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2.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(3): 103012, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561805

ABSTRACT

The relation between infections and autoimmune diseases has been extensively investigated. Multiple studies suggest a causal relation between these two entities with molecular mimicry, hyperstimulation and dysregulation of the immune system as plausible mechanisms. The recent pandemic with a new virus, i.e., SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in numerous studies addressing the potential of this virus to induce autoimmunity and, eventually, autoimmune disease. In addition, it has also revealed that pre-existing auto-immunity (auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs) could cause life-threatening disease. Therefore, the topic of the 15th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies was focused on autoimmunity in the SARS-CoV-2 era. This report is a collection and distillation of the topics presented at this meeting.

3.
J Autoimmun ; 126: 102778, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556992

ABSTRACT

While it took decades to arrive to a conclusion that ferritin is more than an indicator of iron storage level, it took a short period of time through the COVID-19 pandemic to wonder what the reason behind high levels of ferritin in patients with severe COVID-19 might be. Unsurprisingly, acute phase reactant was not a satisfactory explanation. Moreover, the behavior of ferritin in patients with severe COVID-19 and the subsequent high mortality rates in patients with high ferritin levels necessitated further investigations to understand the role of ferritin in the diseases. Ferritin was initially described to accompany various acute infections, both viral and bacterial, indicating an acute response to inflammation. However, with the introduction of the hyperferritinemic syndrome connecting four severe pathological conditions such as adult-onset Still's disease, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, and septic shock added another aspect of ferritin where it could have a pathogenetic role rather than an extremely elevated protein only. In fact, suggesting that COVID-19 is a new member in the spectrum of hyperferritinemic syndrome besides the four mentioned conditions could hopefully direct further search on the pathogenetic role of ferritin. Doubtlessly, improving our understanding of those aspects of ferritin would enormously contribute to better coping with severe diseases in terms of treatment and prevention of complications. The origin, history, importance, and the advances of searching the role of ferritin in various pathological and clinical processes are presented hereby in our article. In addition, the implications of ferritin in COVID-19 are addressed.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531506
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509868
6.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506221

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

7.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(5): e13101, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501497

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenged globally with its morbidity and mortality. A small percentage of affected patients (20%) progress into the second stage of the disease clinically presenting with severe or fatal involvement of lung, heart and vascular system, all contributing to multiple-organ failure. The so-called 'cytokines storm' is considered the pathogenic basis of severe disease and it is a target for treatment with corticosteroids, immunotherapies and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). We provide an overview of the role of IVIg in the therapy of adult patients with COVID-19 disease. After discussing the possible underlying mechanisms of IVIg immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease, we review the studies in which IVIg was employed. Considering the latest evidence that show a link between new coronavirus and autoimmunity, we also discuss the use of IVIg in COVID-19 and anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination related autoimmune diseases and the post-COVID-19 syndrome. The benefit of high-dose IVIg is evident in almost all studies with a rapid response, a reduction in mortality and improved pulmonary function in critically ill COVID-19 patients. It seems that an early administration of IVIg is crucial for a successful outcome. Studies' limitations are represented by the small number of patients, the lack of control groups in some and the heterogeneity of included patients. IVIg treatment can reduce the stay in ICU and the demand for mechanical ventilation, thus contributing to attenuate the burden of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Critical Illness , Humans , Italy , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
8.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488693

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 Syndrome (PCS) is a complex of various symptoms developing a month or more after the acute phase of the disease. The cases of PCS development among patients with asymptomatic/mild forms are frequently reported; however, the pathogenesis of PCS in this group of patients is still not completely clear. The publications about COVID-19 which were published in online databases from December 2019 to September 2021 are analyzed in this review. According to the analysis, PCS develops on average in 30-60% of patients, mainly among women. Fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, and anosmia were reported as the most common symptoms. The possible association between the described PCS symptoms and brain damage was revealed. We assume the possibility of an alternative course of COVID-19, which develops in genetically predisposed individuals with a stronger immune response, in which it predominantly affects the cells of the nervous system, possibly with the presence of an autoimmune component, which might have similarity with chronic fatigue syndrome or autoimmune disautonomia. Thus, the gender (female) and the presence of anosmia during an asymptomatic or mild course of the disease can be predictive factors for the development of PCS, which can be caused by autoimmune damage to neurons, glia, and cerebral vessels.

