Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
biorxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.29.577677

ABSTRACT

Selective pressures have given rise to a number of SARS-CoV-2 variants during the prolonged course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently evolved variants differ from ancestors in additional glycosylation within the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). Details of how the acquisition of glycosylation impacts viral fitness and human adaptation are not clearly understood. Here, we dissected the role of N354-linked glycosylation, acquired by BA.2.86 sub-lineages, as a RBD conformational control element in attenuating viral infectivity. The reduced infectivity could be recovered in the presence of heparin sulfate, which targets the N354 pocket to ease restrictions of conformational transition resulting in a RBD-up state, thereby conferring an adjustable infectivity. Furthermore, N354 glycosylation improved spike cleavage and cell-cell fusion, and in particular escaped one subset of ADCC antibodies. Together with reduced immunogenicity in hybrid immunity background, these indicate a single spike amino acid glycosylation event provides selective advantage in humans through multiple mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19
2.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.05.02.23289410

ABSTRACT

To investigate the impact of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment on the clinical outcome of mild and moderate COVID-19 cases, a retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of UDCA on patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during the peak of the Omicron outbreak in China. This study presents promising results, demonstrating that UDCA significantly reduced the time to Body Temperature Recovery after admission and a higher daily dose seems to be associated with a better outcome without observed safety concerns. We also introduced VirtualBody, a physiologically plausible artificial neural network model, to generate an accurate depiction of the drug concentration-time curve individually, which represented the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of UDCA in each patient. It exhibits exceptional performance in modeling the complex PK-PD profile of UDCA, characterized by its endogenous and enterohepatic cycling properties, and further validates the effectiveness of UDCA as a treatment option from the drug exposure-response perspective. Our work highlights the potential of UDCA as a novel treatment option for periodic outbreaks of COVID-19 and introduces a new paradigm for PK-PD analysis in retrospective studies to provide evidence for optimal dosing strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
3.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047100

ABSTRACT

Online education has advantages during COVID-19, but it also has problems related to hardware support and user experience. Focusing on teaching quality by discipline is an effective way to improve teaching quality in universities. To investigate the online education experience from the perspective of different academic disciplines, we evaluated 251,929 student questionnaires and 13,695 teacher questionnaires from 334 universities in China. The main finding was a difference in teaching preparation, experience, feedback, and improvement processes by disciplines. Teachers and students had obvious disciplinary differences in preparation, school support, and teaching constraints. However, disciplinary differences were minor for pedagogical issues such as participation, assignments, and grading, as well as for evaluation of platform technical support and views on the continuation of online learning. The research results analyzed the teaching psychology of teachers and students in different disciplines during the pandemic. Therefore, it explained the impact and role of discipline differences on students’ learning psychology during COVID-19. This research will benefit educators, researchers, and policy makers to help them with the improvement of online education.

4.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(3):413-416, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1865667

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand social anxiety and relevant factors among graduate students under the normalization stage of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control.

5.
arxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2203.17012v1

ABSTRACT

Detecting COVID-19 from audio signals, such as breathing and coughing, can be used as a fast and efficient pre-testing method to reduce the virus transmission. Due to the promising results of deep learning networks in modelling time sequences, and since applications to rapidly identify COVID in-the-wild should require low computational effort, we present a temporal-oriented broadcasting residual learning method that achieves efficient computation and high accuracy with a small model size. Based on the EfficientNet architecture, our novel network, named Temporal-oriented ResNet~(TorNet), constitutes of a broadcasting learning block, i.e. the Alternating Broadcast (AB) Block, which contains several Broadcast Residual Blocks (BC ResBlocks) and a convolution layer. With the AB Block, the network obtains useful audio-temporal features and higher level embeddings effectively with much less computation than Recurrent Neural Networks~(RNNs), typically used to model temporal information. TorNet achieves 72.2% Unweighted Average Recall (UAR) on the INTERPSEECH 2021 Computational Paralinguistics Challenge COVID-19 cough Sub-Challenge, by this showing competitive results with a higher computational efficiency than other state-of-the-art alternatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
6.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.12.24.474084

