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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The progression of clinical manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the need to account for symptom duration at the time of hospital presentation in decision-making algorithms. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control analysis of 4103 adult patients with COVID-19 and at least 28 days of follow-up who presented to a New York City medical center. Multivariable logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis were used to identify predictors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Patients presenting to the hospital earlier in their disease course were older, had more comorbidities, and a greater proportion decompensated (<4 days, 41%; 4-8 days, 31%; >8 days, 26%). The first recorded oxygen delivery method was the most important predictor of decompensation overall in CART analysis. In patients with symptoms for <4, 4-8, and >8 days, requiring at least non-rebreather, age ≥ 63 years, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥ 5.1; requiring at least non-rebreather, IL-6 ≥ 24.7 pg/mL, and D-dimer ≥ 2.4 µg/mL; and IL-6 ≥ 64.3 pg/mL, requiring non-rebreather, and CRP ≥ 152.5 mg/mL in predictive models were independently associated with poor outcome, respectively. CONCLUSION: Symptom duration in tandem with initial clinical and laboratory markers can be used to identify patients with COVID-19 at increased risk for poor outcomes.

2.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1445-1448, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of transmission-based precautions among immunocompromised patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with solid organ transplant with positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction result from nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to the hospital between March 13, 2020 and May 15, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of solid organ transplant recipients with positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction detected ≥20 d after symptom onset (or after first positive test among asymptomatic individuals) had a low cycle threshold (ie, high viral load). The majority of these patients were asymptomatic or symptomatically improved. CONCLUSIONS: Solid organ transplant recipients may have prolonged high viral burden of SARS-CoV-2. Further data are needed to understand whether cycle threshold data can help inform strategies for prevention of healthcare-associated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and for appropriate discontinuation of transmission-based precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/virology , Organ Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049488, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York City medical centre at 3 and 6 months after hospitalisation and describe their healthcare usage, symptoms, morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort through manual chart review of the electronic medical record. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical centre in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1190 consecutive patients with symptoms of COVID-19 who presented to the hospital for care between 1 March and 8 April 2020 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcriptase PCR assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and frequency of follow-up encounters, self-reported symptoms, morbidity and mortality at 3 and 6 months after presentation, respectively; patient disposition information prior to admission, at discharge, and at 3 and 6 months after hospital presentation. RESULTS: Of the 1190 reviewed patients, 929 survived their initial hospitalisation and 261 died. Among survivors, 570 had follow-up encounters (488 at 3 months and 364 at 6 months). An additional 33 patients died in the follow-up period. In the first 3 months after admission, most encounters were telehealth visits (59%). Cardiopulmonary symptoms (35.7% and 28%), especially dyspnoea (22.1% and 15.9%), were the most common reported symptoms at 3-month and 6-month encounters, respectively. Additionally, a large number of patients reported generalised (26.4%) or neuropsychiatric (24.2%) symptoms 6 months after hospitalisation. Patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to have reduced mobility, reduced independence or a new dialysis requirement in the 6 months after hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported persistent symptoms up to 6 months after diagnosis. These results highlight the long-term morbidity of COVID-19 and its burden on patients and healthcare resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(4)2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048648

ABSTRACT

The role of procalcitonin in identifying community-associated bacterial infections among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is not yet established. In 2,443 patients of whom 148 had bacterial coinfections, mean procalcitonin levels were significantly higher with any bacterial infection (13.16 ± 51.19 ng/ml; P = 0.0091) and with bacteremia (34.25 ± 85.01 ng/ml; P = 0.0125) than without infection (2.00 ± 15.26 ng/ml). Procalcitonin (cutoff, 0.25 or 0.50 ng/ml) did not reliably identify bacterial coinfections but may be useful in excluding bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Procalcitonin/therapeutic use , Aged , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(2): 380-384, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 may be at increased risk for secondary bacterial infections with MDR pathogens, including carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE). OBJECTIVES: We sought to rapidly investigate the clinical characteristics, population structure and mechanisms of resistance of CPE causing secondary infections in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively identified CPE clinical isolates collected from patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March and April 2020 at our medical centre in New York City. Available isolates underwent nanopore sequencing for rapid genotyping, antibiotic resistance gene detection and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: We identified 31 CPE isolates from 13 patients, including 27 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4 Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates. Most patients (11/13) had a positive respiratory culture and 7/13 developed bacteraemia; treatment failure was common. Twenty isolates were available for WGS. Most K. pneumoniae (16/17) belonged to ST258 and encoded KPC (15 KPC-2; 1 KPC-3); one ST70 isolate encoded KPC-2. E. cloacae isolates belonged to ST270 and encoded NDM-1. Nanopore sequencing enabled identification of at least four distinct ST258 lineages in COVID-19 patients, which were validated by Illumina sequencing data. CONCLUSIONS: While CPE prevalence has declined substantially in New York City in recent years, increased detection in patients with COVID-19 may signal a re-emergence of these highly resistant pathogens in the wake of the global pandemic. Increased surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship efforts, as well as identification of optimal treatment approaches for CPE, will be needed to mitigate their future impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/complications , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nanopore Sequencing , New York City/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactamases/genetics
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e367-e372, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the association between use of methylprednisolone and key clinical outcomes. METHODS: Clinical outcomes associated with the use of methylprednisolone were assessed in an unmatched, case-control study; a subset of patients also underwent propensity-score matching. Patients were admitted between 1 March and 12 April, 2020. The primary outcome was ventilator-free days by 28 days after admission. Secondary outcomes included extubation, mortality, discharge, positive cultures, and hyperglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients met inclusion criteria. Propensity matching yielded a cohort of 42 well-matched pairs. Groups were similar except for hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use, which were more common in patients who did not receive methylprednisolone. Mean ventilator-free days were significantly higher in patients treated with methylprednisolone (6.21 ±â€…7.45 vs 3.14 ±â€…6.22; P = .044). The probability of extubation was also increased in patients receiving methylprednisolone (45% vs 21%; P = .021), and there were no significant differences in mortality (19% vs 36%; P = .087). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, only methylprednisolone use was associated with a higher number of ventilator-free days (P = .045). The incidence of positive cultures and hyperglycemia were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Methylprednisolone was associated with increased ventilator-free days and higher probability of extubation in a propensity-score matched cohort. Randomized, controlled studies are needed to further define methylprednisolone use in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methylprednisolone , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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