9.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479870

ABSTRACT

Worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has taken a huge toll of morbidity and mortality. In selected patients, classified as severe, the overwhelming inflammatory state imposed by this infection is accompanied by a hypercoagulable state, hallmarked by a unique pattern; a marked increase in D-dimer, out of proportion to other markers of coagulopathy. In this review, we turn a spotlight to this phenomenon, offering a unified conceptual model depicting the leading hypotheses of coagulopathy in COVID-19. The key players of the coagulation cascades accompanying the COVID-19 inflammation malfunction on virtually every level; tissue factor expression is amplified, physiological anti-coagulant pathways (anti-thrombin, protein C and S, and the inhibitor of the tissue factor pathway) are impaired and fibrinolysis is inhibited. Components of autoimmunity, the complement system amongst others, further contribute to the pathology. As data continue to gather, our model offers a pathophysiological overview of COVID-19 coagulopathy, defined by the resultant histopathology: either intra-vascular or extra-vascular. We hope this review will facilitate understanding and serve as a lead point to future therapeutic directives.

10.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology ; n/a(n/a):e13101, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1410864

ABSTRACT

Abstract The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenged globally with its morbidity and mortality. A small percentage of affected patients (20%) progress into the second stage of the disease clinically presenting with severe or fatal involvement of lung, heart, and vascular system, all contributing to multiple-organ failure. The so-called ?cytokines storm' is considered the pathogenic basis of severe disease and it is a target for treatment with corticosteroids, immunotherapies, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). We provide an overview of the role of IVIg in the therapy of adult patients with COVID-19 disease. After discussing the possible underlying mechanisms of IVIg immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease, we review the studies in which IVIg was employed. Considering the latest evidence that show a link between new coronavirus and autoimmunity, we also discuss the use of IVIg in COVID-19 and anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination related autoimmune diseases and the post-COVID-19 syndrome. The benefit of high-dose IVIg is evident in almost all studies with a rapid response, a reduction in mortality and improved pulmonary function in critically ill COVID-19 patients. It seems that an early administration of IVIg is crucial for a successful outcome. Studies limitations are represented by the small number of patients, the lack of control groups in some and the heterogeneity of included patients. IVIg treatment can reduce the stay in ICU and the demand for mechanical ventilation, thus contributing to attenuate the burden of the disease.

11.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(11): 102945, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401228

