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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(1): e34384, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wearable devices hold great promise, particularly for data generation for cutting-edge health research, and their demand has risen substantially in recent years. However, there is a shortage of aggregated insights into how wearables have been used in health research. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we aim to broadly overview and categorize the current research conducted with affordable wearable devices for health research. METHODS: We performed a scoping review to understand the use of affordable, consumer-grade wearables for health research from a population health perspective using the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) framework. A total of 7499 articles were found in 4 medical databases (PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and CINAHL). Studies were eligible if they used noninvasive wearables: worn on the wrist, arm, hip, and chest; measured vital signs; and analyzed the collected data quantitatively. We excluded studies that did not use wearables for outcome assessment and prototype studies, devices that cost >€500 (US $570), or obtrusive smart clothing. RESULTS: We included 179 studies using 189 wearable devices covering 10,835,733 participants. Most studies were observational (128/179, 71.5%), conducted in 2020 (56/179, 31.3%) and in North America (94/179, 52.5%), and 93% (10,104,217/10,835,733) of the participants were part of global health studies. The most popular wearables were fitness trackers (86/189, 45.5%) and accelerometer wearables, which primarily measure movement (49/189, 25.9%). Typical measurements included steps (95/179, 53.1%), heart rate (HR; 55/179, 30.7%), and sleep duration (51/179, 28.5%). Other devices measured blood pressure (3/179, 1.7%), skin temperature (3/179, 1.7%), oximetry (3/179, 1.7%), or respiratory rate (2/179, 1.1%). The wearables were mostly worn on the wrist (138/189, 73%) and cost <€200 (US $228; 120/189, 63.5%). The aims and approaches of all 179 studies revealed six prominent uses for wearables, comprising correlations-wearable and other physiological data (40/179, 22.3%), method evaluations (with subgroups; 40/179, 22.3%), population-based research (31/179, 17.3%), experimental outcome assessment (30/179, 16.8%), prognostic forecasting (28/179, 15.6%), and explorative analysis of big data sets (10/179, 5.6%). The most frequent strengths of affordable wearables were validation, accuracy, and clinical certification (104/179, 58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Wearables showed an increasingly diverse field of application such as COVID-19 prediction, fertility tracking, heat-related illness, drug effects, and psychological interventions; they also included underrepresented populations, such as individuals with rare diseases. There is a lack of research on wearable devices in low-resource contexts. Fueled by the COVID-19 pandemic, we see a shift toward more large-sized, web-based studies where wearables increased insights into the developing pandemic, including forecasting models and the effects of the pandemic. Some studies have indicated that big data extracted from wearables may potentially transform the understanding of population health dynamics and the ability to forecast health trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Fitness Trackers , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e056853, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583091

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entire world with increasing morbidity and mortality and has resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Assessing the burden of COVID-19 is essential for developing efficient pandemic preparedness and response strategies and for determining the impact of implemented control measures. Population-based seroprevalence surveys are critical to estimate infection rates, monitor the progression of the epidemic and to allow for the identification of persons exposed to the infection who may either have been asymptomatic or were never tested. This is especially important for countries where effective testing and tracking systems could not be established and where non-severe cases or under-reported deaths might have blurred the true burden of COVID-19. Most seroprevalence surveys performed in sub-Saharan Africa have targeted specific high risk or more easily accessible populations such as healthcare workers or blood donors, and household-based estimates are rarely available. Here, we present the study protocol for a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimation in the general population of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Madagascar in 2021. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The SeroCoV study is a household-based cross-sectional prevalence investigation in persons aged 10 years and older living in urban areas in six cities using a two-stage geographical cluster sampling method stratified by age and sex. The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies will be determined using a sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA. In addition, questionnaires will cover sociodemographic information, episodes of diseases and history of testing and treatment for COVID-like symptoms, travel history and safety measures. We will estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, taking into account test performance and adjusting for the age and sex of the respective populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was received for all participating countries. Results will be disseminated through reports and presentations at the country level as well as peer-reviewed publications and international scientific conferences presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Burkina Faso , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 351-362, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280858

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health emergency affecting the lives of millions of people globally. Different measures and extraordinary steps are being taken to contain the transmission of the virus. The levels of knowledge and implementation of preventive practices related to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan African countries are unclear. Additionally, there is a lack of evidence regarding the impacts of the pandemic on mental health. This study aimed to describe knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 and to assess mental health status among adults in three sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria. A total of 1,797 adults were included in the survey, and data were collected using computer-assisted telephone interviews. The proportions of adults who identified more than 80% of COVID-19 symptoms, transmission methods, and prevention mechanisms were 69.9%, 79.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The practice of preventive measures was relatively lower for avoiding social gatherings and disinfecting contaminated surfaces. Better education, urban residence, and believing the pandemic is real were factors associated with good knowledge on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission methods, and preventive actions. Additionally, being male was associated with good knowledge on symptoms and transmission methods, whereas being in an older age group was associated with knowledge of transmission methods. Mild, moderate, and severe psychological distress was reported by 20.6%, 5.9%, and 1.1% of the participants, respectively. Although this study found high levels of knowledge regarding COVID-19, interventions are needed to increase the uptake of recommended preventive practices among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 342-350, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280857

