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1.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although older adults aret ahigh risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, age is often used as a selection criterion in case of ICU beds scarcity. We sought to compare the proportion, clinical features and mortality between patients ≥70 years old and younger ICU patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All patients, consecutively admitted to our COVID ICU, where age was not used as an admission criterion, from March 2020 through April 2021, were included. Demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded. Illness severity and Charlson comorbidity índex (CCI) were calculated. Patients≥70 years old were compared to youngers. RESULTS: Of 458 patients [68 (59-76) years, 70% males], 206 (45%) were≥70 years old. Compared to younger, older patients had higher illness severity scores [APACHE II 18 (14-23) versus 12 (9-16), p<0.001, SOFA 8 (6-10) versus 6 (2-8), p<0.001, CCI 5 (4-6) versus 2 (1-3), p <0.001], increased need for mechanical ventilation (92% vs 72%, p<0.001) and ICU mortality (74% versus. 29%, p<0.001). Age (HR: 1.045, CI: 1.02-1.07, p=0.001), CCI (HR: 1.135, CI: 1.037-1.243, p=0.006) and APACHE I I (HR: 1.070, CI: 1.013-1.130, p=0.015) were independently associated with mortality. Among comorbidities, obesity, chronic pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSIONS: When age is not used as criterion for admission to COVID ICU, patients≥70 years old represent a considerable proportion and, compared to younger ones, they have higher mortality. Age, severity of illness and CCI, and certain comorbidities are independent risk factors for mortality.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321522

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the hospitalization rates for acute exacerbations of asthma and/or COPD during the first imposed lockdown in Athens, Greece. Patient characteristics and the concentration of eight air pollutants (namely, CO, NO, NO2, O3 PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and benzene) were considered. A total of 153 consecutive hospital admissions were studied. Reduced admissions occurred in the lockdown period when compared to the Pre-lockdown 2020 (p&lt;0.001) or the Control 2019 (p=0.007) period. Furthermore, the concentration of 6/8 air pollutants positively correlated with weekly hospital admissions in 2020 and significantly decreased during the lockdown. Finally, admitted patients for asthma exacerbation during the lockdown were younger (p=0.046) and less frequently presented respiratory failure (p=0.038), whereas patients with COPD presented higher blood eosinophil percentage (p=0.017) and count (p=0.012). Overall, admissions for asthma and COPD exacerbations decreased during the lockdown. This might partially explained by reduction of air pollution during this period while medical care avoidance behavior, especially among elderly patients cannot be excluded. Our findings aid in understanding the untold impact of the pandemic on diseases beyond COVID-19, focusing on patients with obstructive diseases..

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320307

ABSTRACT

Background: For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality rates vary widely depending on many factors, among which hospital resources and clinical setting seem important. We sought to determine the outcome of critically ill patients admitted in the usual multidisciplinary ICUs of a big referral for COVID-19 tertiary-care hospital with adequate resources. Methods: : We performed a prospective observational study of all adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to four COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece, from March 11 to April 27, 2020. Results: : Among 50 critically ill patients, ICU and hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 32% (16/50), whereas 66% (33/50) of patients were discharged alive from the ICU and 2% (1/50) were still treated in the ICU until June 16, 2020. ICU and hospital mortality for those who received invasive mechanical ventilation was 39% (16/41). Patients who eventually died had already increased risk of death on ICU admission, as suggested by the high values of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, the presence of current malignancy and occurrence of cardiac arrest in 44% (7/16) of patients, and the general need for circulatory support by noradrenaline. Median PaO 2 /FiO 2 on ICU admission for the entire cohort was 121 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg] and most patients had moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according to the Berlin Definition. The primary cause of death of all patients was multi-organ failure, most commonly due to sepsis, whereas none died from refractory hypoxemia, neurologic dysfunction or withdrawal of life support. Hospital stay was long in patients who survived [median 24 days (IQR, 15-35 days)] and was frequently complicated by bacteremias [36% (12/33)]. Conclusion: Severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have equal or even lower mortality rates compared to ARDS due to other causes, when they are admitted in general ICUs with experienced and adequate staff without limitations in hospital resources, where established ARDS therapies are used.

4.
Production and Operations Management ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1583456

ABSTRACT

Our study analyzes capacity management for promising vaccine candidates before regulatory approval (i.e., at-risk capacity building) in the presence of production outsourcing and different operational challenges: misaligned interests, possible ex-post negotiations, asymmetric information between developers and manufacturers, and government involvement. We develop analytical models to compare two vaccine production modes: (1) the integrated mode (a single company determines the at-risk capacity and produces in-house);and (2) the outsourcing mode (a manufacturer determines the at-risk capacity and a developer determines a funding level to share the capacity building cost). Our study reveals that outsourcing can achieve a higher at-risk capacity only if it can achieve sufficient cost savings compared with the integrated mode. Our research also proves that both vaccine production modes tend to underinvest in the at-risk capacity. Following this, we suggest measures to improve the at-risk capacity building in both vaccine production modes. Our signaling game model reveals that a developer with high competence cannot always send credible signals of its true competence level to the manufacturer. Our incomplete contract model verifies that the relative performance of the two vaccine production modes is robust when ex-post negotiation occurs under the outsourcing mode;however, the two parties may show incompatible preferences for the ex-post negotiation. Our study also analyzes the optimal allocation of government financial support to development funding and capacity funding to incentivize at-risk capacity building. We present comprehensive guidelines for the different stakeholders to collectively contribute to ramping up the at-risk capacity of promising vaccines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