ABSTRACT

Notwithstanding the fact that the 12th international congress of autoimmunity (AUTO12) was held virtual this year, the number of the abstracts submitted and those presented crossed the thousand marks. Leading investigators and researchers from all over the world presented the latest developments of their research in the domain of autoimmunity and its correlation with various diseases. In terms of mechanisms of autoimmunity, an update on the mechanisms behind the association of autoimmunity with systemic diseases focusing on hyperstimulation was presented during AUTO12. In addition, a new mechanism of ASIA syndrome caused by an intrauterine contraceptive device was revealed demonstrating a complete resolution of symptoms following device removal. In regard to the correlation between autoimmunity and neurogenerative diseases, the loss of structural protein integrity as the trigger of immunological response was shown. Schizophrenia as well, and its correlation to pro-inflammatory cytokines was also addressed. Furthermore, and as it was said AUTO12 virtual due to COVID-19 pandemic, various works were dedicated to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in terms of autoimmune mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis, treatment and complications of COVID-19. For instance, the correlation between autoimmunity and the severity of COVID-19 was viewed. Moreover, the presence and association of autoantibodies in COVID-19 was also demonstrated, as well as the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases. Finally, immune-mediated reactions and processes secondary to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was displayed. Due to the immense importance of all of the topics addressed and while several hundreds of works were presented which cannot be summed up in one paper, we aimed hereby to highlight some of the outstanding abstracts and presentations during AUTO12.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab is an anti-IL-6 therapy widely adopted in the management of the so-called "cytokine storm" related to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, but its effectiveness, use in relation to concomitant corticosteroid therapy and safety were unproven despite widespread use in numerous studies, mostly open label at the start of the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies utilising tocilizumab in COVID-19 on different databases (PubMed/MEDLINE/Scopus) and preprint servers (medRxiv and SSRN) from inception until 20 July 2020 (PROSPERO CRD42020195690). Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were performed. The impact of tocilizumab and concomitant corticosteroid therapy or tocilizumab alone versus standard of care (SOC) on the death rate, need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and bacterial infections were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies with 15,531 patients (3657 cases versus 11,874 controls) were identified. Unadjusted estimates (n = 28) failed to demonstrate a protective effect of tocilizumab on survival (OR 0.74 ([95%CI 0.55-1.01], p = 0.057), mechanical ventilation prevention (OR 2.21 [95%CI 0.53-9.23], p = 0.277) or prevention of ICU admission (OR 3.79 [95%CI 0.38-37.34], p = 0.254). Considering studies with adjusted, estimated, tocilizumab use was associated with mortality rate reduction (HR 0.50 ([95%CI 0.38-0.64], p < 0.001) and prevention of ICU admission (OR 0.16 ([95%CI 0.06-0.43], p < 0.001). Tocilizumab with concomitant steroid use versus SOC was protective with an OR of 0.49 ([95%CI 0.36-0.65], p < 0.05) as was tocilizumab alone versus SOC with an OR of 0.59 ([95%CI 0.34-1.00], p < 0.001). Risk of infection increased (2.36 [95%CI 1.001-5.54], p = 0.050; based on unadjusted estimates). CONCLUSION: Despite the heterogeneity of included studies and large number of preprint articles, our findings from the first eight of the pandemic in over 15,000 COVID-19 cases suggested an incremental efficacy of tocilizumab in severe COVID-19 that were confirmed by subsequent meta-analyses of large randomized trials of tocilizumab. This suggests that analysis of case-control studies and pre-print server data in the early stages of a pandemic appeared robust for supporting incremental benefits and lack of major therapeutic toxicity of tocilizumab for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
13.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108426, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385285
14.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 86(6): e13494, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Oogenesis, the process of egg production by the ovary, involves a complex differentiation program leading to the production of functional oocytes. This process comprises a sequential pathway of steps that are finely regulated. The question related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and fertility has been evoked for several reasons, including the mechanism of molecular mimicry, which may contribute to female infertility by leading to the generation of deleterious autoantibodies, possibly contributing to the onset of an autoimmune disease in infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The immunological potential of the peptides shared between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and oogenesis-related proteins; Thus we planned a systematic study to improve our understanding of the possible effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on female fertility using the angle of molecular mimicry as a starting point. METHODS: A library of 82 human proteins linked to oogenesis was assembled at random from UniProtKB database using oogenesis, uterine receptivity, decidualization, and placentation as a key words. For the analyses, an artificial polyprotein was built by joining the 82 a sequences of the oogenesis-associated proteins. These were analyzed by searching the Immune Epitope DataBase for immunoreactive SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein epitopes hosting the shared pentapeptides. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein was found to share 41 minimal immune determinants, that is, pentapeptides, with 27 human proteins that relate to oogenesis, uterine receptivity, decidualization, and placentation. All the shared pentapeptides that we identified, with the exception of four, are also present in SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-derived epitopes that have been experimentally validated as immunoreactive.

