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1.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956792

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More information is needed to understand the clinical epidemiology of children and young adults hospitalized with diabetes and COVID-19. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients <21 years old hospitalized with COVID-19 and either Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM or T2DM) during peak incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. METHODS: This is a descriptive sub-analysis of a retrospective chart review of patients aged <21 years hospitalized with COVID-19 in six US children's hospitals during July-August 2021. Patients with COVID-19 and either newly diagnosed or known T1DM or T2DM were described using originally collected data and diabetes-related data specifically collected on these patients. RESULTS: Of the 58 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and diabetes, 34 had T1DM and 24 had T2DM. Of those with T1DM and T2DM, 26% (9/34) and 33% (8/24), respectively, were newly diagnosed. Among those >12 years old and eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, 93% were unvaccinated (42/45). Among patients with T1DM, 88% had diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and 6% had COVID-19 pneumonia; of those with T2DM, 46% had DKA and 58% had COVID-19 pneumonia. Of those with T1DM or T2DM, 59% and 46%, respectively, required ICU admission. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of considering diabetes in the evaluation of children and young adults presenting with COVID-19; the challenges of managing young patients who present with both COVID-19 and diabetes, particularly T2DM; and the importance of preventive actions like COVID-19 vaccination to prevent severe illness among those eligible with both COVID-19 and diabetes.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1533-1536, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902882

ABSTRACT

Among 664,956 hospitalized COVID-19 patients during March 2020-July 2021 in the United States, select mental health conditions (i.e., anxiety, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia) were associated with increased risk for same-hospital readmission and longer length of stay. Anxiety was also associated with increased risk for intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19-related pediatric hospitalizations during a period of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance and to determine age-specific factors associated with severe illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We abstracted data from medical charts to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients aged <21 years hospitalized at 6 US children's hospitals during July-August 2021 for COVID-19 or with an incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among patients with COVID-19, we assessed factors associated with severe illness by calculating age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR). We defined severe illness as receiving high-flow nasal cannula, positive airway pressure, or invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 947 hospitalized patients, 759 (80.1%) had COVID-19, of whom 287 (37.8%) had severe illness. Factors associated with severe illness included coinfection with RSV (PR 3.64) and bacteria (PR 1.88) in infants; RSV coinfection in patients aged 1-4 years (PR 1.96); and obesity in patients aged 5-11 (PR 2.20) and 12-17 years (PR 2.48). Having ≥2 underlying medical conditions was associated with severe illness in patients aged <1 (PR 1.82), 5-11 (PR 3.72), and 12-17 years (PR 3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, factors associated with severe illness included RSV coinfection in those aged <5 years, obesity in those aged 5-17 years, and other underlying conditions for all age groups <18 years. These findings can inform pediatric practice, risk communication, and prevention strategies, including vaccination against COVID-19.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 328-330, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) and severe COVID-19 outcomes, 30-day readmission, and/or increased length of stay (LOS) using a large electronic administrative database. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified between March 2020 and June 2021 from more than 900 hospitals in the United States. IDDs included intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other intellectual disabilities. Outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 30-day readmission, mortality, and LOS. RESULTS: Among 643,765 patients with COVID-19, multivariate models showed that patients with any IDD were at a significantly greater risk of at least 1 severe outcome, 30-day readmission, or longer LOS than patients without any IDD. Compared with those without any IDD, patients with Down syndrome had the greatest odds of ICU admission (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.96 [1.73-2.21]), IMV (OR: 2.37 [2.07-2.70]), and mortality (OR: 2.33 [2.00-2.73]). Patients with ASD and those with Down syndrome both had over a 40% longer mean LOS. Patients with intellectual disabilities had a 23% (12-35%) increased odds of 30-day readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with IDD have a significantly increased risk of severe outcomes, 30-day readmission, and longer LOS.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Patient Readmission , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(2): 59-65, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people with diabetes, who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19.* Increases in the number of type 1 diabetes diagnoses (1,2) and increased frequency and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the time of diabetes diagnosis (3) have been reported in European pediatric populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In adults, diabetes might be a long-term consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4-7). To evaluate the risk for any new diabetes diagnosis (type 1, type 2, or other diabetes) >30 days† after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), CDC estimated diabetes incidence among patients aged <18 years (patients) with diagnosed COVID-19 from retrospective cohorts constructed using IQVIA health care claims data from March 1, 2020, through February 26, 2021, and compared it with incidence among patients matched by age and sex 1) who did not receive a COVID-19 diagnosis during the pandemic, or 2) who received a prepandemic non-COVID-19 acute respiratory infection (ARI) diagnosis. Analyses were replicated using a second data source (HealthVerity; March 1, 2020-June 28, 2021) that included patients who had any health care encounter possibly related to COVID-19. Among these patients, diabetes incidence was significantly higher among those with COVID-19 than among those 1) without COVID-19 in both databases (IQVIA: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.98-3.56; HealthVerity: HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.20-1.44) and 2) with non-COVID-19 ARI in the prepandemic period (IQVIA, HR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.64-2.86). The observed increased risk for diabetes among persons aged <18 years who had COVID-19 highlights the importance of COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, for all eligible persons in this age group,§ in addition to chronic disease prevention and management. The mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 might lead to incident diabetes is likely complex and could differ by type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Monitoring for long-term consequences, including signs of new diabetes, following SARS-CoV-2 infection is important in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk , United States/epidemiology
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1249-1254, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436412

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 generally results in milder disease in children and adolescents than in adults, severe illness from COVID-19 can occur in children and adolescents and might require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) support (1-3). It is not known whether the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant,* which has been the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in the United States since late June 2021,† causes different clinical outcomes in children and adolescents compared with variants that circulated earlier. To assess trends among children and adolescents, CDC analyzed new COVID-19 cases, emergency department (ED) visits with a COVID-19 diagnosis code, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 among persons aged 0-17 years during August 1, 2020-August 27, 2021. Since July 2021, after Delta had become the predominant circulating variant, the rate of new COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related ED visits increased for persons aged 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 increased for persons aged 0-17 years. Among persons aged 0-17 years during the most recent 2-week period (August 14-27, 2021), COVID-19-related ED visits and hospital admissions in the states with the lowest vaccination coverage were 3.4 and 3.7 times that in the states with the highest vaccination coverage, respectively. At selected hospitals, the proportion of COVID-19 patients aged 0-17 years who were admitted to an ICU ranged from 10% to 25% during August 2020-June 2021 and was 20% and 18% during July and August 2021, respectively. Broad, community-wide vaccination of all eligible persons is a critical component of mitigation strategies to protect pediatric populations from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
9.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology
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