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1.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 85(2): 333-334, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281288
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(3)2023 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215690

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Long COVID syndrome is a significant cause of morbidity in COVID-19 patients who remain symptomatic with varied clinical presentations beyond three weeks. Furthermore, the relevance of considering cardiovascular outcomes in post-COVID-19 syndrome is important in the current COVID-19 pandemic; (2) Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches were conducted from multiple databases without language restrictions until October 8, 2022, to find studies evaluating cardiovascular outcomes such as arrhythmias, myocardium and pericardium diseases, coronary vessel disease, and thromboembolic disorders in post-COVID cases. The pooled odds ratio (OR), and standard mean difference (SMD) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to find the association; (3) Results: Altogether, seven studies with a total of 8,126,462 (cases: 1,321,305; controls: 6,805,157) participants were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios of cardiovascular outcomes were significantly higher in post-COVID cases (OR > 1, p < 0.05) than in controls. However, the mortality (OR: 4.76, p = 0.13), and heart rate variability (SMD: -0.06, p = 0.91) between cases and controls were not statistically significant; (4) Conclusions: Significant cardiovascular sequelae in long COVID syndrome highlight the importance of careful cardiac monitoring of COVID-19 patients in the post-COVID phase to address cardiovascular complications as soon as possible; larger-scale prospective studies are required for accurate estimation.

3.
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med ; 17: 11795484231152304, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to find the association between serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and the severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. DATA SOURCES: Databases of Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched for studies reporting KL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients, published between January 2020 and September 30 2022. DATA SYNTHESIS: For comparison between the groups, standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as the effect sizes. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were measured to assess the diagnostic power of KL-6. In addition, the summary receiver operating characteristics curve (sROC) was constructed to summarize the true positive (TP), and false positive (FP) rates. To validate the findings of meta-analysis, Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was conducted. RESULTS: Altogether 497 severe COVID-19 patients and 934 non-severe (mild to moderate) COVID-19 patients were included. Pooling of 12 studies indicated that the serum KL-6 level had significant association with severity of COVID-19 infection: standard mean difference = 1.18 (95% CI: 0.93-1.43), p = 0.01; I2: 58.56%]. Pooled diagnostic parameters calculated from eight studies were: sensitivity 0.53 (95% CI: 0.47-0.59); specificity 0.90 (95% CI: 0.88-0.93); positive likelihood ratio 4.80 (95% CI: 3.53-6.53); negative likelihood ratio 0.46 (95% CI: 0.32-0.68); and area under curve: 0.8841. Additionally, TSA verified the adequacy of sample size and robustness of the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Serum KL-6 level has a moderate degree of correlation with the severity of COVID-19 infection but has low sensitivity. So, it is not recommended as a screening test for severe COVID-19 infection.

4.
Medicine ; 101(51), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2169749

ABSTRACT

Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the association of hypernatremia with the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct until October 2021 and found a total of 131 papers. With meticulous screening finally, 17 papers met the inclusion criteria. COVID-19 patients with sodium levels greater than the reference level were the study population and the outcome of interest was the poor outcome;such as mortality, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and prolonged hospital stay. The pooled estimate was calculated as the odds ratio (OR). Results: There were 19,032 patients with hypernatremia in the 17 studies included. An overall random effect meta-analysis showed that hypernatremia was associated with mortality (OR: 3.18 [1.61, 6.28], P < .0001, I2 = 91.99%), prolong hospitalization (OR: 1.97 [1.37, 2.83], P < .001, I2 = 0.00%) and Ventilation (OR: 5.40 [1.89, 15.42], P < .001, I2 = 77.35%), ICU admission (OR: 3.99 [0.89, 17.78], P = .07, I2 = 86.79%). Meta-regression analysis showed the association of age with the ICU outcome of hypernatremia patients. Whereas, other parameters like male, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus did not significantly influence the odds ratio. Conclusion: Hypernatremia was markedly associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Hence, a blood ionogram is warranted and special attention must be given to hypernatremia COVID-19 patients.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e32535, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the association of hypernatremia with the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct until October 2021 and found a total of 131 papers. With meticulous screening finally, 17 papers met the inclusion criteria. COVID-19 patients with sodium levels greater than the reference level were the study population and the outcome of interest was the poor outcome; such as mortality, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and prolonged hospital stay. The pooled estimate was calculated as the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: There were 19,032 patients with hypernatremia in the 17 studies included. An overall random effect meta-analysis showed that hypernatremia was associated with mortality (OR: 3.18 [1.61, 6.28], P < .0001, I2 = 91.99%), prolong hospitalization (OR: 1.97 [1.37, 2.83], P < .001, I2 = 0.00%) and Ventilation (OR: 5.40 [1.89, 15.42], P < .001, I2 = 77.35%), ICU admission (OR: 3.99 [0.89, 17.78], P = .07, I2 = 86.79%). Meta-regression analysis showed the association of age with the ICU outcome of hypernatremia patients. Whereas, other parameters like male, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus did not significantly influence the odds ratio. CONCLUSION: Hypernatremia was markedly associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Hence, a blood ionogram is warranted and special attention must be given to hypernatremia COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypernatremia , Humans , Male , COVID-19/complications , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hypernatremia/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Female
6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 84: 104936, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119820

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 was a major pandemic of the 21st century that flinched away every individual worldwide. The extensive impact of this rapidly spreading deadly virus doomed the health care systems with the unexpected wave wreaked havoc leading to a global health crisis. It has been a high burden on the functioning existing medical system, overloads health professionals, disruption of the medical supply chain. The economy of the nations has been at losses with a significant slowing down in revenue growth over the past 2 years. After taking its toll, drawing away other diseases including cholera. The three developing nations; India, Bangladesh and Nepal, are now at the verge of facing an outbreak of Cholera. It is not surprising to hear cholera in this nation but the fact that its negligence due to Covid-19 pandemic and monkeypox along with a crumbled health system due to the pandemic has made these nations vulnerable for health crisis. Along with this three nations, cholera has made its way to different parts of this globe and it is high time that attention must be drawn towards it as mismanagement could even cause life.

7.
New Microbes New Infect ; 49-50: 101043, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086596
8.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104482, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003855

ABSTRACT

Background: Self-medication association with an ongoing pandemic is evident in the studies conducted throughout the world. To summarize the findings of previous papers, we carried out a systematic review to observe the current scenario of self-medication during COVID-19. Methodology: Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, MedRxiv preprints, SciELO Preprints, google, and google scholar were searched using keywords related to the topic. Studies reporting original data and assessing the self-medication practices during Covid-19 were included. Results: A total of 660 papers were collected and 14 cross-sectional studies among them were finalized from 12 different countries after apposite screening processes. Our study measured that during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a 44.786% prevalence of self-medication. Analgesics, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements were commonly practiced drugs. Pharmacy and hospital outlets were the main sources of the drugs. Fever, sore throat, body ache (muscle pain), and flu or cough were among the most frequently recorded illnesses; treatment and prevention of COVID-19 were the main culprit behind self-medication. During COVID-19, the major factors associated with self-medication were fear, anxiety, and perception regarding COVID-19. Thus, in this pandemic, fear, anxiety, and rumors regarding immunity boosters, nutritional supplements, financial burden, and easy accessibility to even non-OTC drugs; all have their fair share in self-medication practices. Conclusion: As there was heterogeneity regarding COVID-19 and self-medication found among the assessed studies, educating general people about safe self-medication practices, hazards of superfluous drug usage, and provision of an affordable quality-health system should become a priority, especially in low and middle-income countries.

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