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Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 43(6): 899-923, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133781


Radiology plays an important role in the management of the most seriously ill patients in the hospital. Over the years, continued advances in imaging technology have contributed to an improvement in patient care. However, even with such advances, the portable chest radiograph (CXR) remains one of the most commonly requested radiographic examinations. While they provide valuable information, CXRs remain relatively insensitive at revealing abnormalities and are often nonspecific. Chest computed tomography (CT) can display findings that are occult on CXR and is particularly useful at identifying and characterizing pleural effusions, detecting barotrauma including small pneumothoraces, distinguishing pneumonia from atelectasis, and revealing unsuspected or additional abnormalities which could result in increased morbidity and mortality if left untreated. CT pulmonary angiography is the modality of choice in the evaluation of pulmonary emboli which can complicate the hospital course of the ICU patient. This article will provide guidance for interpretation of CXR and thoracic CT images, discuss some of the invasive devices routinely used, and review the radiologic manifestations of common pathologic disease states encountered in ICU patients. In addition, imaging findings and complications of more specific clinical scenarios in which the incidence has increased in the ICU setting, such as patients who are immunocompromised, have interstitial lung disease, or COVID-19, will also be discussed. Communication between the radiologist and intensivist, particularly on complicated cases, is important to help increase diagnostic accuracy and leads to an improvement in the management of the most critically ill patients.

COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Communication
Am J Bioeth ; 21(11): 79-82, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500924

Critical Care , Triage , Humans
PLoS Biol ; 19(8): e3001373, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346324


Challenges in using cytokine data are limiting Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient management and comparison among different disease contexts. We suggest mitigation strategies to improve the accuracy of cytokine data, as we learn from experience gained during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
J Clin Ethics ; 31(4): 303-317, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812923


The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused shortages of life-sustaining medical resources, and future waves of the virus may cause further scarcity. The Yale New Haven Health System developed a triage protocol to allocate scarce medical resources during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the primary goal of saving the most lives possible, and a secondary goal of making triage assessments and decisions consistent, transparent, and fair. We outline the process of developing the triage protocol, summarize the protocol itself, and discuss the major ethical challenges encountered, along with our answers to these challenges. These challenges include (1) the role of age and chronic comorbidities; (2) evaluating children and pregnant patients; (3) racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in health; (4) prioritization of healthcare workers; and (5) balancing clinical judgment versus protocolized assessments. We conclude with a review of the limitations of our protocol and the lessons learned. We hope that a robust public discussion of such protocols and the ethical challenges that they raise will result in the fairest possible processes, less need for triage, and more lives saved during future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and similar public health emergencies.

Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Pandemics/ethics , Triage/ethics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2