15.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335141

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has already affected millions of people in 213 countries. The possibilities of treatment have been reviewed in recent publications but there are many controversial results and conclusions. An analysis of the studies did not reveal a difference in mortality level between people treated with standard therapy, such as antiviral drugs and dexamethasone, and new antiviral drugs/additional immune therapy. However, most studies describe clinical improvement and a decrease in mortality among patients with severe and critical conditions, with the early initiation of additional immune therapy. Possible new targets based on viral life cycles were considered. Unfortunately, the data analysis on the efficacy of different medicine and therapy regimens among patients with COVID-19, showed little success in decreasing the mortality rate in all treatment methods. Some efficacy has been shown with an immunosuppressive therapy in small patient samples, but when a larger number of patients were analyzed the data did not differ significantly from the control groups.

16.
J Autoimmun ; 121: 102663, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233480

ABSTRACT

As the novel SARS-CoV-2 continues to infect numerous individuals worldwide, one of the leading approaches in dealing with the global health crisis is vaccination against the COVID-19. Due to recent reports, vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (developed by Oxford and AstraZeneca) may result in a vaccine-induced catastrophic thrombotic thrombocytopenia disorder. Thus, as of March 16 of 2021, vaccination programs in 18 countries had been suspended until further examination, including Sweden, Germany and France. This disorder presents as extensive thrombosis in atypical sites, primarily in the cerebral venous, alongside thrombocytopenia and the production of autoantibody against platelet-factor 4 (PF4). PF4 autoantibody has the ability to binds the human FcRγIIA receptor of platelets and contribute to their aggregation. This rare adverse effect extremely resembles the clinical presentation of the classical immune-mediated HIT disorder, which occurs following exposure to heparin. Surprisingly, none of these patients had been pre-exposed to heparin before disease onset, leading to the hypothesis that a viral antigen from the vaccine had triggered the response. Importantly, COVID-19 had been associated with numerous autoimmune manifestations, including the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, new onset of autoimmune diseases and disorders. As the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination leads to the synthesis of specific SARS-CoV-2-proteins, they may trigger a production of PF4 autoantibody though molecular mimicry phenomena, while vaccination compounds lead to a rigorous bystander activation of immune cells. If existing, removing such homological sequences from the vaccine may eliminate this phenomenon. In contrast, it needs to be emphasized that the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine was found to be safe and efficacious against symptomatic COVID-19 in randomized controlled trials, which included 23,848 participants from the UK, Brazil and South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/pathology
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and vaccines can occasionally cause new-onset or flare of immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). The adjuvanticity of the available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is based on either TLR-7/8 or TLR-9 agonism, which is distinct from previous vaccines and is a common pathogenic mechanism in IMDs. METHODS: We evaluated IMD flares or new disease onset within 28-days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination at five large tertiary centres in countries with early vaccination adoption, three in Israel, one in UK, and one in USA. We assessed the pattern of disease expression in terms of autoimmune, autoinflammatory, or mixed disease phenotype and organ system affected. We also evaluated outcomes. FINDINGS: 27 cases included 17 flares and 10 new onset IMDs. 23/27 received the BNT - 162b2 vaccine, 2/27 the mRNA-1273 and 2/27 the ChAdOx1 vaccines. The mean age was 54.4 ± 19.2 years and 55% of cases were female. Among the 27 cases, 21 (78%) had at least one underlying autoimmune/rheumatic disease prior the vaccination. Among those patients with a flare or activation, four episodes occurred after receiving the second-dose and in one patient they occurred both after the first and the second-dose. In those patients with a new onset disease, two occurred after the second-dose and in one patient occurred both after the first (new onset) and second-dose (flare). For either dose, IMDs occurred on average 4 days later. Of the cases, 20/27 (75%) were mild to moderate in severity. Over 80% of cases had excellent resolution of inflammatory features, mostly with the use of corticosteroid therapy. Other immune-mediated conditions included idiopathic pericarditis (n = 2), neurosarcoidosis with small fiber neuropathy (n = 1), demyelination (n = 1), and myasthenia gravis (n = 2). In 22 cases (81.5%), the insurgence of Adverse event following immunization (AEFI)/IMD could not be explained based on the drug received by the patient. In 23 cases (85.2%), AEFI development could not be explained based on the underlying disease/co-morbidities. Only in one case (3.7%), the timing window of the insurgence of the side effect was considered not compatible with the time from vaccine to flare. INTERPRETATION: Despite the high population exposure in the regions served by these centers, IMDs flares or onset temporally-associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination appear rare. Most are moderate in severity and responsive to therapy although some severe flares occurred. FUNDING: none.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124678

