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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40431-40444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030736


The outbreak of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected the entire world with its infectious spread and mortality rate. The severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the absence of any specific treatment, just the preventive and supportive care options are available. Therefore, much focus is given to assess the available therapeutic options not only to avoid acute respiratory failure and hypoxia but also to reduce the viral load to control the severity of the disease. The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is among the much-discussed drugs for the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients. This article reviews the therapeutic potential of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 based on the available in vitro and clinical evidence, current status of registered HCQ-based clinical trials investigating therapeutic options for COVID-19, and environmental implications of HCQ.

COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 582025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890344


The recent outbreak of the COVID-2019 (coronavirus disease 2019) due to the infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has realized the requirement of alternative therapeutics to mitigate and alleviate this lethal infection. These alternative therapies are effective when they are started at the initial stage of the infection. Some drugs that were used in previous other related infections SARS-CoV-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-2012 could be potentially active against currently emerging SARS-CoV-2. This fact imparts some rationale of current interventions, in the absence of any specific therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. It is imperative to focus on the available antimicrobial and adjunct therapies during the current emergency state and overcome the challenges associated with the absence of robust controlled studies. There is no established set of drugs to manage SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. However, closely following patients' conditions and responding with the dosage guidelines of available drugs may significantly impact our ability to slow down the infection. Of note, it depends upon the condition of the patients and associated comorbid; therefore, the health workers need to choose the drug combinations judiciously until COVID-19 specific drug or vaccine is developed with the collective scientific rigor. In this article, we reviewed the available antimicrobial drug, supportive therapies, and probable high importance vaccines for the COVID-19 treatment.