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1.
J Clin Med ; 12(7)2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299358

ABSTRACT

(Background) The period experienced during the COVID-19 virus and the respective social regulations associated with it caused enormous psychosocial stress. (Objective) The objective of the present work was to observe whether the lived period induced a change in delusional characterizations in subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. (Methods) A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines for systematic reviews of the PRISMA GROUP. The literature search was conducted from November 2021 to May 2022, using various scientific platforms including PubMed. (Results) A total of 865 articles were found, from which 176 duplicates were removed. The remaining articles were reviewed by reading the titles and abstracts; fourteen were included. (Conclusions) During this research, it was possible to confirm the initial thesis, namely that delirium absorbs external reality by being modified by it. It was observed that the speed of absorption is estimated to be directly proportional to the speed of the modification of social reality and to the impact that the latter has on the subject's private sphere. Moreover, the situation of radical change represented a condition of abnormal psychosocial stress, which led to an increase in diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and, specifically, a weighty increase in diagnoses of brief psychotic disorder (BDP). In the coming years, it is estimated that there will be an increase in diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder caused by both environmental and biological factors.

2.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(7-8): 797-808, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187164

ABSTRACT

The potentially traumatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in subjects with pre-existing mental disorders is still unclear, especially regarding its long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in patients with mental disorders, during the 3rd wave of the infection (T0, March-April 2021) while strict containment measures were applied in Italy, and after 3 months (T1, June-July 2021), with reduced restrictive measures. A total sample of 527 subjects, with different DSM-5 diagnoses, was consecutively enrolled at nine Italian psychiatric outpatient services. Assessments at T0 included: the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). These two latter were repeated at T1. Results showed that at T0, 43.6% of the sample reported symptoms of PTSD, with females (p = .004), younger subjects (p = .011), unemployed/students (p = .011), and living with their parental families (p = .017), resulting more affected. Differences in PTSD rates emerged across diagnostic groups ranging from 10% in patients with psychoses up to 59% in those with feeding and eating disorders. An improvement at T1 emerged in all diagnostic groups for the IES-R scores, while WSAS scores improved only in subjects with mood disorders. In conclusions, subjects with mental disorders presented relevant rates of PTSD and PTSS at 1-year into the pandemic. Further long-term studies are needed to follow-up the course of pandemic traumatic burden especially in patients with severe mental disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Female , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Italy/epidemiology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123686

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students were burdened with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. The objective of the present study was to investigate predictors of positive mental health among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an online survey from September 2021 to March 2022. We applied the snowball recruitment technique involving medical students from the University of Catania, Italy. We administered, anonymously, a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and the short form of the Mental Health Continuum (MHC-SF). Participants showed moderate anxiety, depression, and stress levels, and more than half had positive mental health status overall. This finding was inversely related to age, depression severity, cyclothymic, and depressive temperaments. Our results showed that medical students with depressive and cyclothymic temperaments were more at risk of worsening mental health status during the pandemic. Our findings may allow for further developments about the impact of personological characteristics on students' mental health to enable more efficient support for the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Psychometrics , Pandemics , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Temperament , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Personality Inventory
4.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 246-248, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764698

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact and coping strategies experienced by depressed inpatients during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. We recruited 75 depressed inpatients. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of PTSD-like symptoms measured with Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Predicting variables were age, sex, the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced subscales scores, the Anxiety Status Inventory total score, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 total score. The prevalence of PTSD-like stress symptoms was 41.33%. Age, social and avoidance coping strategies, and anxiety levels were significant predictors of PTSD-like symptoms. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic in depressed inpatients is associated with PTSD-like stress symptoms, anxiety, and maladaptive coping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Emergency Medical Services , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715331

ABSTRACT

The fear of the new coronavirus infection has driven many non-COVID-19 patients away from essential healthcare. Our study aimed to investigate the perception of risk and feelings of danger for the contagion in a sample of Italian psychiatric patients. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown in Italy. The risk perception and risk-related variables were assessed in a sample of 150 consecutive patients with a previous diagnosis of major depression (50), bipolar I disorder (50), and schizophrenia seeking ambulatory care using a questionnaire previously administered to the general Italian population. Our results showed that patients were more concerned about economic, psychological, and interpersonal consequences of COVID-19 pandemic, rather than about their own health. At the multiple regression analysis, the likelihood of COVID-19 resolution was positively influenced by the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the increased perceived effectiveness, and the presence of positive emotions. Indeed, positive emotions and uncertainty positively influenced interpersonal risk. Our study highlights the need to provide more support to psychiatric patients during emergency events to prevent them from engaging in risky behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brain Sci ; 12(1)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625196

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has disrupted the daily routine of the population worldwide, including autistic people and their caregivers, with severe consequences on mental health. On one hand, the reduced social contacts and the interruption of outpatient and daycare services during the lockdown have represented a real challenge for autistic people and their caregivers. On the other hand, confinement has allowed individuals to spend more time pursuing their interests and stay home with their family members without feeling the pressure of social expectations. The present study aimed to compare the levels of personal wellbeing, family distress, insomnia, and resilience between caregivers of autistic people and caregivers of people with other neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, or relational disabilities. A web survey was completed by 383 participants, of which 141 were primary caregivers of autistic people. We did not find any significant difference between caregivers of autistic and non-autistic people in any of the considered psychological variables. Lower age of the autistic family member and lower resilience levels were significantly associated with higher individual distress in the group of caregivers of autistic people. Our findings do not corroborate the hypothesis that caregivers of autistic individuals have had more severe consequences than other caregivers during the lockdown. However, they confirm the importance of promoting resilient coping strategies in autistic people and their caregivers.

7.
J Community Psychol ; 50(5): 2243-2259, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568129

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the personal well-being and family distress of Italian caregivers during the lockdown. Five hundred sixty-five family caregivers and 638 age- and sex-matched noncaregivers completed a web-based survey. The following scales were administered to all participants: General Health Questionnaire-12 items (GHQ-12), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), and Family Distress Index (FDI). Caregivers were also asked to provide information about their family members with disabilities. Individual and family distress, as well as insomnia, were significantly higher in caregivers than controls. Contrariwise, caregivers reported lower resilience levels. Multiple linear regression showed that distress was higher in caregivers living in Central and Southern Italy. Individual well-being was negatively predicted by low independence measured by the activities of daily living (ADL). Family distress was higher in households of psychiatric patients. Finally, low resilience levels appeared as the strongest predictors of both individual and family distress. The lockdown caused severe distress among caregivers and families of people with disabilities. Support networks for people with disabilities and their families are fundamental to prevent severe consequences from a psychological, social, and economical point of view.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Activities of Daily Living , Caregivers/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans
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