ABSTRACT

Omicron, the most heavily mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant so far, is highly resistant to neutralizing antibodies, raising unprecedented concerns about the effectiveness of antibody therapies and vaccines. We examined whether sera from individuals who received two or three doses of inactivated vaccine, could neutralize authentic Omicron. The seroconversion rates of neutralizing antibodies were 3.3% (2/60) and 95% (57/60) for 2- and 3-dose vaccinees, respectively. For three-dose recipients, the geometric mean neutralization antibody titer (GMT) of Omicron was 15, 16.5-fold lower than that of the ancestral virus (254). We isolated 323 human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells in 3-dose vaccinees, half of which recognize the receptor binding domain (RBD) and show that a subset of them (24/163) neutralize all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including Omicron, potently. Therapeutic treatments with representative broadly neutralizing mAbs individually or antibody cocktails were highly protective against SARS-CoV-2 Beta infection in mice. Atomic structures of the Omicron S in complex with three types of all five VOC-reactive antibodies defined the binding and neutralizing determinants and revealed a key antibody escape site, G446S, that confers greater resistance to one major class of antibodies bound at the right shoulder of RBD through altering local conformation at the binding interface. Our results rationalize the use of 3-dose immunization regimens and suggest that the fundamental epitopes revealed by these broadly ultrapotent antibodies are a rational target for a universal sarbecovirus vaccine. One sentence summary A sub-set of antibodies derived from memory B cells of volunteers vaccinated with 3 doses of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine work individually as well as synergistically to keep variants, including Omicron, at bay.

7.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.12.07.470392

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and humoral immunity requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs identified from SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 convalescents and vaccinees. Based on the results, NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlaps with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, N440K, G446S, E484A, Q493K, and G496S. Group E (S309 site)6 and F (CR3022 site)7 NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, S371L, and S375F. Furthermore, B.1.1.529 pseudovirus neutralization and RBD binding assay showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, LY-CoV016/LY-CoV555 cocktail, REGN-CoV2 cocktail, AZD1061/AZD8895 cocktail, and BRII-196 were escaped by Omicron, while VIR7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron could cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
8.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1148985.v1

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and humoral immunity requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs identified from SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 convalescents and vaccinees. Based on the results, NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlaps with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, N440K, G446S, E484A, Q493K, and G496S. Group E (S309 site)6 and F (CR3022 site)7 NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, S371L, and S375F. Furthermore, B.1.1.529 pseudovirus neutralization and RBD binding assay showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, LY-CoV016/LY-CoV555 cocktail, REGN-CoV2 cocktail, AZD1061/AZD8895 cocktail, and BRII-196 were escaped by Omicron, while VIR7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron could cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.

9.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-734963.v1

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ideal target for the development of specific vaccines or drugs. However, treatments targeting viruses with mutant S proteins that have recently emerged in many countries are limited. Cleavage of the S protein by host proteases is essential for viral infection. Here, we discovered two novel sites (CS-1 and CS-2) in the S protein for cleavage by the protease Cathepsin L (CTSL). Both sites are highly conserved among all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Cryo-electron microscopy structural studies revealed that CTSL cleavage increases the dynamics of the receptor binding domain of S and induces novel conformations. In our pseudovirus (PsV) infection experiment, alteration of the cleavage site significantly reduced the infection efficiency, and CTSL inhibitors markedly inhibited infection with PsVs of both the wild-type and emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants. Furthermore, six highly efficient CTSL inhibitors were found to effectively inhibit live virus infection in human cells in vitro , and two of these were further confirmed to prevent live virus infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice in vivo . Our work suggested that the CTSL cleavage sites in SARS-CoV-2 S are emerging new but effective targets for the development of mutation-resistant vaccines and drugs.

10.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.06.18.448958

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive target for COVID-19 vaccine developments, which naturally exists in a trimeric form. Here, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of RBD (mutI tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, in which three RBDs were individually grafted from three different circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains including the prototype, Beta (B.1.351) and Kappa (B.1.617). The three RBDs were then connected end-to-end and co-assembled to possibly mimic the native trimeric arrangements in the natural S protein trimer. The recombinant expression of the mutI tri-RBD, as well as the homo-tri-RBD where the three RBDs were all truncated from the prototype strain, by mammalian cell exhibited correct folding, strong bio-activities, and high stability. The immunization of both the mutI tri-RBD and homo-tri-RBD plus aluminum adjuvant induced high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain in mice. Notably, regarding to the immune-escape Beta (B.1.351) variant, mutI tri-RBD elicited significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than homo-tri-RBD. Furthermore, due to harboring the immune-resistant mutations as well as the evolutionarily convergent hotspots, the designed mutI tri-RBD also induced strong broadly neutralizing activities against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the variants partially resistant to homo-tri-RBD. Homo-tri-RBD has been approved by the China National Medical Products Administration to enter clinical trial (No. NCT04869592), and the superior broad neutralization performances against SARS-CoV-2 support the mutI tri-RBD as a more promising vaccine candidate for further clinical developments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
11.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-596463.v1

