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1.
Heliyon ; 9(4): e15298, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306457

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The role of community in individuals' well-being has been extensively examined in the Western context. However, little is known about how the host community is related to sojourners' well-being in a crisis in an Asian context. The current study aims at exploring international students' sense of community in the Chinese context under the direct threat of a global health crisis. Methods: Using a cross-sectional sample of 102 international students staying in Wuhan during the 76-day lockdown at the earliest stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, the current study explored the relationship between international students' sense of community and anxiety, and the mediating role of social contact, social support from three key sources in the host community (host university, international students, and Chinese friends). Results: Results showed that participants' stronger sense of community indirectly reduced anxiety via the role of sources of contact and support from the host community. Conclusions: This study provided further evidence to support the nurturance of the sense of community in community resilience and provided implications on how the host community can help to enhance sojourners' psychological well-being in a global crisis.

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Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102864

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate determinants of prolonged viral RNA shedding in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant infection. Materials and methods Hospitalized patients tested SARS-CoV-2 positive by nasopharyngeal real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were included in the single-center, retrospective study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of viral clearance (≤ 8 days, “early clearance” and ≥15 days, “late clearance”). Results 4,084 patients were included in the study (1,023 late clearance, 3,061 early clearance), with median age of 50 years and a higher proportion (61.4%) of male. Univariate analyses showed that comorbidities (including hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease), receiving vaccine, the number of vaccinations, cycle threshold (Ct) open reading frame 1ab (ORF 1ab), and nucleocapsid protein (N) gene values on admission were associated with late viral clearance. In the multivariable analysis, the number of vaccinations (P = 0.010) and Ct ORF 1ab gene (P < 0.001) values on admission were significantly associated with late viral clearance. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis showed that the Ct value of ORF 1ab gene and N gene remained unchanged within 3 days, and showed progressively higher values with increasing days during late viral RNA clearance. Conclusion The number of vaccinations and Ct values of ORF 1ab gene were independently associated with a prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding.

4.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2301923.v1

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease pandemic has fostered major advances in vaccination technologies; however, there are urgent needs of mucosal immune responses and single-dose, non-invasive administration. Here, we develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for single-dose, dry-powder aerosol inhalation that induces potent systemic and mucosal immune responses. Our vaccine encapsulates proteinaceous cholera toxin B subunit-assembled nanoparticles displaying the SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigen (R-CNP) within microcapsules of optimal aerodynamic size, and such unique nano-micro coupled structure supports efficient alveoli delivery, sustained R-CNP release, and antigen presenting cell uptake, which are favorable for invocation of immune responses. Moreover, our vaccine successfully induces robust serological IgG and secretory IgA production, collectively conferring effective protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge (including pseudovirus and the authentic virus) in mice, hamsters, and non-human primates. Finally, we also demonstrate a “mosaic iteration” of our vaccine that co-displays ancestral and Omicron’s antigens, thus extending the breadth of antibody response against co-circulating strains and transmission of Omicron variant. These findings support our inhalable vaccine as a promising candidate to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease, and transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19
5.
Sustainability ; 13(23):13492, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1560741

ABSTRACT

As an important means to deal with crisis, organizational resilience has attracted the attention of academia and industry. However, research on what factors influence organizational resilience has lagged behind. In view of this, this study proposes the concept of organizational resilience on the basis of existing research and extracts the influencing factors of organizational resilience based on a multi-case analysis approach, using the organizational behavior of five companies in crisis situations as the research object. Based on the Interpretive Structure Model (ISM), the internal logical relationship and hierarchical structure of the factors influencing organizational resilience are analyzed. In this study, the importance of influencing factors of organizational resilience was analyzed by using analytic network process (ANP). It is suggested that strengthening organizational resilience is the key, organizational learning is the important basis, emotion management is the necessary condition, and organizational resources are the basic guarantee, which provides theoretical supplement and practical guidance for the study of organizational resilience.

7.
arxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2112.02560v2

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore whether comments could be used as an assistant tool for heuristic decision-making, especially in cases where missing, incomplete, uncertain, or even incorrect evidence is acquired. Methods: Six COVID-19 drug candidates were selected from WHO clinical guidelines. Evidence-comment networks (ECNs) were completed of these six drug candidates based on evidence-comment pairs from all PubMed indexed COVID-19 publications with formal published comments. WHO guidelines were utilized to validate the feasibility of comment-derived evidence assertions as a fast decision supporting tool. Results: Out of 6 drug candidates, comment-derived evidence assertions of leading subgraphs of 5 drugs were consistent with WHO guidelines, and the overall comment sentiment of 6 drugs was aligned with WHO clinical guidelines. Additionally, comment topics were in accordance with the concerns of guidelines and evidence appraisal criteria. Furthermore, half of the critical comments emerged 4.5 months earlier than the date guidelines were published. Conclusions: Comment-derived evidence assertions have the potential as an evidence appraisal tool for heuristic decisions based on the accuracy, sensitivity, and efficiency of evidence-comment networks. In essence, comments reflect that academic communities do have a self-screening evaluation and self-purification (argumentation) mechanism, thus providing a tool for decision makers to filter evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
8.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-31685.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, has spread worldwide and poses a great threat to human health. Among COVID-19 patients, those with hypertension have been reported to have higher morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of COVID-19 with hypertension.Methods: A total of 188 COVID-19 patients were studied from January to March 2020. The epidemiology, clinical features, and laboratory data of hypertensive patients with COVID-19 were collected, retrospectively analyzed, and compared with a normotensive group. The use of anti-hypertensive drugs, general treatment, and clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients were also analyzed.Results: The median ages in hypertensive patients with mild and severe COVID-19 were both significantly greater than the median age in the normotensive group. But there was no significant gender difference between the hypertensive and normotensive groups. All patients had lived in the Wuhan area. Common symptoms of all of the patients included fever, cough, and fatigue. Chest CT scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all of the patients. All (98 [100%]) of the hypertensive patients received antiviral therapy (Arbidol was used alone or in combination with Ribavirin), antibiotic therapy (85 [86.7%]), and corticosteroids (31 [31.6%]). It has been suggested that the combination of Arbidol and Ribavirin as initial therapy for hypertensive patients with COVID-19 is effective and safe. There were no significant differences in laboratory data between the mild cases in the hypertensive and the normotensive groups. In the severe cases, the hypertensive patients had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the hypertensive patients who were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) had no statistically significant differences between the mild and severe groups (p > 0.05).Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the hypertensive patients who were treated with ACEI/ARB did not have an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. Arbidol and Ribavirin played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Hypertensive patients with severe viral pneumonia had stronger inflammatory responses than non-hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral , Fever , Cough , Pneumonia , Hypertension , COVID-19 , Fatigue
9.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.02.25.20027672

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 poses a big challenge for global public health in early 2020. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the virus rapidly spreads all over the world and takes thousands of lives in just two months. It is critical to refine the incidence and mortality risks of COVID-19 for the effective management of the general public and patients in the outbreak. In this report, we investigate the incidence and mortality risks of the infection by analyzing the age composition of 5319 infected patients, 76 fatal cases, and 1,144,648 individuals of the general public in China. Our result shows a relatively low incidence risk for young people but a very high mortality risk for seniors. Notably, mortality risk could be as high as 0.48 for people older than 80 years. Furthermore, our study suggests that a good medical service can effectively reduce the mortality rate of the viral infection to 1% or less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Infections
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