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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):88-91, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067739

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 first surfaced when cluster of pneumonia patients arose in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Although the current gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest x-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) play a vital role in sickness diagnosis due to their limited sensitivity and availability. Aim: To evaluate retrospectively the role of CXR, the main radiological findings in it and its diagnostic accuracy in COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This is a cross sectional study involving 264 PCR positive COVID-19 patients with their clinical-epidemiological findings admitted at Ziauddin Hospital from May-July 2020. CXRs were taken as digital radiographs in our emergency department's isolation wards using the same portable X-ray device, according to local norms. CXRs were taken in two directions: antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA). The hospitals' database had all of the images. To determine the number of radiological findings, multiple radiologists on duty completed an independent and retrospective examination of each CXR. In the event of disagreement, a mutual agreement was reached. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: We were able to find 264 patients who met our criteria. With a mean age of 56.4214.89, the majority of individuals were determined to be males 189(71.6%) and females 75(28.4%). (Range of 16 to 87 years). 127 patients (48.1%) had severe illness symptoms and were admitted to the ICU, while the remaining 102(38.6%) had mild to moderate disease 35(13.3%). Diffuse (29.2%) and middle and lower co-existing distribution (25.8%) whereas just lower lobe (13.3%) were the most common predominance in severity. Peripheral involvement was also seen in (8.7%) cases. Conclusion: Both lungs are equally affected with the disease having the consolidation and opacifications while the effusion is the major complication in the severe cases. Diffuse involvement of the lung lobes is seen in the study followed by the middle and lower lobe involvement.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(6):118-121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939785

ABSTRACT

Background: De novo thyroid dysfunction can occur as a result of COVID-1. Patients have diverse manifestations of thyroid illness, ranging from asymptomatic hyperthyroidism to secondary hyperthyroidism. Aim: To evaluate various thyroid diseases and compare them to mortality and clinicopathological features. Methods: After approval from the institutional ethical review board, this observational cross sectional study was carried out at a private sector hospital in Karachi. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted between December 2020 to May 2021 were recruited using consecutive sampling. Patients who did not give informed consent and had known thyroid disorders or history of thyroidectomy were excluded. To analyse the relationship between thyroid laboratory reports, and clinicopathological features, the Chi-square test and “Fischer's exact test” were utilised. SPSS version 21 was used for statistical analysis. A statistically significant P value of 0.05 was used. Results: Majority of the patients 105(72.9%) had higher FT3 levels and none of them reported with the decreased levels. 88(61.1%) came up with the higher FT4 levels while 9(6.3%) reported with decreased FT4. 9(6.3%) and 6(4.2%) were positive for the anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. The results showed statistical significance for free FT4 (p value 0.018), anti-TG (p-value 0.001) and anti-TP antibodies (p value 0.005). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients had a high frequency of thyroid abnormalities. Thyroid dysfunction appears to fluctuate over time and to recover slowly and naturally.

3.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(3):85-94, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1904284

ABSTRACT

The objective of the current cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency, types, associations, and outcome of cardiac complications in hospitalized COVID-19 infected patients. This study was conducted at Dr. Ziauddin University Hospital, Clifton campus, Karachi, from 1st April 2020 to 31st March 2021. A total number of 1,050 patients were included in the study through consecutive sampling with the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Patients were labeled as having complications secondary to COVID pneumonia only after comparing their hospital's clinical course with their baseline status. The independent variables were age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors (smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension), while the dependent variables were cardiac complications including acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, pericarditis, and arrhythmias. The Association of complications with independent variables was analyzed by applying the Chi-Square test and statistical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. There were 599 (57.0%) males and 451 (43.0%) females with the mean age of the participants being 55.1 years (+or- 13.08) years. Diabetes and hypertension were present in 451 (43.0%) and 490 (46.6%) patients respectively. Out of 1050 patients, the primary endpoint occurred in 55.6% of patients, including 23.1% acute coronary syndrome, 19.3% arrhythmias, 10.8% myocarditis, and 2.2% pericarditis. Analysis of secondary endpoint showed that 31.1% of patients had severe disease out of which the mortality was 39.4%. Acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation are frequent complications, especially in those with severe disease and multi-organ dysfunction. Furthermore, the incidence of these complications is higher in patients with multiple co-morbidities. Considering the devastating impact this pandemic has had globally, it is important to know the cardiac involvement this condition can have along with the debilitating outcome so that healthcare facilities can be upgraded to provide better care to save lives.

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