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2.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 740-755, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to recovery of command-following and associations between hypoxemia with time to recovery of command-following. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective, cohort study during the initial surge of the United States' pandemic (March-July 2020) we estimate the time from intubation to recovery of command-following, using Kaplan Meier cumulative-incidence curves and Cox proportional hazard models. Patients were included if they were admitted to 1 of 3 hospitals because of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), required endotracheal intubation for at least 7 days, and experienced impairment of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale motor score <6). RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-one patients of the 795 patients recovered command-following. The median time to recovery of command-following was 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27-32 days). Median time to recovery of command-following increased by 16 days for patients with at least one episode of an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) value ≤55 mmHg (p < 0.001), and 25% recovered ≥10 days after cessation of mechanical ventilation. The time to recovery of command-following  was associated with hypoxemia (PaO2 ≤55 mmHg hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.46-0.68; PaO2 ≤70 HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91), and each additional day of hypoxemia decreased the likelihood of recovery, accounting for confounders including sedation. These findings were confirmed among patients without any imagining evidence of structural brain injury (n = 199), and in a non-overlapping second surge cohort (N = 427, October 2020 to April 2021). INTERPRETATION: Survivors of severe COVID-19 commonly recover consciousness weeks after cessation of mechanical ventilation. Long recovery periods are associated with more severe hypoxemia. This relationship is not explained by sedation or brain injury identified on clinical imaging and should inform decisions about life-sustaining therapies. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:740-755.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Brain Injuries/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypoxia , Retrospective Studies , Unconsciousness/complications
4.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(4): 677-685, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obtaining electronic patient data, especially from electronic health record (EHR) systems, for clinical and translational research is difficult. Multiple research informatics systems exist but navigating the numerous applications can be challenging for scientists. This article describes Architecture for Research Computing in Health (ARCH), our institution's approach for matching investigators with tools and services for obtaining electronic patient data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Supporting the spectrum of studies from populations to individuals, ARCH delivers a breadth of scientific functions-including but not limited to cohort discovery, electronic data capture, and multi-institutional data sharing-that manifest in specific systems-such as i2b2, REDCap, and PCORnet. Through a consultative process, ARCH staff align investigators with tools with respect to study design, data sources, and cost. Although most ARCH services are available free of charge, advanced engagements require fee for service. RESULTS: Since 2016 at Weill Cornell Medicine, ARCH has supported over 1200 unique investigators through more than 4177 consultations. Notably, ARCH infrastructure enabled critical coronavirus disease 2019 response activities for research and patient care. DISCUSSION: ARCH has provided a technical, regulatory, financial, and educational framework to support the biomedical research enterprise with electronic patient data. Collaboration among informaticians, biostatisticians, and clinicians has been critical to rapid generation and analysis of EHR data. CONCLUSION: A suite of tools and services, ARCH helps match investigators with informatics systems to reduce time to science. ARCH has facilitated research at Weill Cornell Medicine and may provide a model for informatics and research leaders to support scientists elsewhere.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Electronics , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Research Personnel
5.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104622, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data extraction from electronic health record (EHR) systems occurs through manual abstraction, automated extraction, or a combination of both. While each method has its strengths and weaknesses, both are necessary for retrospective observational research as well as sudden clinical events, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessing the strengths, weaknesses, and potentials of these methods is important to continue to understand optimal approaches to extracting clinical data. We set out to assess automated and manual techniques for collecting medication use data in patients with COVID-19 to inform future observational studies that extract data from the electronic health record (EHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 4,123 COVID-positive patients hospitalized and/or seen in the emergency department at an academic medical center between 03/03/2020 and 05/15/2020, we compared medication use data of 25 medications or drug classes collected through manual abstraction and automated extraction from the EHR. Quantitatively, we assessed concordance using Cohen's kappa to measure interrater reliability, and qualitatively, we audited observed discrepancies to determine causes of inconsistencies. RESULTS: For the 16 inpatient medications, 11 (69%) demonstrated moderate or better agreement; 7 of those demonstrated strong or almost perfect agreement. For 9 outpatient medications, 3 (33%) demonstrated moderate agreement, but none achieved strong or almost perfect agreement. We audited 12% of all discrepancies (716/5,790) and, in those audited, observed three principal categories of error: human error in manual abstraction (26%), errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) or mapping of the automated extraction (41%), and abstraction-query mismatch (33%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest many inpatient medications can be collected reliably through automated extraction, especially when abstraction instructions are designed with data architecture in mind. We discuss quality issues, concerns, and improvements for institutions to consider when crafting an approach. During crises, institutions must decide how to allocate limited resources. We show that automated extraction of medications is feasible and make recommendations on how to improve future iterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Data Collection , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cell Metab ; 33(11): 2174-2188.e5, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446535

