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1.
Vaccine ; 40(22): 3072-3084, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778490

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty surrounding the risk of developing and dying from Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) associated with the AstraZeneca (AZ) COVID-19 vaccine may contribute to vaccine hesitancy. A model is urgently needed to combine and effectively communicate evidence on the risks versus benefits of the AZ vaccine. We developed a Bayesian network to consolidate evidence on risks and benefits of the AZ vaccine, and parameterised the model using data from a range of empirical studies, government reports, and expert advisory groups. Expert judgement was used to interpret the available evidence and determine the model structure, relevant variables, data for inclusion, and how these data were used to inform the model. The model can be used as a decision-support tool to generate scenarios based on age, sex, virus variant and community transmission rates, making it useful for individuals, clinicians, and researchers to assess the chances of different health outcomes. Model outputs include the risk of dying from TTS following the AZ COVID-19 vaccine, the risk of dying from COVID-19 or COVID-19-associated atypical severe blood clots under different scenarios. Although the model is focused on Australia, it can be adapted to international settings by re-parameterising it with local data. This paper provides detailed description of the model-building methodology, which can be used to expand the scope of the model to include other COVID-19 vaccines, booster doses, comorbidities and other health outcomes (e.g., long COVID) to ensure the model remains relevant in the face of constantly changing discussion on risks versus benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0278021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700612

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to overcome the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Efforts are being made to understand the potential cross-protective immunity of memory T cells, induced by prior encounters with seasonal coronaviruses, in providing protection against severe COVID-19. In this study we assessed T-cell responses directed against highly conserved regions of SARS-CoV-2. Epitope mapping revealed 16 CD8+ T-cell epitopes across the nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and open reading frame (ORF)3a proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and five CD8+ T-cell epitopes encoded within the highly conserved regions of the ORF1ab polyprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative sequence analysis showed high conservation of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab T-cell epitopes in seasonal coronaviruses. Paradoxically, the immune responses directed against the conserved ORF1ab epitopes were infrequent and subdominant in both convalescent and unexposed participants. This subdominant immune response was consistent with a low abundance of ORF1ab encoded proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Overall, these observations suggest that while cross-reactive CD8+ T cells likely exist in unexposed individuals, they are not common and therefore are unlikely to play a significant role in providing broad preexisting immunity in the community. IMPORTANCE T cells play a critical role in protection against SARS-CoV-2. Despite being highly topical, the protective role of preexisting memory CD8+ T cells, induced by prior exposure to circulating common coronavirus strains, remains less clear. In this study, we established a robust approach to specifically assess T cell responses to highly conserved regions within SARS-CoV-2. Consistent with recent observations we demonstrate that recognition of these highly conserved regions is associated with an increased likelihood of milder disease. However, extending these observations we observed that recognition of these conserved regions is rare in both exposed and unexposed volunteers, which we believe is associated with the low abundance of these proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. These observations have important implications for the likely role preexisting immunity plays in controlling severe disease, further emphasizing the importance of vaccination to generate the immunodominant T cells required for immune protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010339, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686116

ABSTRACT

Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy has provided promising results in the treatment of viral complications in humans, particularly in the context of immunocompromised patients who have exhausted all other clinical options. The capacity to expand T cells from healthy immune individuals is providing a new approach to anti-viral immunotherapy, offering rapid off-the-shelf treatment with tailor-made human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched T cells. While most of this research has focused on the treatment of latent viral infections, emerging evidence that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells play an important role in protection against COVID-19 suggests that the transfer of HLA-matched allogeneic off-the-shelf virus-specific T cells could provide a treatment option for patients with active COVID-19 or at risk of developing COVID-19. We initially screened 60 convalescent individuals and based on HLA typing and T-cell response profile, 12 individuals were selected for the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell bank. We demonstrate that these T cells are specific for up to four SARS-CoV-2 antigens presented by a broad range of both HLA class I and class II alleles. These T cells show consistent functional and phenotypic properties, display cytotoxic potential against HLA-matched targets and can recognize HLA-matched cells infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants. These observations demonstrate a robust approach for the production of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and provide the impetus for the development of a T-cell repository for clinical assessment.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 770066, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518490