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, B.1.617 variants have been transmitted rapidly in India. The transmissibility, pathogenicity, and neutralization characteristics of these variants have received considerable interest. In this study, 22 pseudotyped viruses were constructed for B.1.617 variants and their corresponding single amino acid mutations. B.1.617 variants did not exhibit significant enhanced infectivity in human cells, but mutations T478K and E484Q in the receptor binding domain led to enhanced infectivity in mouse ACE2-overexpressing cells. Furin activities were slightly increased against B.1.617 variants and cell–cell fusion after infection of B.1.617 variants was enhanced. Furthermore, B.1.617 variants escaped neutralization by several mAbs, mainly because of mutations L452R, T478K, and E484Q in the receptor binding domain. The neutralization activities of sera from convalescent patients, inactivated vaccine-immunized volunteers, adenovirus vaccine-immunized volunteers, and SARS-CoV-2 immunized animals against pseudotyped B.1.617 variants were reduced by approximately twofold, compared with the D614G variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
12.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-492659.v1

ABSTRACT

Ten emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants—B.1.1.298, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, P.2, B.1.429, B.1.525, B.1.526-1, B.1.526-2, B.1.1.318—and seven corresponding single amino acid mutations in the receptor-binding domain were examined using SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. The results indicate that the current SARS-CoV-2 variants do not increase infectivity among humans. The K417N/T, N501Y, or E484K-carrying variants exhibited increased abilities to infect to mouse ACE2-overexpressing cells. The activities of Furin, TMPRSS2, and cathepsin L were increased against most of the variants. RBD amino acid mutations comprising K417T/N, L452R, Y453F, S477N, E484K, and N501Y caused significant immune escape from 11 of 13 monoclonal antibodies. However, the resistance to neutralization by convalescent serum or vaccines was mainly caused by the E484K mutation, while the neutralization of E484K-carrying variants was decreased by 1.1–6.2-fold. The convalescent serum from B.1.1.7- and B.1.351-infected patients neutralized the variants themselves better than other SARS-CoV-2 variants.

13.
arxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2104.09263v1

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the potential of deep learning methods to identify individuals with suspected COVID-19 infection using remotely collected heart-rate data. The study utilises data from the ongoing EU IMI RADAR-CNS research project that is investigating the feasibility of wearable devices and smart phones to monitor individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), depression or epilepsy. Aspart of the project protocol, heart-rate data was collected from participants using a Fitbit wristband. The presence of COVID-19 in the cohort in this work was either confirmed through a positive swab test, or inferred through the self-reporting of a combination of symptoms including fever, respiratory symptoms, loss of smell or taste, tiredness and gastrointestinal symptoms. Experimental results indicate that our proposed contrastive convolutional auto-encoder (contrastive CAE), i. e., a combined architecture of an auto-encoder and contrastive loss, outperforms a conventional convolutional neural network (CNN), as well as a convolutional auto-encoder (CAE) without using contrastive loss. Our final contrastive CAE achieves 95.3% unweighted average recall, 86.4% precision, anF1 measure of 88.2%, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90.6% on a testset of 19 participants with MS who reported symptoms of COVID-19. Each of these participants was paired with a participant with MS with no COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
14.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-153108.v1

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant VUI/202012/01 has been reported to spread unexpectedly fast in the United Kingdom. It is estimated that its transmissibility may increase by 70%. In this study, the top five variants circulating in the UK including D614G+L18F+A222V, D614G+A222V, D614G+S477N, VUI/202012/01 and D614G+69-70del+439K were analyzed for their infective and neutralizing characteristics. The pseudotyped viruses were constructed for the five variants and 12 single mutants composed those variants. We found that the VUI/202012/01 variant does enhance its infectivity due to the cumulative effect of multiple mutations including 69-70del and 144/145del mutations in NTD, A570D in RBD, and S982A in S2. Meanwhile, mutations N501Y, N439K and S477N in RBD can cause a significant decrease in the neutralization activity for some mAbs. Although VUI/202012/01 did not affect the neutralization effect of convalescent sera, it affected the neutralization activity of animal immunized sera by RBD protein or recombinant spike DNA to some extent. 

