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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 52, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690928

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has inflicted the world for over two years. The recent mutant virus strains pose greater challenges to disease prevention and treatment. COVID-19 can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary injury. Dynamic monitoring of each patient's condition is necessary to timely tailor treatments, improve prognosis and reduce mortality. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is broadly used in patients with ARDS. POCUS is recommended to be performed regularly in COVID-19 patients for respiratory failure management. In this review, we summarized the ultrasound characteristics of COVID-19 patients, mainly focusing on lung ultrasound and echocardiography. Furthermore, we also provided the experience of using POCUS to manage COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Testing , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Therapy/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556286

ABSTRACT

Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), but risk factors for COVID-19-associated IPA (CAPA) have not been fully characterized. The aim of the current study was to identify factors associated with CAPA, and assess long-term mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs from six hospitals was conducted in Hubei, China. CAPA was diagnosed via composite clinical criteria. Demographic information, clinical variables, and 180-day outcomes after the diagnosis of CAPA were analyzed. Results: Of 335 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 78 (23.3%) developed CAPA within a median of 20.5 days (range 13.0-42.0 days) after symptom onset. Compared to those without CAPA, CAPA patients were more likely to have thrombocytopenia (50 vs. 19.5%, p < 0.001) and secondary bacterial infection prior to being diagnosed with CAPA (15.4 vs. 6.2%, p = 0.013), and to receive vasopressors (37.2 vs. 8.6%, p < 0.001), higher steroid dosages (53.9 vs. 34.2%, p = 0.002), renal replacement therapy (37.2 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.001), and invasive mechanical ventilation (57.7 vs. 35.8%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis incorporating hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), thrombocytopenia (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.16-3.37, p = 0.012), vasopressor use (HR 3.57, 95% CI 1.80-7.06, p < 0.001), and methylprednisolone use at a daily dose ≥ 40 mg (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.79, p = 1.02-2.79) before CAPA diagnosis were independently associated with CAPA. Patients with CAPA had longer median ICU stays (17 days vs. 12 days, p = 0.007), and higher 180-day mortality (65.4 vs. 33.5%, p < 0.001) than those without CAPA. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia, vasopressor use, and corticosteroid treatment were significantly associated with increased risk of incident IPA in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. The occurrence of CAPA may increase the likelihood of long-term COVID-19 mortality.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 694754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485067

ABSTRACT

To investigate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and evaluate whether CT scans, especially at a certain CT level, could be used to predict the severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. In total 118 confirmed patients had been enrolled. All data including epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and images were collected and analyzed when they were administrated for the first time. All patients were divided into two groups. There were 106 severe/critical patients and 12 common ones. A total of 38 of the patients were women. The mean age was 50.5 ± 11.5 years. Overall, 80 patients had a history of exposure. The median time from onset of symptoms to administration was 8.0 days. The main symptoms included fever, cough, anorexia, fatigue, myalgia, headaches, and chills. Lymphocytes and platelets decreased and lactate dehydrogenase increased with increased diseased severity (P < 0.05). Calcium and chloride ions were decreased more significantly in severe/critical patients than in common ones (P < 0.05). The main comorbidities were diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, and chronic pulmonary disease, which occurred in 47 patients. In all 69 patients had respiratory failure, which is the most common SARS-CoV-2 complication, and liver dysfunction presented in 37 patients. Nine patients received mechanical ventilation therapy. One patient received continuous blood purification and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (EMCO) treatments. The average stay was 18.1 ± 10.8 days. Four patients died. The median of the radiographic score was four in common, and five in the severe/critical illness, which was a significant difference between the two groups. The radiographic score was in negative correlation with OI (ρ = -0.467, P < 0.01). The OI in severe/critically ill cases decreased significantly as the disease progressed, which was related to the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs (ρ = 0.688, R = 0.733). OI, the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs, lymphocytes, etc. were associated with different degrees of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (P < 0.05). The lesion area in both lungs were possible predictive factors for severe/critical cases. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia showed obvious clinical manifestations and laboratory result changes. Combining clinical features and the quantity of the lesion area in the fourth level of CT could effectively predict severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 cases.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 713333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472389

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a life-saving technique for patients with severe respiratory and cardiac diseases, is being increasingly utilized worldwide, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic, and there has been a sharp increase in the implementation of ECMO. However, due to the presence of various complications, the survival rate of patients undergoing ECMO remains low. Among the complications, the neurologic morbidity significantly associated with venoarterial and venovenous ECMO has received increasing attention. Generally, failure to recognize neurologic injury in time is reportedly associated with poor outcomes in patients on ECMO. Currently, multimodal monitoring is increasingly utilized in patients with devastating neurologic injuries and has been advocated as an important approach for early diagnosis. Here, we highlight the prevalence and outcomes, risk factors, current monitoring technologies, prevention, and treatment of neurologic complications in adult patients on ECMO. We believe that an improved understanding of neurologic complications presumably offers promising therapeutic solutions to prevent and treat neurologic morbidity.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

6.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 744-751, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217476

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world with high mortality. To diagnose promptly and accurately is the vital step to effectively control its pandemic. Dynamic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies which are important for diagnosis of infection have not been fully demonstrated. In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we enrolled the initial 131 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Jin-Yin-Tan Hospital who had at least one-time antibody tested during their hospitalization. The dynamic changes of IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in 226 serum samples were detected by ELISA. The sensitivities of IgM and IgG ELISA detection were analyzed. Result showed that the sensitivity of the IgG ELISA detection (92.5%) was significantly higher than that of the IgM (70.8%) (P < 0.001). The meantimes of seroconversion for IgM and IgG were 6 days and 3 days, respectively. The IgM and IgG antibody levels peaked at around 18 days and 23 days, and then IgM fell to below the baseline level at about day 36, whereas IgG maintained at a relatively high level. In conclusion, antibodies should be detected to aid in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. IgG could be a sensitive indicator for retrospective diagnosis and contact tracing, while IgM could be an indicator of early infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(1): 6-15, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096511

