania/chemistry , Vero Cells
5.
Biophys Physicobiol ; 18: 226-240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506089

ABSTRACT

More than one and half years have passed, as of August 2021, since the COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 emerged in 2019. While the recent success of vaccine developments likely reduces the severe cases, there is still a strong requirement of safety and effective therapeutic drugs for overcoming the unprecedented situation. Here we review the recent progress and the status of the drug discovery against COVID-19 with emphasizing a structure-based perspective. Structural data regarding the SARS-CoV-2 proteome has been rapidly accumulated in the Protein Data Bank, and up to 68% of the total amino acid residues encoded in the genome were covered by the structural data. Despite a global effort of in silico and in vitro screenings for drug repurposing, there is only a limited number of drugs had been successfully authorized by drug regulation organizations. Although many approved drugs and natural compounds, which exhibited antiviral activity in vitro, were considered potential drugs against COVID-19, a further multidisciplinary investigation is required for understanding the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of the drugs.

6.
Open Access Emerg Med ; 13: 207-211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant therapy for patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia is considered to improve the hypercoagulable and inflammatory state. However, bleeding complications should also be considered. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old man with a history of falls was diagnosed with COVID-19. Owing to his severe condition, he was intubated and transferred to our hospital for intensive care. Favipiravir, tocilizumab, unfractionated heparin, and ART-123 were administered to treat COVID-19 and manage the antithrombotic prophylaxis for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (Af). On the 6th day after admission, a hematoma was noted on the left chest wall. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hematomas, including hematomas on his chest wall and obturatorius internus muscle. Emergency angiography transcatheter embolization (TAE) was performed. The patient was transferred to another hospital 23 days after TAE, without complications. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that anticoagulation therapy and a history of falls induced multiple hematomas in a COVID-19 patient and that the condition was managed with TAE. When anticoagulants are considered in the management of Af and COVID-19 associated coagulopathy, it is necessary to closely monitor potential bleeding complications.

7.
iScience ; 24(4): 102367, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157438

ABSTRACT

Antiviral treatments targeting the coronavirus disease 2019 are urgently required. We screened a panel of already approved drugs in a cell culture model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and identified two new agents having higher antiviral potentials than the drug candidates such as remdesivir and chroloquine in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells: the anti-inflammatory drug cepharanthine and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir. Cepharanthine inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry through the blocking of viral binding to target cells, while nelfinavir suppressed viral replication partly by protease inhibition. Consistent with their different modes of action, synergistic effect of this combined treatment to limit SARS-CoV-2 proliferation was highlighted. Mathematical modeling in vitro antiviral activity coupled with the calculated total drug concentrations in the lung predicts that nelfinavir will shorten the period until viral clearance by 4.9 days and the combining cepharanthine/nelfinavir enhanced their predicted efficacy. These results warrant further evaluation of the potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of cepharanthine and nelfinavir.

9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 857-863, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few agents that have been proven effective for COVID-19. Predicting clinical improvement as well as mortality or severity is very important. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with the clinical improvement of COVID-19. METHODS: Overall, 74 patients receiving treatment for COVID-19 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital from April 6th to May 15th, 2020 were included in this study. Clinical improvement was evaluated, which defined as the decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status or discharge alive from the hospital within 28 days after admission. The clinical courses were particularly investigated and the factors related to time to clinical improvement were analyzed with the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients required oxygen support during hospitalization, 22 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 5 patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A total of 83% of cases reached clinical improvement. Longer period of time from onset to admission (≥10 days) (HR, 1.057; 95% CI, 1.002-1.114), no hypertension (HR, 2.077; 95% CI, 1.006-4.287), and low D-dimer levels (<1 µg/ml) (HR, 2.372; 95% CI, 1.229-4.576) were confirmed to be significant predictive factors for time to clinical improvement. Furthermore, a lower SARS-CoV-2 RNA copy number was also a predictive factor for clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors for the clinical improvement of COVID-19 pneumonia were identified. These results may be important for the management of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiration, Artificial , Tokyo
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 284-290, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prediction of COVID-19 disease behavior in the early phase of infection is challenging but urgently needed. MuLBSTA score is a scoring system that predicts the mortality of viral pneumonia induced by a variety of viruses, including coronavirus, but the scoring system has not been verified in novel coronavirus pneumonia. The aim of this study was to validate this scoring system for estimating the risk of disease worsening in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study included the patients who were treated between April 1 st and March 13 th , 2020. The patients were classified into mild, moderate, and severe groups according to the extent of respiratory failure. MuLBSTA score was applied to estimate the risk of disease worsening in each severity group and we validated the utility of the scoring system. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were analyzed. Among the 46 patients with mild disease, 17 showed disease progression to moderate or severe disease after admission. The model showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of only 34.5% with a cut-off value of 5 points. Among the 55 patients with mild or moderate disease, 6 deteriorated to severe disease, and the model showed a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 71.4% with a cut-off value of 11 points. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that MuLBSTA score is a potentially useful tool for predicting COVID-19 disease behavior. This scoring system may be used as one of the criteria to identify high-risk patients worsening to life-threatening status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Count/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology
12.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101230, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax is a rare but life-threatening complication associated with pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CASE PRESENTATION: Informed consent was obtained from the patient himself.A 50-year-old man presented with a 9-day history of fever, cough, and dyspnoea. He was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and was admitted to the Medical Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Chest CT showed diffuse patchy ground-glass opacities (GGOs). His state of oxygenation deteriorated, and mechanical ventilation was initiated on day 4 after admission (12th day from onset). He improved gradually and was weaned from ventilation on day 15. Sudden onset of bilateral pneumothorax occurred on day 21 with severe respiratory failure, and chest CT revealed pneumatocele formation on both lower lobes. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumothorax is a notable complication in cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in those who require positive-pressure ventilation.

13.
FEBS Lett ; 594(12): 1960-1973, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209663

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic. There is, however, no confirmed anti-COVID-19 therapeutic currently. In order to assist structure-based discovery efforts for repurposing drugs against this disease, we constructed knowledge-based models of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and compared the ligand molecules in the template structures with approved/experimental drugs and components of natural medicines. Our theoretical models suggest several drugs, such as carfilzomib, sinefungin, tecadenoson, and trabodenoson, that could be further investigated for their potential for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2
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