15.
authorea preprints; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.160990264.49690770.v1

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread worldwide. This new emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed and the fatality was about 2.9% up to October 9 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, a total of 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces between September and December 2019 in China were tested for the purpose of traceable surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results indicated that all samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, and a total of 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses and 36 pigeon coronaviruses. The positive rates of avian infectious bronchitis virus, duck coronavirus, and pigeon coronavirus were 15.35%, 2.28% and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrated the diversities of avian coronaviruses in China, and higher prevalence were also recognized in some regions. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 originating from the known avian-origin coronaviruses can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance and research on avian coronaviruses should be strengthened for better understanding the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission and clinical significance of these viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bronchitis , Coronavirus Infections
16.
Molecules ; 26(1):57, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984996

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) has been affecting global health since the end of 2019, and there is no sign that the epidemic is abating. Targeting the interaction between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used as the primary method to screen a library of 960 compounds. A compound 02B05 (demethylzeylasteral, CAS number: 107316-88-1) that had high affinities for S-RBD and ACE2 was discovered, and binding affinities (KD, μM) of 02B05-ACE2 and 02B05-S-RBD were 1.736 and 1.039 μM, respectively. The results of a competition experiment showed that 02B05 could effectively block the binding of S-RBD to ACE2 protein. Furthermore, pseudovirus infection assay revealed that 02B05 could inhibit entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into 293T cells to a certain extent at nontoxic concentration. The compoundobtained in this study serve as references for the design of drugs which have potential in the treatment of COVID-19 and can thus accelerate the process of developing effective drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.

17.
ssrn; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3693350

ABSTRACT

This paper demonstrates the importance of bank capital in improving local resilience and the complementarity of bank capital and government aid programs. We show that following the COVID-19 pandemic and shutdown, areas with more jobs supported by subsidized bank loans during normal times had more job losses and business closures, and more so if the local banking sector is less capitalized. Such losses were heavily borne by low-income workers. We also find that areas with a less capitalized banking sector received disproportionately less Paycheck Protection Program funding. Using a dynamic model of firm entry and exit with bank borrowing, we formulate the mechanism of how bank capital can mitigate the impact of adverse aggregate shocks on employment and firm exit. We calibrate the model to quantify effects of bank capital on resilience and the amount of government funding necessary for full resilience in various simulated scenarios of adverse shocks and bank capitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
18.
ssrn; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3635800

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of SARS-Cov-2 has been undergoing mutations and is highly glycosylated. It is critically important to investigate the biological significance of these mutations. Here we investigated 80 natural mutants and 26 glycosylation mutants for the infectivity and reactivity to a panel of neutralizing antibodies and sera from convalescent patients. D614G, along with several double mutations with D614G and another mutation in the same strains, were significantly more infectious, so was N149H, a glycosylation mutant. Most natural mutants within receptor binding domain were less infectious but some became more resistant to neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the majority of glycosylation mutations were less infectious, revealing the importance of glycosylation for viral infectivity. Interestingly, N234Q was markedly resistant to neutralizing antibodies, whereas N165Q became more sensitive. These findings could be of value in informing our strategy for the development of vaccine and therapeutic antibodies.Funding: This work was supported by National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery [grant number 2018ZX09101001] and National Science and Technology Major Projects of Infectious Disease [grant number 2017ZX10304402].Conflict of Interest: All authors declare no competing interest.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases
19.
arxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2005.00096v2

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation in March 2020 and has affected a growing number of people in the past few weeks. In this context, advanced artificial intelligence techniques are brought to the fore in responding to fight against and reduce the impact of this global health crisis. In this study, we focus on developing some potential use-cases of intelligent speech analysis for COVID-19 diagnosed patients. In particular, by analysing speech recordings from these patients, we construct audio-only-based models to automatically categorise the health state of patients from four aspects, including the severity of illness, sleep quality, fatigue, and anxiety. For this purpose, two established acoustic feature sets and support vector machines are utilised. Our experiments show that an average accuracy of .69 obtained estimating the severity of illness, which is derived from the number of days in hospitalisation. We hope that this study can foster an extremely fast, low-cost, and convenient way to automatically detect the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19 , Fatigue
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL