Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
J Control Release ; 352: 931-945, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086390

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 acquired symptoms have affected the worldwide population and increased the load of Intensive care unit (ICU) patient admissions. A large number of patients admitted to ICU end with a deadly fate of mortality. A high mortality rate of patients was reported with hospital-acquired septic shock that leads to multiple organ failures and ultimately ends with death. The patients who overcome this septic shock suffer from morbidity that also affects their caretakers. To overcome these situations, scientists are exploring progressive theragnostic techniques with advanced techniques based on biosensors, biomarkers, biozymes, vesicles, and others. These advanced techniques pave the novel way for early detection of sepsis-associated symptoms and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics and immunomodulators and prevent the undue effect on other parts of the body. There are other techniques like externally modulated electric-based devices working on the principle of piezoelectric mechanism that not only sense the endotoxin levels but also target them with a loaded antibiotic to neutralize the onset of inflammatory response. Recently researchers have developed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralizing cartridge that not only senses the LPS but also appropriately neutralizes with dual mechanistic insights of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This review will highlight recent developments in the new nanotechnology-based approaches for the diagnosis and therapeutics of sepsis that is responsible for the high number of deaths of patients suffering from this critical disease.

2.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(6): 2933-2937, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934404

ABSTRACT

Background: Stroke is primarily a clinical diagnosis. It can be hemorrhagic or ischemic in etiology. Computed tomography (CT) brain is usually the initial investigation in most patients with suspected stroke. Although it has excellent accuracy in diagnosing hemorrhage, ischemic changes may not be apparent in the first few hours. Some centers use focused magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to help in selecting appropriate patients for reperfusion therapy. However, clinicians often use this investigation even when reperfusion therapy is not being considered. This study aims to find out whether doing an MRI in addition to a CT scan has any clinical utility in this situation. Primary Objective: To determine the proportion of patients who undergo a change in their management based on MRI findings. Secondary Objectives: 1. To determine the time duration from the onset of symptoms to presentation at the hospital. 2. To determine the time duration from presentation to the hospital to get CT performed. 3. To determine the proportion of patients who had MRI in addition to CT. 4. To determine the time duration from CT performed to MRI performed. Materials and Methods Study Design: Retrospective, descriptive observational study. Inclusion Criteria: Patients above age 18 admitted at a tertiary hospital with a clinical diagnosis of stroke between 1/8/2018 and 30/7/2019. Exclusion Criteria: Patients who had already undergone MRI before presentation to the hospital and patients undergoing thrombolysis. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified from the hospital information system and the ward admission register and by manual examination of the patients' case notes. Relevant data were obtained from the case notes and collected on a google form and downloaded in Microsoft Excel 2019. SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of the 106 patients, 54% (n = 57) were diagnosed as having ischemic stroke, whereas 46% (n = 49) were diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke after initial assessment and CT scan. Only 2.8% (n = 3) of the patients presented within 4.5 hours of the onset of symptoms. 43.4% (n = 46) presented between 4.5 and 24 hours from the onset, whereas 53.8% (n = 57) presented more than 24 hours after the onset. Twenty-seven patients had their CT scan performed prior to their presentation at the center. For the remaining 79, the median time from presentation to CT scanning was 2 ± 1.5 hours. 24.5% (n = 26) of all patients had an MRI performed in addition to the CT scan. There was wide variation in the time from CT scanning to the MRI. Among the patients who had an MRI, additional information was obtained by the investigation in 58% (n = 15). However, this led to a change in management in only three (11.5%) of the patients. On review, it was found that the change was justified in only two patients. Furthermore, one patient who was diagnosed with tuberculoma had a long history of fever which was missed on initial evaluation. Considering these, MRI can be credited for a meaningful change in management in only 4% (n = 1) of the cases. Conclusion: The findings of this study do not support the routine use of MRI in patients who are not candidates for reperfusion therapy. Their use should be restricted to cases where some specific information is sought or where there is diagnostic uncertainty. Allocation of resources in developing integrated acute stroke pathways is likely to give a better value for money.

3.
J Drug Target ; 30(6): 603-613, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751878

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected the lives of billions of people and is a causative agent for millions of deaths. After 23 months of the first reported case of COVID-19, on 25th November 2020, a new SARS-COVID-19 variant, i.e. Omicron was reported with a WHO tagline of VoC that trembled the world with its infectivity rate. This fifth VoC raised the concern about neutralising ability and adequate control of SARS-COVID-19 infection due to mass vaccination drive (nearly more than 4.7 billion individuals got vaccinated globally till December 2021). However, the present scenario of VoCs highlights the importance of vaccination and public health measures that need to be followed strictly to prevent the fatality from Omicron. The world still needs to overcome the hesitancy that poses a major barrier to the implementation of vaccination. This review highlights the SARS-COVID-19 situation and discusses in detail the mutational events that occurred at a cellular level in different variants over time. This article is dedicated to the scientific findings reported during the recent outbreak of 2019-2022 and describes their symptoms, disease, spread, treatment, and preventive action advised. The article also focuses on the treatment options available for Covid-19 and the update of Omicron by expert agencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
J Drug Target ; 30(4): 413-429, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545744

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a clinical outcome of viral infection emerged due to strain of beta coronavirus which attacks the type-2 pneumocytes in alveoli via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. There is no satisfactory drug developed against 'SARS-CoV2', highlighting an immediate necessity chemotherapeutic repurposing plan COVID-19. Drug repurposing is a method of selection of approved therapeutics for new use and is considered to be the most effective drug finding strategy since it includes less time and cost to obtain treatment compared to the de novo drug acquisition process. Several drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, teicoplanin, darunavir, ritonavir, nitazoxanide, chloroquine, tocilizumab and favipiravir (FPV) showed their activity against 'SARS-CoV2' in vitro. This review has emphasized on repurposing of drugs, and biologics used in clinical set up for targeting COVID-19 and to evaluate their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety with their future aspect. The key benefit of drug repurposing is the wealth of information related to its safety, and easy accessibility. Altogether repurposing approach allows access to regulatory approval as well as reducing sophisticated safety studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 32(8): 1815-1826, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196926

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019 and 2020s, a wave of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) epidemics worldwide has catalyzed a new era of 'communicable infectious diseases'. However, the world is not currently prepared to deal with the growing burden of COVID-19, with the unexpected arrival of Hantavirus infection heading to the next several healthcare emergencies in public. Hantavirus is a significant class of zoonotic pathogens of negative-sense single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA). Hemorrhagic renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are the two major clinical manifestations. Till date, there is no effective treatments or vaccines available, public awareness and precautionary measures can help to reduce the spread of hantavirus disease. In this study, we outline the epidemiology, virology, clinical aspects, and existing HFRS and HCPS management approaches. This review will give an understanding of virus-host interactions and will help for the early preparation and effective handling of further outbreaks in an ever-changing environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hantavirus/genetics , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL