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2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e418-e423, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures are a subject of debate during the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because children are not the main driver of COVID-19 transmission in the community, school education must be prioritized in conjunction with appropriate infection prevention and control measures, as determined by local COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: We investigated the causes and transmission routes of a primary school cluster of COVID-19 that occurred during November and December 2020 in Niigata, Japan. RESULTS: In the cluster, the virus spread among teachers, then from teachers to students, and then to their family members. This primary school cluster comprised 26 infected patients and included teachers (13/33, 39%), students (9/211, 4%), and family members (4/65, 6%). The secondary attack rate from the 3 index teachers to the remaining 30 teachers was 33%; however, the rate to students was only 4%. Factors contributing to cluster formation include the fact that 2 of the index teachers continued working while symptomatic and that the environment and infection prevention measures in the teachers' room were inadequate. CONCLUSIONS: To open schools safely and without interruption, adequate measures to prevent COVID-19 infection in schools should be emphasized not only for children but also for teachers and their environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248932, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150551

ABSTRACT

Few studies have examined the effects of inbound overseas travelers and meteorological conditions on the shift in human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) season in Japan. This study aims to test whether the number of inbound overseas travelers and meteorological conditions are associated with the onset week of HRSV epidemic season. The estimation of onset week for 46 prefectures (except for Okinawa prefecture) in Japan for 4-year period (2014-2017) was obtained from previous papers based on the national surveillance data. We obtained data on the yearly number of inbound overseas travelers and meteorological (yearly mean temperature and relative humidity) conditions from Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), respectively. Multi-level mixed-effects linear regression analysis showed that every 1 person (per 100,000 population) increase in number of overall inbound overseas travelers led to an earlier onset week of HRSV epidemic season in the year by 0.02 week (coefficient -0.02; P<0.01). Higher mean temperature and higher relative humidity were also found to contribute to an earlier onset week by 0.30 week (coefficient -0.30; P<0.05) and 0.18 week (coefficient -0.18; P<0.01), respectively. Additionally, models that included the number of travelers from individual countries (Taiwan, South Korea, and China) except Australia showed that both the number of travelers from each country and meteorological conditions contributed to an earlier onset week. Our analysis showed the earlier onset week of HRSV epidemic season in Japan is associated with increased number of inbound overseas travelers, higher mean temperature, and relative humidity. The impact of international travelers on seasonality of HRSV can be further extended to investigations on the changes of various respiratory infectious diseases especially after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Travel , Epidemics , Humans , Humidity , Japan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Temperature
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 915-918, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100023

ABSTRACT

The overall coronavirus disease secondary attack rate (SAR) in family members was 19.0% in 10 prefectures of Japan during February 22-May 31, 2020. The SAR was lower for primary cases diagnosed early, within 2 days after symptom onset. The SAR of asymptomatic primary cases was 11.8%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Family , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
6.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing the coverage of vaccinations recommended by the World Health Organization in the older adult population is an urgent issue, especially in the context of avoiding co-epidemics during the current coronavirus disease 2019 crisis. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the quality of perceived patient-physician communication and whether this variable was associated with increased odds of vaccination. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017. The participants were 22,253 physically and cognitively independent individuals aged 65 or older living in 39 municipalities in Japan. Multilevel logit models were used to estimate the odds of vaccination. RESULTS: Among the participants, 40.0% and 58.8% had received pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations as per the recommended schedule, respectively. People with low educational levels were more likely to have a family physician but rate their experience in asking questions lower than those with higher educational levels. Having a family physician and high rating for physicians' listening attitude were positively associated with increased odds of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations. High rating for patients' questioning attitude and shared decision-making, compared to an ambiguous attitude toward medical decision-making, were positively associated with increased odds of pneumococcal vaccination. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that promotion of having a family physician, better patient-physician communication, and shared decision-making may encourage older adults to undergo recommended vaccinations.

7.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000854, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873550

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the confirmed COVID-19 cases among students and teachers in elementary schools (ages 6-12 years) and junior high schools (ages 13-15 years) in Japan between 1 June and 31 July 2020. We requested all schools to provide reports when students or teachers tested positive for COVID-19. A total of 207 cases were reported among students. Household transmission was identified as the dominant transmission route, confirmed in 71.4% of elementary schools and 60.3% of junior high schools. A total of 39 cases were reported among teachers, of which transmission route was unknown in 72.4% of elementary schools and 90.0% of junior high schools.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594262

ABSTRACT

We analyzed 3,184 cases of coronavirus disease in Japan and identified 61 case-clusters in healthcare and other care facilities, restaurants and bars, workplaces, and music events. We also identified 22 probable primary case-patients for the clusters; most were 20-39 years of age and presymptomatic or asymptomatic at virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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