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2.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 813130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725454

ABSTRACT

Background: Prolonged university closures and social distancing-imposed measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic obliged students to at-home learning with online lectures and educational programs promoting potential social isolation, loneliness, hopelessness, and episodes of clinical decompensation. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in a university institute in Milan, Northern Italy, to assess the COVID-19 lockdown impact on the mental health of the undergraduate students. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) using adjusted logistic regression models. Results: Of the 8,177 students, 12.8% reported depressive symptoms, 25.6% anxiety, 8.7% insomnia, and 10.6% reported impulsive tracts, with higher proportions among females than males. Mental health symptoms were positively associated with caring for a person at home, a poor housing quality, and a worsening in working performance. Among males compared with females, a poor housing quality showed a stronger positive association with depressive symptoms and impulsivity, and a worsening in the working performance was positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, the absence of private space was positively associated with depression and anxiety, stronger among males than females. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first multidisciplinary consortium study, involving public mental health, environmental health, and architectural design. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings and consequent recommendations to implement well-being interventions in pandemic conditions.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715382

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak imposed rapid and severe public policies that consistently impacted the lifestyle habits and mental health of the general population. Despite vaccination, lockdown restrictions are still considered as potential measures to contrast COVID-19 variants spread in several countries. Recent studies have highlighted the impacts of lockdowns on the population's mental health; however, the role of the indoor housing environment where people spent most of their time has rarely been considered. Data from 8177 undergraduate and graduate students were collected in a large, cross-sectional, web-based survey, submitted to a university in Northern Italy during the first lockdown period from 1 April to 1 May 2020. Logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between moderate and severe depression symptomatology (PHQ-9 scores ≥ 15), and houses with both poor indoor quality and small dimensions (OR = 4.132), either medium dimensions (OR = 3.249) or big dimensions (OR = 3.522). It was also found that, regardless of housing size, poor indoor quality is significantly associated with moderate-severe depressive symptomatology. Further studies are encouraged to explore the long-term impact of built environment parameter modifications on mental health, and therefore support housing and public health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Universities
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328820

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19-related fatalities occurred among older adults, however to date, evidence on determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this population is limited and mostly based on case series without a comparison group. A telephone-based cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2020 on a representative sample of 4,400 Italians aged ≥65 years residing in the Lombardy region. We determined the prevalence of a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the period between the beginning of the pandemic and the time of the interview. Thorough unconditional multiple logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios (OR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also evaluated if the infection was a determinant of a worsening in mental health wellbeing. Overall, 4.9% of participants reported a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. No significant relationship between sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed. SARS-CoV-2 infection was less frequently reported in subjects aged ≥70 (OR=0.55;95% 0.41-0.74) compared to 65-69 years. No trend was observed after 70 years of age. Those with at least one chronic condition reported a lower infection rate compared to healthy subjects (OR=0.68 95% CI: 0.49-0.93). Separated/divorced participants less frequently reported infection than married/cohabiting ones (OR=2.33 95% CI: 1.29-4.20). Self-reported history of SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted being a determinant of an increase in depressive symptoms (OR=1.57;95% CI: 1.17-2.10). This first large representative study of people aged 65 years or over suggests that in Italy the oldest subjects and those having chronic conditions less frequently expose themselves to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625697

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected national healthcare systems worldwide, with around 282 million cumulative confirmed cases reported in over 220 countries and territories as of the end of 2021. The Italian National Health System was heavily affected, with detrimental impacts on preventive service delivery. Routine vaccination services were disrupted across the country during the first months of the pandemic, and both access to and demand for vaccines have decreased during the pandemic. In many cases, parents preferred to postpone scheduled appointments for routine paediatric vaccinations because of stay-at-home orders or fear of COVID-19 infection when accessing care. The objective of the current study was to assess the routine childhood vaccine coverage (VC) rates during the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy. We compared 2020 and 2019 VC by age group and vaccine type. The Italian Ministry of Health collected anonymised and aggregated immunisation national data through the local health authorities (LHAs). Results were considered statistically significant at a two-tailed p-value ≤ 0.05. VC rates for mandatory vaccinations decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 (range of VC rate decrease: -1% to -2.7%), while chicken pox increased (+2.2%) in 7-year-old children. Recommended vaccinations were moderately affected (range of VC rate decrease in 2020 vs. 2019: -1.4% to -8.5%), with the exception of anti-HPV in males, Men ACWY, and anti-rotavirus vaccination (VC increase 2020 vs. 2019: +1.8%, +4.7% and +9.4%, respectively). In the COVID-19 era, the implementation of coherent, transparent, and effective communication campaigns and educational programs on safe childhood vaccinations, together with the increase in the number of healthcare staff employed, is essential to support strategies to reinforce vaccination confidence and behaviour, thus avoiding health threats due to VPD during and beyond COVID-19 times.

7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021495, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to report on the characteristics and impact of "Igiene Insieme", a school-based national-level educational programme designed and implemented in Italy to promote hygiene and sanitation in schools, stimulate healthy behaviors in teachers, students and their families, and ultimately fight COVID-19. METHODS: the project targeted kindergartens and primary schools and included three components: the design and delivery of innovative health education interventions to i) students and ii) teachers, and iii) the provision of sanitation products in schools. Here we describe the intervention, report on the project penetration and evaluate its impact. First, a survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 1,005 teachers to evaluate the project at the national level, then a retrospective analysis was conducted in the Lombardy region comparing SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate in schools participating to the project with regional burden data. RESULTS: Over 8,000 Italian schools joined the project, for a total of 32,000 teachers and 1.1 million students. Survey respondents rated the educational interventions and the provision of sanitation products as excellent (66.6% and 82.5%, respectively) and reported the project to have greatly impacted on students' health behaviors. In the Lombardy region, 271 primary schools (11%) joined the project and 140 (52%) provided COVID-19 burden data. Over the study period, SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate in schools participating in the project was 14% lower as compared to regional-level data (643 per 100,000 vs. 747 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: We raise awareness on the importance of promoting health education and infectious diseases primary prevention in schools, and to plan, implement and monitor student-centred interventions during and beyond COVID-19 times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students
8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: during the COVID-19 pandemic a total lockdown was enforced all over Italy starting on March 9th. This resulted in the shrinking of economic activities. In addition, all formal occupational security-training courses were halted, among them the 81/08 law lectures and Basic Life Support-Defibrillation (BLS-D) laymen training courses. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on BLS-D laymen training courses in the Lombardy region. METHODS: BLS-D training courses records for the Lombardy region were analysed. The analysis was conducted from 2016 to 2020 as part of the Hippo project. RESULTS: between 2017 and 2019 BLS-D trained laymen kept increasing, moving from 53,500 trained individuals up to 74,700. In 2020 a stark reduction was observed with only 22,160 individuals trained. Formal courses were not halted completely during 2020. Still, in the months available for training, the number of individuals enrolled showed a sharp 50% reduction. CONCLUSIONS: laymen training courses for emergency management are a fundamental component of primary prevention practice. The 81/08 and 158/12 Italian laws have decreed this practice mandatory on the workplace. Following the enforcement of the lockdown and the subsequent interruption of emergency management courses, efforts will be necessary to re-establish and guarantee the high quality training of the pre-pandemic period.

9.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021439, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566937