5.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526848

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the hospitalization rates for acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) during the first imposed lockdown in Athens, Greece. Patient characteristics and the concentration of eight air pollutants [namely, NO (nitrogen monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), PM2.5 (particulate matter 2.5), PM10 (particulate matter 10), O3 (ozone), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and benzene] were considered. A total of 153 consecutive hospital admissions were studied. Reduced admissions occurred in the Lockdown period compared to the Pre-lockdown 2020 (p < 0.001) or the Control 2019 (p = 0.007) period. Furthermore, the concentration of 6/8 air pollutants positively correlated with weekly hospital admissions in 2020 and significantly decreased during the lockdown. Finally, admitted patients for asthma exacerbation during the lockdown were younger (p = 0.046) and less frequently presented respiratory failure (p = 0.038), whereas patients with COPD presented higher blood eosinophil percentage (p = 0.017) and count (p = 0.012). Overall, admissions for asthma and COPD exacerbations decreased during the lockdown. This might be partially explained by reduction of air pollution during this period while medical care avoidance behavior, especially among elderly patients cannot be excluded. Our findings aid in understanding the untold impact of the pandemic on diseases beyond COVID-19, focusing on patients with obstructive diseases.

6.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390679

ABSTRACT

Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is the principal cause of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation and death in severe COVID-19 infection. Nearly half of intubated patients with COVID-19 eventually die. High-Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) and Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV) constitute valuable tools to avert endotracheal intubation in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who do not respond to conventional oxygen treatment. Sparing Intensive Care Unit beds and reducing intubation-related complications may save lives in the pandemic era. The main drawback of HFNO and/or NIV is intubation delay. Cautious selection of patients with severe hypoxemia due to COVID-19 disease, close monitoring and appropriate employment and titration of HFNO and/or NIV can increase the rate of success and eliminate the risk of intubation delay. At the same time, all precautions to protect the healthcare personnel from viral transmission should be taken. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the application of HFNO and NIV in severe COVID-19 hypoxemic respiratory failure, analyse the risks associated with their use and provide a path for their proper implementation.

7.
Respiration ; 100(7): 588-593, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171560

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the first COVID-19 wave, a considerable decline in hospital admissions was observed worldwide. AIM: This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess if there were any changes in the number of patients hospitalized for respiratory diseases in Greece during the first CO-VID-19 wave. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated respiratory disease hospitalization rates across 9 tertiary hospitals in Greece during the study period (March-April 2020) and the corresponding period of the 2 previous years (2018-2019) that served as the control periods. Demographic data and discharge diagnosis were documented for every patient. RESULTS: Of the 1,307 patients who were hospitalized during the study period, 444 (35.5%) were males with a mean (±SD) age of 66.1 ± 16.6 years. There was a 47 and 46% reduction in all-cause respiratory morbidity compared to the corresponding periods of 2018 and 2019, respectively. The mean incidence rate for respiratory diseases during the study period was 21.4 admissions per day, and this rate was significantly lower than the rate during the same period in 2018 (40.8 admissions per day; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.525; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.491-0.562; p < 0.001) or the rate during 2019 (39.9 admissions per day; IRR, 0.537; 95% CI, 0.502-0.574; p < 0.001). The greatest reductions (%) in the number of daily admissions in 2020 were observed for sleep apnoea (87% vs. 2018 and 84% vs. 2019) followed by admissions for asthma (76% vs. 2018 and 79% vs. 2019) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (60% vs. 2018 and 51% vs. 2019), while the lowest reductions were detected in hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism (6% vs. 2018 and 23% vs. 2019) followed by tuberculosis (25% vs. both 2018 and 2019). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The significant reduction in respiratory admissions in 2020 raises the reasonable question of whether some patients may have avoided seeking medical attention during the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests an urgent need for transformation of healthcare systems during the pandemic to offer appropriate management of respiratory diseases other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945844

ABSTRACT

For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, extremely high mortality rates (even 97%) have been reported. We hypothesized that overburdened hospital resources by the extent of the pandemic rather than the disease per se might play an important role on unfavorable prognosis. We sought to determine the outcome of such patients admitted to the general ICUs of a hospital with sufficient resources. We performed a prospective observational study of adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece. Among 50 patients, ICU and hospital mortality was 32% (16/50). Median PaO2/FiO2 was 121 mmHg (interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg) and most patients had moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hospital resources may be an important aspect of mortality rates, since severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have understandable mortality, provided that they are admitted to general ICUs without limitations on hospital resources.

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