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1.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During October 2020, Delta variant was detected for the first time in India and rampantly spread across the globe. It also led to second wave of pandemic in India which affected millions of people. However, there is limited information pertaining to the SARS-CoV-2 strain infecting the children in India. METHODS: Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in the pediatric population of India during the second wave of the pandemic. Clinical and demographic details linked with the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (NPS/OPS) collected from SARS-CoV-2 cases (n = 583) aged 0-18 year and tested positive by real-time RT-PCR were retrieved from March to June 2021. RESULTS: Symptoms were reported among 37.2% of patients and 14.8% reported to be hospitalized. The E gene CT value had significant statistical difference at the point of sample collection when compared to that observed in the sequencing laboratory. Out of these 512 sequences 372 were VOCs, 51 were VOIs. Most common lineages observed were Delta, followed by Kappa, Alpha and B.1.36, seen in 65.82%, 9.96%, 6.83% and 4.68%, respectively in the study population. CONCLUSION: Overall, it was observed that Delta strain was the leading cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Indian children during the second wave of the pandemic. We emphasize on the need of continuous genomic surveillance in SARS-CoV-2 infection even amongst children.

2.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(2): 228-230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729827

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Health care workers [HCW] are at a higher risk of infection SARS CoV2 infection due to frequent and close contact to patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Serum samples from 500 HCW's were tested for SARS CoV2 IgG antibodies in October 2020. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic and clinical data. All these HCWs were tested for COVID-19, in 2nd week of September 2020, as a hospital policy. RESULTS: Anti SARS CoV2 antibodies were detected in 128/ 500 [25.6%] HCWs. A total of 195/ 500 [39%] enrolled cases had already tested positive for Covid-19 at least once in last six months by RT-PCR. Sixty eight percent of HCWs with previous COVID-19 positivity by RT- PCR tested positive for Anti SARS CoV2 antibodies, whereas only 2.76% of asymptomatic HCWs tested positive. Of 121 anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive persons, 70 [57.85%] had CT value â€‹< â€‹25. Low CT value and asymptomatic cases had a strong reverse statistically significant association with SARS CoV2 IgG antibody positivity. CONCLUSIONS: We report that sero-conversion rate in HCWs is similar to that in general population suggesting that preventive practices used in hospitals are satisfactory. Cases with low viral counts in respiratory sample and asymptomatic cases have lower rate of seroconversion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297086

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in the pediatric population of India during the second wave of the pandemic. Clinical and demographic details linked with the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (NPS/OPS) collected from SARS-CoV-2 cases (n=583) aged 0-18 year and tested positive by real-time RT-PCR were retrieved from March to June 2021.Symptoms were reported among 37.2% of patients and 14.8% reported to be hospitalized. The E gene CT value had significant statistical difference at the point of sample collection when compared to that observed in the sequencing laboratory. Out of these 512 sequences 372 were VOCs, 51 were VOIs. Most common lineages observed were Delta, followed by Kappa, Alpha and B.1.36, seen in 65.82%, 9.96%, 6.83% and 4.68%, respectively in the study population. Overall, it was observed that Delta strain was the leading cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Indian children during the second wave of the pandemic. We emphasize on the need of continuous genomic surveillance in SARS-CoV-2 infection even amongst children.

4.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S59-S60, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1517223
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6045-6049, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432431

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to be associated with a lot of neurological complications, of whom Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an important post-infectious consequentiality. More than 220 patients with GBS have been reported thus far. We intend to share our experience with five patients of GBS where one of them had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first-ever report demonstrating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of an adult patient; a similar occurrence has recently been described in a pediatric patient. We wish to emphasize the fact that commonly GBS occurs as a result of a post-infectious process but in a few cases where the symptoms of COVID-19 and GBS occur concurrently, corresponding to the viremic phase, separate pathogenesis needs to be thought of. This para-infectious nature is exemplified by the presence of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of one of our patients. We review the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-Cov-2 in this regard and draw parallels with Cytomegalovirus, Zika virus, and Human Immunodeficiency virus-associated occurrences of GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6045-6049, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281226

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to be associated with a lot of neurological complications, of whom Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an important post-infectious consequentiality. More than 220 patients with GBS have been reported thus far. We intend to share our experience with five patients of GBS where one of them had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first-ever report demonstrating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of an adult patient; a similar occurrence has recently been described in a pediatric patient. We wish to emphasize the fact that commonly GBS occurs as a result of a post-infectious process but in a few cases where the symptoms of COVID-19 and GBS occur concurrently, corresponding to the viremic phase, separate pathogenesis needs to be thought of. This para-infectious nature is exemplified by the presence of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of one of our patients. We review the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-Cov-2 in this regard and draw parallels with Cytomegalovirus, Zika virus, and Human Immunodeficiency virus-associated occurrences of GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
8.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 227-232, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, a large number of clinical samples were tested by real-time PCR. Pooling the clinical samples before testing can be a good cost-saving and rapid alternative for screening large populations. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics, feasibility and effectiveness of pooling nasal swab and throat swab samples for screening and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The pool testing was applied on a set of samples coming from low COVID-19 positivity areas. A total of 2410 samples were tested in pools of five samples each. A total of five pools of five samples each were generated and tested for E gene. RESULTS: Of the total of 482 pools (2410 samples) 24 pools flagged positive. Later on pool de-convolution, a total of 26 samples were detected as positive for COVID-19, leading to positivity of about one per cent in the test population. For the diagnosis of individual samples, the pooling strategies resulted in cost savings of 75 per cent (5 samples per pool). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that testing samples for COVID-19 by reverse transcription (RT)- PCR after pooling could be a cost-effective method which would save both in manpower and cost especially for resource-poor countries and at a time when test kits were short in supply.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods
9.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(1): 122-124, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091813

ABSTRACT

The route of transmission of Novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is ambiguous. In this regard we planned a study to find out SARS-CoV-RNA shedding in various clinical samples of 9 COVID-19 positive patients. SARS-CoV-RNA was detected in nasal swab (NS), throat swab (TS) and faecal sample but was not detected in serum and urine samples. We also report that SARS-CoV-2-RNA persisted in faeces for >20 days. Persistence of faecal RNA might impose challenge in infection control and the disease may spread to household contacts if discharged. Perineal cleaning and hygiene may be advised at the time of vaginal delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , Time Factors , Viral Load , Young Adult
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