ABSTRACT

Acute inflammation is a critical host defense response during viral infection. When dysregulated, inflammation drives immunopathology and tissue damage. Excessive, damaging inflammation is a hallmark of both pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) infections and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is also a feature of obesity. In recent years, obesity has been recognized as a growing pandemic with significant mortality and associated costs. Obesity is also an independent risk factor for increased disease severity and death during both IAV and SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review focuses on the effect of obesity on the inflammatory response in the context of viral respiratory infections and how this leads to increased viral pathology. Here, we will review the fundamentals of inflammation, how it is initiated in IAV and SARS-CoV-2 infection and its link to disease severity. We will examine how obesity drives chronic inflammation and trained immunity and how these impact the immune response to IAV and SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we review both medical and non-medical interventions for obesity, how they impact on the inflammatory response and how they could be used to prevent disease severity in obese patients. As projections of global obesity numbers show no sign of slowing down, future pandemic preparedness will require us to consider the metabolic health of the population. Furthermore, if weight-loss alone is insufficient to reduce the risk of increased respiratory virus-related mortality, closer attention must be paid to a patient's history of health, and new therapeutic options identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/immunology , Obesity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Vaccine ; 39(51): 7429-7440, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500308

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) has been associated with the AstraZencea (AZ) COVID-19 vaccine (Vaxzevria). Australia has reported low TTS incidence of < 3/100,000 after the first dose, with case fatality rate (CFR) of 5-6%. Risk-benefit analysis of vaccination has been challenging because of rapidly evolving data, changing levels of transmission, and variation in rates of TTS, COVID-19, and CFR between age groups. We aim to optimise risk-benefit analysis by developing a model that enables inputs to be updated rapidly as evidence evolves. A Bayesian network was used to integrate local and international data, government reports, published literature and expert opinion. The model estimates probabilities of outcomes under different scenarios of age, sex, low/medium/high transmission (0.05%/0.45%/5.76% of population infected over 6 months), SARS-CoV-2 variant, vaccine doses, and vaccine effectiveness. We used the model to compare estimated deaths from AZ vaccine-associated TTS with i) COVID-19 deaths prevented under different scenarios, and ii) deaths from COVID-19 related atypical severe blood clots (cerebral venous sinus thrombosis & portal vein thrombosis). For a million people aged ≥ 70 years where 70% received first dose and 35% received two doses, our model estimated < 1 death from TTS, 25 deaths prevented under low transmission, and > 3000 deaths prevented under high transmission. Risks versus benefits varied significantly between age groups and transmission levels. Under high transmission, deaths prevented by AZ vaccine far exceed deaths from TTS (by 8 to > 4500 times depending on age). Probability of dying from COVID-related atypical severe blood clots was 58-126 times higher (depending on age and sex) than dying from TTS. To our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of Bayesian networks for risk-benefit analysis for a COVID-19 vaccine. The model can be rapidly updated to incorporate new data, adapted for other countries, extended to other outcomes (e.g., severe disease), or used for other vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Infant, Newborn
6.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484297

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in late 2019 has spread globally, causing a pandemic of respiratory illness designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better definition of the pulmonary host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is required to understand viral pathogenesis and to validate putative COVID-19 biomarkers that have been proposed in clinical studies. Here, we use targeted transcriptomics of FFPE tissue using the Nanostring GeoMX™ platform to generate an in-depth picture of the pulmonary transcriptional landscape of COVID-19, pandemic H1N1 influenza and uninfected control patients. Host transcriptomics showed a significant upregulation of genes associated with inflammation, type I interferon production, coagulation and angiogenesis in the lungs of COVID-19 patients compared to non-infected controls. SARS-CoV-2 was non-uniformly distributed in lungs (emphasising the advantages of spatial transcriptomics) with the areas of high viral load associated with an increased type I interferon response. Once the dominant cell type present in the sample, within patient correlations and patient-patient variation had been controlled for, only a very limited number of genes were differentially expressed between the lungs of fatal influenza and COVID-19 patients. Strikingly, the interferon-associated gene IFI27, previously identified as a useful blood biomarker to differentiate bacterial and viral lung infections, was significantly upregulated in the lungs of COVID-19 patients compared to patients with influenza. Collectively, these data demonstrate that spatial transcriptomics is a powerful tool to identify novel gene signatures within tissues, offering new insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-COV-2 to aid in patient triage and treatment.

7.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(10): e1350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Thrombotic and microvascular complications are frequently seen in deceased COVID-19 patients. However, whether this is caused by direct viral infection of the endothelium or inflammation-induced endothelial activation remains highly contentious. METHODS: Here, we use patient autopsy samples, primary human endothelial cells and an in vitro model of the pulmonary epithelial-endothelial cell barrier. RESULTS: We show that primary human endothelial cells express very low levels of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and the protease TMPRSS2, which blocks their capacity for productive viral infection, and limits their capacity to produce infectious virus. Accordingly, endothelial cells can only be infected when they overexpress ACE2, or are exposed to very high concentrations of SARS-CoV-2. We also show that SARS-CoV-2 does not infect endothelial cells in 3D vessels under flow conditions. We further demonstrate that in a co-culture model endothelial cells are not infected with SARS-CoV-2. Endothelial cells do however sense and respond to infection in the adjacent epithelial cells, increasing ICAM-1 expression and releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data suggest that in vivo, endothelial cells are unlikely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and that infection may only occur if the adjacent pulmonary epithelium is denuded (basolateral infection) or a high viral load is present in the blood (apical infection). In such a scenario, whilst SARS-CoV-2 infection of the endothelium can occur, it does not contribute to viral amplification. However, endothelial cells may still play a key role in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis by sensing adjacent infection and mounting a pro-inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2.

8.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(11): e13714, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471196

ABSTRACT

Risk stratification of COVID-19 patients is essential for pandemic management. Changes in the cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, can precede the host immune response to infection, potentially making such a biomarker an earlier triage tool. Here, we evaluate whether hFwe-Lose gene expression can outperform conventional methods in predicting outcomes (e.g., death and hospitalization) in COVID-19 patients. We performed a post-mortem examination of infected lung tissue in deceased COVID-19 patients to determine hFwe-Lose's biological role in acute lung injury. We then performed an observational study (n = 283) to evaluate whether hFwe-Lose expression (in nasopharyngeal samples) could accurately predict hospitalization or death in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients with acute lung injury, hFwe-Lose is highly expressed in the lower respiratory tract and is co-localized to areas of cell death. In patients presenting in the early phase of COVID-19 illness, hFwe-Lose expression accurately predicts subsequent hospitalization or death with positive predictive values of 87.8-100% and a negative predictive value of 64.1-93.2%. hFwe-Lose outperforms conventional inflammatory biomarkers and patient age and comorbidities, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.93-0.97 in predicting hospitalization/death. Specifically, this is significantly higher than the prognostic value of combining biomarkers (serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio), patient age and comorbidities (AUROC of 0.67-0.92). The cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, accurately predicts outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This finding demonstrates how tissue fitness pathways dictate the response to infection and disease and their utility in managing the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Flowers , Humans , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(9): e1343, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404550

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 and is strongly associated with poor disease outcomes. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection can also trigger de novo acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. Acute cardiac complications include arrhythmia, myocarditis and heart failure, which are significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. The possible mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 causes this acute cardiac disease include direct damage caused by viral invasion of cardiomyocytes as well as indirect damage through systemic inflammation. The long-term cardiac complications associated with COVID-19 are incompletely characterised and thought to include hypertension, arrhythmia, coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. Although some cardiac-related symptoms can last over 6 months, the effect of these complications on long-term patient health remains unclear. The risk factors associated with long-term cardiovascular disease remain poorly defined. Determining which patients are most at-risk of long-term cardiovascular disease is vital so that targeted follow-up and patient care can be provided. The aim of this review was to summarise the current evidence of the acute and long-term cardiovascular consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 may cause cardiovascular disease.