ABSTRACT

Background and aim Contact tracing is a key element of epidemiologic investigation and active surveillance during infectious diseases outbreaks. Digital contact tracing (DCT) are new technologies that have been increasingly adopted in different countries to support conventional contact tracing efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, scant evidence is available on its public health effectiveness. We applied the Indicator Framework issued in 2021 jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to assess the available evidence on DCT adoption and impact in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We carried out a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines (Prospero registration number: CRD42021253662) to retrieve, pool, and critically appraise studies published in English from November 2019 to April 2021. We excluded mathematical models of effectiveness. Only studies representative of the general population or specific populations were included . In line with the WHO-ECDC indicator framework, outcomes of interest were grouped in indicators of: i) DCT use, ii) DCT success, and iii) DCT performance. Results We identified 1.201 citations searching the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library. After screening, 10 studies were included. All included studies reported measures of DCT use, varying widely by study population and setting (percentage of DCT apps download from 0.01% to 58.3% in included studies). Almost no data quantified an association between DCT adoption rate and infection transmission at the community level.  Only one reported measures of DCT success (ratio of exposure notifications received to positive test results entered), while no studies were retrieved reporting measures of DCT performance. Conclusions DCT has large potential to control epidemics. Its adoption is hindered by several normative, technical and acceptance barriers in different regions and countries. Our review shows that while some evidence is available on its adoption and use in selected settings, very scant data is available on its effectiveness in the fight against COVID-19. As digitalization provides new tools for infection control at the population level, solid research is needed to quantify the public health effects of their application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554857

ABSTRACT

Ensuring timely access to affordable vaccines has been acknowledged as a global public health priority, as also recently testified by the debate sparked during the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective vaccine procurement strategies are essential to reach this goal. Nevertheless, this is still a neglected research topic. A narrative literature review on vaccine procurement was conducted, by retrieving articles from four academic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, WebOfScience), 'grey' literature reports, and institutional websites. The aim was to clarify key concepts and definitions relating to vaccine procurement, describe main vaccine procurement methods, and identify knowledge gaps and future perspectives. A theoretical conceptual framework was developed of the key factors involved in vaccine procurement, which include quality and safety of the product, forecasting and budgeting, procurement legislation, financial sustainability, and plurality of manufacture, contracting, investment in training, storage and service delivery, monitoring and evaluation. This information can be useful to support policymakers during planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional and national vaccine procurement strategies and policies.

11.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021311, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a global public health concern globally. Even though Healthcare Workers (HCWs) are supposedly at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, to date no pooled evidence has been collected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched online electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, medRxiv.org for pre-prints) for all available contribution (up to May 20, 2019). Two Authors independently screened articles and extracted the data. The pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed using the random-effects model. The possible sources of heterogeneity were analyzed through subgroup analysis, and meta-regression. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 3.5% (95%CI 1.8-6.6) for studies based on molecular assays, 5.5% (95%CI 2.1-14.1) for studies based on serological assays, and 6.5% (95%CI 2.5-15.6) for point-of-care capillary blood tests. Among subgroups, serological tests identified higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in physicians than in nurses (OR 1.436, 95%CI 1.026 to 2.008). Regression analysis indicated the possible presence of publication bias only for molecular tests (t -3.3526, p-value 0.002648). CONCLUSIONS: The overall pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was lower than previously expected, but available studies were affected by significant heterogeneity, and the molecular studies by significant publication bias. Therefore, further high-quality research in the field is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Serologic Tests
12.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021487, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The urgency of having rapidly safe and efficient COVID-19 vaccines called for the need to shorten trial phases, reduce sample sizes, and speed-up the approval process by the regulatory Agencies. In light of this, monitoring adverse effects (AEFI) (both immediate and at medium-long term) become of great importance. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations between several factors and risk of immediate AEFI. METHODS: Data come from the electronic dataset developed ad hoc to record demographic data, anamnesis and data related to immunization, set-up in the mass vaccination site in Novegro (Milan). Novegro mass vaccination site was one of the mass vaccinations sites with the highest flow in Lombardy Region, with a maximum capacity of 5,000 vaccinations/day. The center opened in April 2021 and closed the 1st of August 2021. A multivariable logistic regression model was used. Odds ratios adjusted (aOR) for age and sex are presented. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducting using STATA. RESULTS: Among the total of 314,671 subjects vaccinated, 0.5% developed an immediate AEFI, on average 17.0 ± 0.43 minutes after the administration. The three most frequent AEFI recorded were vagal response (30%), anxiety reaction (24%) and dizziness (21%). AEFI were more frequently observed among women [aOR= 2.24 (95%CI= 2.00 - 2.50)], and those with at least one previous disease [aOR= 1.47 (95%CI= 1.22-1.76)]. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, AEFI were less likely to occur for increasing age and after the second dose. Results from this large, complete and representative sample population regarding enrich the interesting scientific debate on potential adverse events following COVID-19 immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021440, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries adopted restrictive measures to mitigate infection spread, which might have influenced people's lifestyle and dietary habits. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the impact of national lockdowns on adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD). METHODS: Studies were identified searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies published until 4th May 2021 were included. We only considered studies reporting original data from quantitative analysis and assessing changes in adherence to the MD, using validated dietary scores, or in consumption of MD food items. Data extraction, pooling, and quality appraisal of included studies were conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were retrieved. After screening, 12 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review, of which 4 (33%) were longitudinal studies. Six (85.7%) of the seven studies that measured changes in MD adherence before-during lockdown reported an increase (rate of change of high-adherence to MD ranged between +3.3% and +21.9%). Evidence indicates that consumption of MD food items increased during lockdown but is heterogeneous in study design, quality, and findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest adherence to the MD during lockdown might have increased in some settings, while the determinants of such a trend are to be further explored. We raise awareness of the need to research further the impacts and long-term consequences of COVID-19 containment measures on dietary and lifestyle habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021419, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Europe, Italy and Lombardy, in autumn 2020, there was a steep increase in reported cases due to the second epidemic wave of SARS-Cov-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of COVID-19 patients' admissions to the ED of the San Raffaele Hospital. METHODS: We compared data between the inter-wave period (IWP, from 1st to 30th September) and the second wave period (WP, 1st October to 15th November) focusing on the ED presentation, discharge priority colour code and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 977 admissions with a SARS-Cov-2 positive swab, 6% were in the IWP and 94% in the WP. Red, yellow and white code increased (these latter from 1.8% to 5.4%) as well as self-presented in yellow and white code. Discharges home increased from 1.8% to 5.4%, while hospitalizations decreased from 63% to 51%. DISCUSSION: We found a rise in white codes (among self-presented patients), indicating inappropriateness of admissions. The increase in discharges suggests that several patients did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic brought out the fundamental role of primary care to manage patients with low-intensity needs. The important increase in ED admissions of COVID-19 patients caused a reduction of NO-COVID-19 patients, with possible inadequate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481031

ABSTRACT

Digitalisation offers great potential to improve vaccine uptake, supporting the need for effective life-course immunisation services. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with public health experts from 10 Western European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom) to assess the current level of digitalisation in immunisation programmes and retrieve data on interventions and best practices. Interviews were performed using an ad hoc questionnaire, piloted on a sample of national experts. We report a mixed level of digital technologies deployment within vaccination services across Europe: Some countries are currently developing eHealth strategies, while others have already put in place robust programmes. Institutional websites, educational videos, and electronic immunisation records are the most frequently adopted digital tools. Webinars and dashboards represent valuable resources to train and support healthcare professionals in immunisation services organisation. Text messages, email-based communication, and smartphone apps use is scattered across Europe. The main reported barrier to the implementation of digital-based programmes is the lack of resources and shared standards. Our study offers a comprehensive picture of the European context and shows the need for robust collaboration between states and international institutions to share best practices and inform the planning of digital intervention models with the aim of countering vaccine hesitancy and increasing vaccine uptake.

