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Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917626


BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by highly resistant pathogens in non-ICU COVID-19 departments pose important challenges. METHODS: We performed a comparative analysis of incidence and microbial epidemiology of BSI in COVID-19 vs. non-COVID-19, non-ICU departments between 1 September 2020-31 October 2021. Risk factors for BSI and its impact on outcome were evaluated by a case-control study which included COVID-19 patients with/without BSI. RESULTS: Forty out of 1985 COVID-19 patients developed BSI. The mean monthly incidence/100 admissions was 2.015 in COVID-19 and 1.742 in non-COVID-19 departments. Enterococcus and Candida isolates predominated in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). All Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were carbapenem-resistant (CR). In the COVID-19 group, 33.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae was CR, 50% of Escherichia coli produced ESBL and 19% of Enterococcus spp. were VRE vs. 74.5%, 26.1% and 8.8% in the non-COVID-19 group, respectively. BSI was associated with prior hospitalization (p = 0.003), >2 comorbidities (p < 0.001), central venous catheter (p = 0.015), severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and lack of COVID-19 vaccination (p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression model also including age and multiple comorbidities, only BSI was significantly associated with adverse in-hospital outcome [OR (CI95%): 21.47 (3.86-119.21), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: BSI complicates unvaccinated patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and increases mortality. BSI pathogens and resistance profiles differ among COVID-19/non-COVID-19 departments, suggesting various routes of pathogen acquisition.

Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2333-2351, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345213


INTRODUCTION: The anti-inflammatory effect of macrolides prompted the study of oral clarithromycin in moderate COVID-19. METHODS: An open-label non-randomized trial in 90 patients with COVID-19 of moderate severity was conducted between May and October 2020. The primary endpoint was defined at the end of treatment (EOT) as no need for hospital re-admission and no progression into lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for patients with upper respiratory tract infection and as at least 50% decrease of the respiratory symptoms score without progression into severe respiratory failure (SRF) for patients with LRTI. Viral load, biomarkers, the function of mononuclear cells and safety were assessed. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was attained in 86.7% of patients treated with clarithromycin (95% CIs 78.1-92.2%); this was 91.7% and 81.4% among patients starting clarithromycin the first 5 days from symptoms onset or later (odds ratio after multivariate analysis 6.62; p 0.030). The responses were better for patients infected by non-B1.1 variants. Clarithromycin use was associated with decreases in circulating C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6; by increase of production of interferon-gamma and decrease of production of interleukin-6 by mononuclear cells; and by suppression of SARS-CoV-2 viral load. No safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Early clarithromycin treatment provides most of the clinical improvement in moderate COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT04398004.