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1.
Engineering Computations (Swansea, Wales) ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788583

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, ventilation in a small cabin where social distancing cannot be guaranteed is extremely important. This study aims to find out the best configuration of open and closed windows in a moving car at varying speeds to improve the ventilation efficiency. The effectiveness of other mitigation measures including face masks, taxi screens and air conditioning (AC) systems are also evaluated. Design/methodology/approach: Each window is given three opening levels: fully open, half open and fully closed. For a car with four windows, this yields 81 different configurations. The location of virus source is also considered, either emitting from the driver or from the rear seat passenger. Then three different travelling speeds, 5 m/s, 10 m/s and 15 m/s, are examined for the window opening/closing configurations that provide the best ventilation effect. A study into the effectiveness of face masks is realised by adjusting virus injection amounts;and the simulation of taxi screens and AC system simply requires a small modification to the car model. Findings: The numerical studies identify the top window opening/closing configurations that provide the most efficient ventilation at different moving speeds, along with a comprehensive ranking list. The results show that fully opening all windows is not always the best choice. Simulations evaluating other mitigation measures confirm good effect of face masks and poor performance of taxi screens and AC systems. Originality/value: This work is the first large-scale numerical simulation and parametric study about different window opening/closing configurations of a moving car. The results provide useful guides for travellers in shared cars to mitigate Covid-19 transmission risks. The findings are helpful to both individuals' health and society's recovery in the Covid-19 era and they also provide useful information to protect people from other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

2.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(18):1368-1372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481061

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)infection is still worldwide.As a vulnerable group, severe and dead pediatric cases are also reported.Under this severe epidemic situation, children should be well protected.With the widespread vaccination of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in adults, the infection rate have decreased.Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation for children groups step by step is of great significance to the protection of children and the prevention and control of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) as a whole.But the safety of children vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a main concern of parents.Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of vaccination and the implementation of vaccination work, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health and the Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association organized experts to interpret the main issue of parents about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for children, in order to answer the doubts of parents. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

3.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(18):1361-1367, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481060

ABSTRACT

At present, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)infection is still rampant worldwide.As of September 10, 2021, there were about 222 million confirmed cases of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19)and more than 4.6 million deaths worldwide.With the development of COVID-19 vaccines and the gradual vaccination worldwide, the increasing number of cases in children and unvaccinated young people has drawn attention.According to World Health Organization surveillance data, the proportion of COVID-19 infection cases in children gradually increased, and the proportion of cases in the age groups of under 5 years and 5-14 years increased from 1.0% and 2.5% in January 2020 to 2.0% and 8.7% in July 2021, respectively.At present, billions of adults have been vaccinated with various COVID-19 vaccines worldwide, and their protective effects including reducing infection and transmission, reducing severe disease and hospitalization, and reducing death, as well as high safety have been confirmed.Canada, the United States, Europe and other countries have approved the emergency COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, and China has also approved the phased vaccination of COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years. For smooth advancement and implementation of COVID-19 vaccination in children, academic institutions, including National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, and The Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association organized relevant experts to reach this consensus on COVID-19 vaccination in children. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

4.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(10):721-732, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1278526

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) outbreak is one of the public health emergency of international concern.Since the 2019-nCoV outbreak, China has been adopting strict prevention and control measures, and has achieved remarkable results in the initial stage of prevention and control.However, some imported cases and sporadic regional cases have been found, and even short-term regional epidemics have occurred, indicating that the preventing and control against the epidemic remains grim.With the change of the incidence proportion and the number of cases in children under 18 years old, some new special symptoms and complications have appeared in children patients.In addition, with the occurrence of virus mutation, it has not only attracted attention from all parties, but also proposed a new topic for the prevention and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection in children of China.Based on the second edition, the present consensus further summarizes the clinical characteristics and experience of children's cases, and puts forward recommendations on the diagnostic criteria, laboratory examination, treatment, prevention and control of children's cases for providing reference for further guidance of treatment of 2019-nCoV infection in children. © 2021 Chinese Medical Association

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