16.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021462, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: After the first cases of COVID-19 detected in Wuhan (China), the virus rapidly spread in the world, so much so that on February 20 the first autochthonous case was officially identified in Italy. However, this person had no apparent history of travel abroad or contact with people tested positive for the virus. For this reason, the aim of this literature review was to reconstruct the epidemiological dynamics of the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Lombardy Region. METHODS: To this end, a systematic review was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, and on grey literature. All article assessing incidence, mortality and hospitalizations by Lombardy province and municipality, and the impact of the main containment and organizational measures were considered eligible. In addition, data on general mortality and mortality due to COVID-19, hospital admission, and serological and environmental were also retrieved. RESULTS: From the included studies, it emerged that Lombardy was the first European region in which the virus began to circulate as early as January 2020 (and probably even earlier). Despite the high number of cases and deaths recorded, the reproduction number observed in Lombardy Region was, at the beginning of March 2020, the same (or lower) than in other regions. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, data of the first epidemic wave in Lombardy, compared to other Italian and foreign regions, highlight the extreme criticality of having had the first autochthonous case (and the first substantial outbreaks) when knowledge was still scarce and individual prevention measures were not widespread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021450, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Comirnaty® was the first COVID-19 vaccine available for the vaccination campaign of healthcare workers in Italy. With the aim of assessing vaccine safety, we conducted a cross-sectional survey administrating a voluntary-based questionnaire on adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) in San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy. METHODS: From 4th January 2021 to 27th April 2021, we collected 2,659 questionnaires (response rate: 24,5%). We analyzed data, reporting AEFIs by gender, age, self-reported severity, type, time of insurgence and duration, and estimating relative-risk ratios (RRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The most reported symptoms were injection site pain, fatigue, headache, myalgia, chills, fever, and arthralgia. Severe systemic reactions were more frequent after receiving the second dose (RRR 6.25, 95% CI 4.57-8.55), in women (RRR 3.33, 95% CI 2.30-4.82), and less frequent in individuals aged 60 or more (RRR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.49). In addition, we noted a wide range of adverse events of special interest (AESIs). CONCLUSIONS: Consistently with clinical trials and pharmacovigilance surveillance, AEFIs were frequent, but severe ones were uncommon, supporting the massive implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign and providing valuable data for a risk profiling of vaccinees. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6464-6469, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440395

ABSTRACT

Among 6146 hospital employees, 118 subjects with severe allergic background were identified through a screening questionnaire and stratified into 3 groups (Low-risk (LR), Intermediate (IR) and High-risk (HR) group), based on their allergic anamnesis. Data reports on hypersensitivity reactions (HypR) have been collected in both allergic and non-allergic subjects. Seventeen patients (14%) in the allergic population had a HypR after the first, the second or both doses. Skin manifestations were the most frequent ones. Allergic events were more frequent in HR (35%) than IR (10%; p = 0.005) or LR (0%; p = 0.074) subjects. No patient had anaphylaxis. All patients completed the vaccination schedule. 13 HypR occurred in patients without severe allergic background (13/6028, 0,2%) including one (1/6148, 0.016% of total population) WAO grade-4 anaphylaxis. Our data suggest that BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine is relatively safe also in patients with severe allergic background; however, some precautions are required for high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Algorithms , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects
19.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020025, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The ongoing pandemic has elicited an increasing interest regarding the SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA detection in saliva specimens rather than through nasopharyngeal swabs. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis on the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA detection through RT-qPCR based on salivary specimens compared to conventional nasopharyngeal swabs. METHODS: We reported our meta-analysis according to the PRISMA statement. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and pre-print archive medRxiv.og for eligible studies published up to June 1st, 2020. Raw data included true/false positive and negative tests, and the total number of tests. Sensitivity and specificity data were calculated for every study, and then pooled in a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 measure. Reporting bias was assessed by means of funnel plots and regression analysis. RESULTS: The systematic review eventually retrieved 14 studies including a total of 15 estimates, the were included in quantitative synthesis. We found a pooled specificity of 97.7% (95%CI 93.8-99.2) and a pooled sensitivity of 83.4% (95%CI 73.1-90.4), with an overall agreement assessed by means of Cohen's kappa equals to 0.750, 95%CI 0.62-0.88 (i.e. moderate agreement), with high heterogeneity and risk of reporting bias. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, diagnostic tests based on salivary specimens are somewhat reliable, but relatively few studies have been carried out. Moreover, such studies are characterized by low numbers and low sample power. Therefore, the of salivary samples is currently questionable for clinical purposes and cannot substitute other more conventional RT-qPCR based on nasopharyngeal swabs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Saliva/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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