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the association between levels of highly sensitive troponin I (hs-troponin I) and mortality in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all COVID-19 patients with increased levels of hs-troponin I from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographic information, laboratory test results, cardiac ultrasonographic findings, and electrocardiograms were collected, and their predictive value on in-hospital mortality was explored using multivariable logistic regression. Of 1500 patients screened, 242 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. Their median age was 68 years, and (48.8%) had underlying cardiovascular diseases. One hundred and seventy-six (72.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression showed that C-reactive protein (>75.5 mg/L), D-dimer (>1.5 µg/mL), and acute respiratory distress syndrome were risk factors of mortality, and the peak hs-troponin I levels (>259.4 pg/mL) instead of the hs-troponin I levels at admission was predictor of death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the peak levels of hs-troponin I for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.86; sensitivity, 0.80; specificity, 0.72; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the risk of in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury can be predicted by the peak levels of hs-troponin I during hospitalization and was significantly associated with oxygen supply-demand mismatch, inflammation, and coagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Troponin I/blood , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 607821, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000106

ABSTRACT

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been recommended as a suitable choice for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure before mechanical ventilation (MV); however, delaying MV with HFNC therapy is still a dilemma between the technique and clinical management during the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients treated with HFNC therapy from four hospitals of Wuhan, China. Demographic information and clinical variables before, at, and shortly after HFNC initiation were collected and analyzed. A risk-stratification model of HFNC failure (the need for MV) was developed with the 324 patients of Jin Yin-tan Hospital and validated its accuracy with 69 patients of other hospitals. Results: Among the training cohort, the median duration of HFNC therapy was 6 (range, 3-11), and 147 experienced HFNC failure within 7 days of HFNC initiation. Early predictors of HFNC failure on the basis of a multivariate regression analysis included age older than 60 years [odds ratio (OR), 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-3.44; p = 0.027; 2 points], respiratory rate-oxygenation index (ROX) <5.31 (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 2.96-9.20; p < 0.001; 5 points) within the first 4 h of HFNC initiation, platelets < 125 × 109/L (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.46-6.35; p = 0.003; 3 points), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) >7.0 pg/mL (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.79-6.23; p < 0.001; 3 points) at HFNC initiation. A weighted risk-stratification model of these predictors showed sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 71.2% and a better predictive ability than ROX index alone [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.807 vs. 0.779, p < 0.001]. Six points were used as a cutoff value for the risk of HFNC failure stratification. The HFNC success probability of patients in low-risk group (84.2%) was 9.84 times that in the high-risk group (34.8%). In the subsequent validation cohort, the AUC of the model was 0.815 (0.71-0.92). Conclusions: Aged patients with lower ROX index, thrombocytopenia, and elevated IL-6 values are at increased risk of HFNC failure. The risk-stratification models accurately predicted the HFNC failure and early stratified COVID-19 patients with HFNC therapy into relevant risk categories.

10.
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine ; : 1024907920969326, 2020.
Article | Sage | ID: covidwho-903988

ABSTRACT

Background:An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) took place in Wuhan, China, by the end of 2019, and the disease continues to spread all over the world. The number of patients is increasing rapidly, a large number of infected patients is critically ill, and the mortality is high. However, information on COVID-19 patients is limited, and its clinical characteristics have not been fully studied.Objectives:To compare the performances of point-of-care lung ultrasound (LUS) and bedside chest X-ray in assessing the condition of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods:This observational study enrolled 42 COVID-19 patients with ARDS who were admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Wuhan Union Hospital from February to April 2020. The point-of-care LUS characteristics of the COVID-19 patients with ARDS were summarized, and the performances of LUS and bedside chest X-ray in assessing the patient?s condition were compared.Results:Most of the 42 patients were elderly individuals with chronic clinical diseases. The proportion of patients older than 60?years old was 85.7%. All patients were given invasive mechanical ventilation;eight (19.0%) of them received venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. LUS has evident advantages in detecting lung consolidation, patchy shadows, and pleural thickening, and pleural line changes in particular. The receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the sensitivity, Youden index, and kappa value for detecting COVID-19 patients with ARDS were higher for LUS than the chest X-ray.Conclusion:LUS has better diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in COVID-19 patients with ARDS than the chest X-ray.

11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620953217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733074

ABSTRACT

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is prevalent in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the risk factors and incidence rate of DVT remains elusive. Here, we aimed to assess the incidence rate and risk factors of DVT. All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and performed venous ultrasound by ultrasound deparment between December 2019 and April 2020 in Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital were enrolled. Demographic information and clinical features were retrospectively collected. Notably, a comparison between the DVT and the non-DVT groups was explored. The incidence rate of venous thrombosis was 35.2% (50 patients out of 142). Moreover, the location of thrombus at the proximal extremity veins was 5.6% (n = 8), while at distal extremity veins was 35.2% (n = 50) of the patients. We also noted that patients with DVT exhibited a high level of D-dimer (OR 10.9 (95% CI, 3.3-36.0), P < 0.001), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR 6.5 (95% CI, 2.1-20.3), P = 0.001), a lower usage of the anticoagulant drugs (OR 3.0 (95% CI, 1.1-7.8), P < 0.001). Finally, this study revealed that a high number of patients with COVID-19 developed DVT. This was observed particularly in critically ill patients with high D-dimer levels who required no anticoagulant medication.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Preexisting Condition Coverage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(5): 475-481, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. FINDINGS: Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3-11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. INTERPRETATION: The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1-2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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