10.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5042-5054, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295003

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) to respiratory viral infections. Despite the short history of COVID-19, various studies have shown that patients with DM are more likely to have increased hospitalisation and mortality rates as compared to patients without. At present, the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility are unclear. However, prior studies show that the course of COVID-19 disease is linked to the efficacy of the host's T-cell responses. Healthy individuals who can elicit a robust T-cell response are more likely to limit the severity of COVID-19. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that an impaired T-cell response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drives the severity of COVID-19 in this patient population. While there is currently a limited amount of information that specifically addresses T-cell responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM, there is a wealth of evidence from other infectious diseases that T-cell immunity is impaired in patients with T2DM. The reasons for this are likely multifactorial, including the presence of hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability and metformin use. This review emphasises the need for further research into T-cell responses of COVID-19 patients with T2DM in order to better inform our response to COVID-19 and future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/virology
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1146-e1153, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269565

ABSTRACT

The role of children in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains highly controversial. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the published literature on household SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters (n = 213 from 12 countries). Only 8 (3.8%) transmission clusters were identified as having a pediatric index case. Asymptomatic index cases were associated with a lower secondary attack in contacts than symptomatic index cases (estimate risk ratio [RR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.29). To determine the susceptibility of children to household infections the secondary attack rate in pediatric household contacts was assessed. The secondary attack rate in pediatric household contacts was lower than in adult household contacts (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.91). These data have important implications for the ongoing management of the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential vaccine prioritization strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
12.
Diabetes Care ; 44(6): 1281-1290, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190256

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the contribution of overweight and/or diabetes remains unclear. In a multicenter, international study, we investigated if overweight, obesity, and diabetes were independently associated with COVID-19 severity and whether the BMI-associated risk was increased among those with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively extracted data from health care records and regional databases of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 from 18 sites in 11 countries. We used standardized definitions and analyses to generate site-specific estimates, modeling the odds of each outcome (supplemental oxygen/noninvasive ventilatory support, invasive mechanical ventilatory support, and in-hospital mortality) by BMI category (reference, overweight, obese), adjusting for age, sex, and prespecified comorbidities. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients with preexisting diabetes. Site-specific estimates were combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Among 7,244 patients (65.6% overweight/obese), those with overweight were more likely to require oxygen/noninvasive ventilatory support (random effects adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.44; 95% CI 1.15-1.80) and invasive mechanical ventilatory support (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI 1.03-1.46). There was no association between overweight and in-hospital mortality (aOR, 0.88; 95% CI 0.74-1.04). Similar effects were observed in patients with obesity or diabetes. In the subgroup analysis, the aOR for any outcome was not additionally increased in those with diabetes and overweight or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: In adults hospitalized with COVID-19, overweight, obesity, and diabetes were associated with increased odds of requiring respiratory support but were not associated with death. In patients with diabetes, the odds of severe COVID-19 were not increased above the BMI-associated risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Body Mass Index , Hospitals , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1055-1065.e5, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179683

ABSTRACT

Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7+ COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. In vitro peptide stimulation and crystal structure analyses revealed T cell-mediated cross-reactivity toward circulating OC43 and HKU-1 betacoronaviruses but not 229E or NL63 alphacoronaviruses because of different peptide conformations. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing indicated that cross-reactivity was driven by private TCR repertoires with a bias for TRBV27 and a long CDR3ß loop. Our findings demonstrate the basis of selective T cell cross-reactivity for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 epitope and its homologs from seasonal coronaviruses, suggesting long-lasting protective immunity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-B7 Antigen/chemistry , HLA-B7 Antigen/genetics , HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunologic Memory , Models, Molecular , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology
14.
iScience ; 24(4): 102264, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125486

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications. We sought to analyze the association of host co-morbidities (chronic respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular disease [CVD], hypertension or diabetes mellitus [DM]) with the acute cardiovascular complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Individual analyses of the majority of studies found median age was higher by ~10 years in patients with cardiovascular complications. Pooled analyses showed development of SARS-CoV-2 cardiovascular complications was significantly increased in patients with chronic respiratory illness (odds ratio (OR): 1.67 [1.48, 1.88]), CVD (OR: 3.37 [2.57, 4.43]), hypertension (OR: 2.68 [2.11, 3.41]), DM (OR: 1.60 [1.31, 1.95]) and male sex (OR: 1.31 [1.21, 1.42]), findings that were mostly conserved during sub-analysis of studies stratified into global geographic regions. Age, chronic respiratory illness, CVD, hypertension, DM, and male sex may represent prognostic factors for the development of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 disease, highlighting the need for a multidisciplinary approach to chronic disease patient management.

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