ABSTRACT

According to an analysis of published data, only 20% of patients with the new coronavirus infection develop severe life-threatening complications. Currently, there are no known biomarkers, the determination of which before the onset of the disease would allow assessing the likelihood of its severe course. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze possible genetic factors characterizing the immune response to the new coronavirus infection that could be associated with the expression of angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and related proteins as predictors of severe Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We analyzed original articles published in Medline, PubMed and Scopus databases from December 2019 to November 2020. For searching articles, we used the following keywords: New coronavirus infection, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19, severe course, complications, thrombosis, cytokine storm, ACE-2, biomarkers. In total, 3714 publications were selected using the keywords, of which 8 were in congruence with all the criteria. The literature analysis of the association of immunogenic characteristics and the expression of ACE-2 and related proteins with the development of severe COVID-19 revealed following genetic factors: HLA-B*46:01 genotype, CXCR6 gene hypoexpression, CCR9 gene expression, TLR7, rs150892504 mutations in the ERAP2 gene, overexpression of wild-type ACE-2, TMPRSS2 and its different polymorphisms. Genes, associated with the severe course, are more common among men. According to the analysis data, it can be assumed that there are population differences. However, the diagnostic significance of the markers described must be confirmed with additional clinical studies.

19.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(4): 102792, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086776

ABSTRACT

Autoimmunity may be generated by a variety of factors by creating a hyper-stimulated state of the immune system. It had been established long ago that viruses are a substantial component of environmental factors that contribute to the production of autoimmune antibodies, as well as autoimmune diseases. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are viruses that withhold these autoimmune abilities. In a similar manner, SARS-CoV-2 may be counted to similar manifestations, as numerous records demonstrating the likelihood of COVID-19 patients to develop multiple types of autoantibodies and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we focused on the association between COVID-19 and the immune system concerning the tendency of patients to develop over 15 separate types of autoantibodies and above 10 distinct autoimmune diseases. An additional autoimmunity manifestation may be one of the common initial symptoms in COVID-19 patients, anosmia, the complete loss of the ability to sense smell, and other olfactory alterations. We summarize current knowledge on principal mechanisms that may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in the disease: the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to hyper-stimulate the immune system, induce excessive neutrophil extracellular traps formation with neutrophil-associated cytokine responses and the molecular resemblance between self-components of the host and the virus. Additionally, we will examine COVID-19 potential risk on the new-onsets of autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kawasaki disease and numerous others. It is of great importance to recognize those autoimmune manifestations of COVID-19 in order to properly cope with their outcomes in the ongoing pandemic and the long-term post-pandemic period. Lastly, an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 may be the best solution in dealing with the ongoing pandemic. We will discuss the new messenger RNA vaccination strategy with an emphasis on autoimmunity implications.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Autoimmunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Immunol ; 223: 108652, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064949

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 reminds us that the emerging and reemerging respiratory virus infections pose a continuing threat to human life. Cytokine storm syndromes of viral origin seem to have a common pathogenesis of the imbalanced immune response with the exaggerated inflammatory reaction combined with the reduction and functional exhaustion of T cells. Immunomodulatory therapy is gaining interest in COVID-19, but this strategy has received less attention in other respiratory viral infections than it deserved. In this review we suggest that based on the similarities of the immune dysfunction in the severe cases of different respiratory viral infections, some lessons from the immunomodulatory therapy of COVID-19 (particularly regarding the choice of an immunomodulatory drug, the selection of patients and optimal time window for this kind of therapy) could be applied for some cases of severe influenza infection and probably for some future outbreaks of novel severe respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Influenza, Human/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunomodulation , Inflammation
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