ABSTRACT

Individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 who also display hyperglycemia suffer from longer hospital stays, higher risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and increased mortality. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that hyperglycemia is similarly prevalent among patients with ARDS independent of COVID-19 status. Yet among patients with ARDS and COVID-19, insulin resistance is the prevalent cause of hyperglycemia, independent of glucocorticoid treatment, which is unlike patients with ARDS but without COVID-19, where pancreatic beta cell failure predominates. A screen of glucoregulatory hormones revealed lower levels of adiponectin in patients with COVID-19. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a strong antiviral gene expression program in the adipose tissue and diminished expression of adiponectin. Moreover, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect adipocytes. Together these data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger adipose tissue dysfunction to drive insulin resistance and adverse outcomes in acute COVID-19.

7.
J Biomed Inform ; 118: 103789, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188720

ABSTRACT

Patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are critically ill and require life-sustaining organ failure support. Existing critical care data resources are limited to a select number of institutions, contain only ICU data, and do not enable the study of local changes in care patterns. To address these limitations, we developed the Critical carE Database for Advanced Research (CEDAR), a method for automating extraction and transformation of data from an electronic health record (EHR) system. Compared to an existing gold standard of manually collected data at our institution, CEDAR was statistically similar in most measures, including patient demographics and sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores. Additionally, CEDAR automated data extraction obviated the need for manual collection of 550 variables. Critically, during the spring 2020 COVID-19 surge in New York City, a modified version of CEDAR supported pandemic response efforts, including clinical operations and research. Other academic medical centers may find value in using the CEDAR method to automate data extraction from EHR systems to support ICU activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Electronic Health Records , Intensive Care Units , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1660, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132065

ABSTRACT

In less than nine months, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) killed over a million people, including >25,000 in New York City (NYC) alone. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights clinical needs to detect infection, track strain evolution, and identify biomarkers of disease course. To address these challenges, we designed a fast (30-minute) colorimetric test (LAMP) for SARS-CoV-2 infection from naso/oropharyngeal swabs and a large-scale shotgun metatranscriptomics platform (total-RNA-seq) for host, viral, and microbial profiling. We applied these methods to clinical specimens gathered from 669 patients in New York City during the first two months of the outbreak, yielding a broad molecular portrait of the emerging COVID-19 disease. We find significant enrichment of a NYC-distinctive clade of the virus (20C), as well as host responses in interferon, ACE, hematological, and olfaction pathways. In addition, we use 50,821 patient records to find that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have a protective effect for severe COVID-19 outcomes, unlike similar drugs. Finally, spatial transcriptomic data from COVID-19 patient autopsy tissues reveal distinct ACE2 expression loci, with macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. These findings can inform public health and may help develop and drive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Drug Interactions , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral , HLA Antigens/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , New York City/epidemiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239536, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created unprecedented medical challenges. There remains a need for validated risk prediction models to assess short-term mortality risk among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 7-day and 14-day mortality risk prediction model for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study with a separate multicenter cohort for external validation using two hospitals in New York, NY, and 9 hospitals in Massachusetts, respectively. A total of 664 patients in NY and 265 patients with COVID-19 in Massachusetts, hospitalized from March to April 2020. RESULTS: We developed a risk model consisting of patient age, hypoxia severity, mean arterial pressure and presence of kidney dysfunction at hospital presentation. Multivariable regression model was based on risk factors selected from univariable and Chi-squared automatic interaction detection analyses. Validation was by receiver operating characteristic curve (discrimination) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit (GOF) test (calibration). In internal cross-validation, prediction of 7-day mortality had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.98; GOF p = 0.744); while 14-day had an AUC of 0.83 (95%CI 0.69-0.97; GOF p = 0.588). External validation was achieved using 265 patients from an outside cohort and confirmed 7- and 14-day mortality prediction performance with an AUC of 0.85 (95%CI 0.78-0.92; GOF p = 0.340) and 0.83 (95%CI 0.76-0.89; GOF p = 0.471) respectively, along with excellent calibration. Retrospective data collection, short follow-up time, and development in COVID-19 epicenter may limit model generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-AID risk tool is a well-calibrated model that demonstrates accuracy in the prediction of both 7-day and 14-day mortality risk among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. This prediction score could assist with resource utilization, patient and caregiver education, and provide a risk stratification instrument for future research trials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Logistic Models , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , New York , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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