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis globally. Understanding healthcare providers' (HCPs') knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 is crucial to identifying effective strategies to improve their ability to respond to the pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. A phone-based survey of 900 HCPs in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria (300 per country) was conducted to assess knowledge, perceptions, COVID-19 prevention measures, stigma, and mental health of HCPs. Modified Poisson regression models were used to evaluate predictors of knowledge, perceptions, and prevention measures; adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Three-fourths of the HCPs had adequate knowledge, and over half had correct perceptions of risk and high levels of self-reported prevention measures. The majority of the HCPs (73.7%) reported self-perceived social stigma. There was relatively low prevalence of depression (6.6%), anxiety (6.6%), or psychological distress (18%). Compared with doctors, being a nurse was associated with lower levels of knowledge (ARR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.77-0.90) and was also negatively associated with having correct perceptions toward COVID-19 (AOR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73-0.92). HCPs treating COVID-19 patients had higher likelihood of having high levels of prevention measures (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.23-1.53). Despite high levels of knowledge among HCPs in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a need to improve COVID-19 perceptions and compliance with prevention measures as well as address social stigma toward HCPs to better ensure their safety and prepare them to deliver health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Telephone , Urban Population , Young Adult
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 331-341, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280856

ABSTRACT

The public health measures instituted by governments to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause developmental and educational losses to adolescents. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation strategies on adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are unclear. This study aimed to examine adolescents' knowledge, perceptions, and practices related to COVID-19 and the impacts of the pandemic on the daily lives of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The survey was conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria using computer-assisted telephone interviews to enable rapid and remote data collection. Two sites were included in each country, with approximately 300 adolescents per site and 1,795 adolescents in total. Variations across the six sites were noted for the proportions of the adolescents who could correctly identify all key COVID-19 symptoms (4-25%), transmission methods (16-59%), and prevention approaches (33-79%). Most (> 72%) of the adolescents were no longer going to school due to school closures. Many adolescents (23-81%) were not receiving any education during the pandemic. A considerable proportion of the adolescents (44-83%) self-assessed as having less ability to learn during the pandemic; many expected it to be very difficult to catch up on education after the pandemic. Decreases in the consumption of major food groups were common across sites. Urgent actions are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to address the inadequate knowledge of COVID-19 among adolescents and the impacts of the pandemic on adolescent education and nutrition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Schools , Telephone , Young Adult
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 323-330, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280855

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have short-term and long-term impacts on health services across sub-Saharan African countries. A telephone survey in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria was conducted to assess the effects of the pandemic on healthcare services from the perspectives of healthcare providers (HCPs) and community members. A total of 900 HCPs (300 from each country) and 1,797 adult community members (approximately 600 from each country) participated in the study. Adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using modified Poisson regression. According to the HCPs, more than half (56%) of essential health services were affected. Child health services and HIV/surgical/other services had a slightly higher percentage of interruption (33%) compared with maternal health services (31%). A total of 21.8%, 19.3%, and 7.7% of the community members reported that their family members and themselves had difficulty accessing childcare services, maternal health, and other health services, respectively. Nurses had a lower risk of reporting high service interruptions than physicians (ARR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-0.95). HCPs at private facilities (ARR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.84) had a lower risk of reporting high service interruptions than those at governmental facilities. Health services in Nigeria were more likely to be interrupted than those in Burkina Faso (ARR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19-1.59). Health authorities should work with multiple stakeholders to ensure routine health services and identify novel and adaptive approaches to recover referral services, medical care, maternal and child health, family planning, immunization and health promotion, and prevention during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Child , Child Health Services/standards , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Maternal Health Services/standards , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Telephone , Young Adult
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 310-322, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280854

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significant health and economic ramifications across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Data regarding its far-reaching impacts are severely lacking, thereby hindering the development of evidence-based strategies to mitigate its direct and indirect health consequences. To address this need, the Africa Research, Implementation Science, and Education (ARISE) Network established a mobile survey platform in SSA to generate longitudinal data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to COVID-19 prevention and management and to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on health and socioeconomic domains. We conducted a baseline survey of 900 healthcare workers, 1,795 adolescents 10 to 19 years of age, and 1,797 adults 20 years or older at six urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria. Households were selected using sampling frames of existing Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems or national surveys when possible. Healthcare providers in urban areas were sampled using lists from professional associations. Data were collected through computer-assisted telephone interviews from July to November 2020. Consenting participants responded to surveys assessing KAP and the impact of the pandemic on nutrition, food security, healthcare access and utilization, lifestyle, and mental health. We found that mobile telephone surveys can be a rapid and reliable strategy for data collection during emergencies, but challenges exist with response rates. Maintaining accurate databases of telephone numbers and conducting brief baseline in-person visits can improve response rates. The challenges and lessons learned from this effort can inform future survey efforts during COVID-19 and other emergencies, as well as remote data collection in SSA in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Research Design , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Cell Phone , Child , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 295-309, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280853

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have far-reaching consequences for developing countries through the combined effects of infection and mortality, and the mitigation measures that can impact food systems and diets. Using a mobile platform, this cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of COVID-19 on food prices and dietary quality for 1797 households in Nouna and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, Addis Ababa and Kersa in Ethiopia, and Lagos and Ibadan in Nigeria. We assessed the consumption of 20 food groups during the previous 7 days. The dietary diversity scores (DDS) and Prime Diet Quality Scores (PDQS) were used to assess dietary diversity and quality. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) linear models to evaluate associations between price changes for staples, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and animal source foods (ASFs) with the DDS and PDQS PDQS. Most participants reported increasing prices of staples, pulses, fruits, vegetables and ASF, and ≥ 40% reported the decreased consumption of staples, legumes, and other vegetables and fruits. The DDS (except in Kersa and Ouagadougou) and PDQS were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher pulse prices were associated with lower DDS (estimate, -0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.74 to 0.03; P = 0.07) in the combined analysis and in Burkina Faso (estimate, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.11). Higher vegetable prices were positively associated with the DDS (estimate, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.37). Lower crop production (estimate, -0.54; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.27) was associated with lower DDS. The price increases and worsening dietary diversity and quality call for social protection and other strategies to increase the availability and affordability of nutrient-rich foods during the COVID-19 pandemic and public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diet/standards , Food Security , Nutritional Status , Adult , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/economics , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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