Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a worldwide spread since early 2020 and a lot of studies concerning the diagnostic and prognostic role of chest computed tomography (CT) on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been published. Renal involvement might be present in up to 75% of cases, significantly impacting on the prognosis. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of opportunistic kidney assessment on non-enhanced chest CT and to evaluate if radiological findings could be associated with relevant clinical information regarding kidney function and patient's prognosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHOD We collected data on patient demographics, comorbidities, chronic medications, vital signs, baseline laboratory test results and in-hospital treatment in patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to our Institution who underwent chest CT. The standard chest CT-scan acquired in full inspiration include large part of both kidneys as per protocol. Three regions of interest (ROI) of 0.5–0.7 cm2 were positioned in every kidney, right and left to include both the cortex and the medulla. The mean values of attenuation of kidney regions were analysed. The primary and secondary outcomes were the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI), in-hospital and 9 months of death for all causes. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with COVID-19 and unenhanced chest CT were analyzed splitting the cohort into CT renal parenchyma attenuation (RPA) quartiles. Patients with a CT RPA below 24 Hounsfield unit (HU) were more likely to develop AKI when compared with other patients (×2 = 2.77, P = .014). An AKI-specific cut-off point of RPA was identified by performing a survival receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, being in the first quartile of CT RPA was associated with a four-times higher risk of AKI (Table 1) after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, kidney function at admission and other comorbidities. During a mean 22 ± 15 days of admission, 32 patients died (37.2%). Patients with lower values of RPA at CT (first quartile, <24 HU) were not at a higher risk of death compared with patients with RPA ≥ 24 HU, as shown by Kaplan Maier curve (Fig. 1) and by multivariate Cox regression analysis [HR 1.84 (95% CI 0.82–4.13);P = .14].Figure 1: Data patients, grouped by AKI situation (without AKI, AKI on arrival or AKI during admission). CONCLUSION The association between AKI and RPA < 24 HU was independent of age, gender, creatinine and comorbidities. RPA values seemed to be predictive of AKI development in COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT, suggesting RPA values could significantly improve patients’ care. The opportunistic measure of RPA could help physicians identifying patients with a higher risk of AKI, and this increased awareness could guide choices for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Med Lav ; 112(6): 429-435, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission among co-workers at the University of Genoa, Italy, during the second COVID-19 pandemic wave. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2020 - March 2021: RT-PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19 notified to the Occupational Health Service were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Among the n = 201 notified cases, contact tracing of n = 53 individuals identified n = 346 close contacts. The household setting (IRR = 36.8; 95% CI: 4.9-276.8; p < 0.001) and sharing eating areas (IRR = 19.5; 95% CI: 2.5-153.9; p = 0.005) showed the highest Secondary Attack Rates (SARs) compared to the office setting. Fatigue (IRR= 17.1; 95% CI: 5.2-55.8; p < 0.001), gastrointestinal symptoms (IRR= 6.6; 95% CI: 2.9-15.2; p< 0.001) and cough (IRR= 8.2; 95% CI: 3.7-18.2; p= p< 0.001) were associated with transmission of infection. Polysymptomatic cases (IRR= 23.1; 95% CI: 3.1-169.2; p = 0.02) were more likely to transmit the infection. Among COVID-19 index cases aged >60 years (OR = 7.7; 95% CI: 1.9-31.9; p = 0.0046) SARs were higher than in other age groups. Wearing respiratory protections by both the case and the close contact resulted an effective measure compared with no use (IRR = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03-0.2; p = < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Accurate infection monitoring and contact tracing was useful to identify the main situations Conclusions: Accurate infection monitoring and contact tracing was useful to identify the main situations of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the workplace, and hence for risk assessment and prevention programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 57: 103358, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may spread through various ways ranging from asymptomatic to severe forms, until respiratory failure, critical conditions and death occurs. There is a particular concern for patients affected by multiple sclerosis, especially for those under disease-modifying treatments. Some studies have found an association between anti-CD20 therapies (especially rituximab) and severe COVID-19. However, results were not always clear and thus a systematic review was helpful. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed independently by two authors on the main search tools considering as key inclusion criterion the presence of data on patients under ocrelizumab or rituximab positive to COVID-19. The quality of the included studies was evaluated based on a modified version of the Dutch Cochrane center critical review checklist proposed by MOOSE and in case of missing data an email was sent to the corresponding authors asking for missing information. After excluding case-reports, a random effects meta-analysis of proportions was conducted using the continuity correction and the I2statistic was calculated to measure heterogeneity. RESULTS: 29 articles were included in the analysis and the median quality of the articles reached 4/5 after having integrated the additional details provided by the authors. The articles included 5173 patients, of whom 770 (14.8%) and 455 (8.8%) were, respectively, under ocrelizumab and rituximab. Pooled estimates of hospitalization, pneumonia and intensive care unit admission were 18.1%, 14.8% and 3.3%, respectively, while pooled estimate for death was 1.8% overall and 1.6% and 4.5%, respectively, for patients under ocrelizumab and rituximab. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with rituximab seem to be at higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes compared to patients under other treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 726837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450818

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Older adults are more susceptible to severe COVID-19, with increased all-cause mortality. This has been attributed to their multimorbidity and disability. However, it remains to be established which clinical features of older adults are associated with severe COVID-19 and mortality. This information would aid in an accurate prognosis and appropriate care planning. Here, we aimed to identify the chronic clinical conditions and the comorbidity clusters associated with in-hospital mortality in a cohort of older COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the IRCCS Policlinico San Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy, between January and April 2020. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including 219 consecutive patients aged 70 years or older and is part of the GECOVID-19 study group. During the study period, upon hospital admission, demographic information (age, sex) and underlying chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity) were recorded from the medical records at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis before any antiviral or antibiotic treatment was administered. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results: The vast majority of the patients (90%) were >80 years; the mean patient age was 83 ± 6.2 years, and 57.5% were men. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease, along with dementia, cerebrovascular diseases, and vascular diseases were the most prevalent clinical conditions. Multimorbidity was assessed with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The risk of in-hospital mortality due to COVID-19 was higher for males, for older patients, and for patients with dementia or cerebral-vascular disease. We clustered patients into three groups based on their comorbidity pattern: the Metabolic-renal-cancer cluster, the Neurocognitive cluster and the Unspecified cluster. The Neurocognitive and Metabolic-renal-cancer clusters had a higher mortality compared with the Unspecified cluster, independent of age and sex. Conclusion: We defined patterns of comorbidity that accurately identified older adults who are at higher risk of death from COVID-19. These associations were independent of chronological age, and we suggest that the identification of comorbidity clusters that have a common pathophysiology may aid in the early assessment of COVID-19 patients with frailty to promote timely interventions that, in turn, may result in a significantly improved prognosis.

7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 1837-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy can be performed safely in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, little is known about the optimal timing, effects on outcome, and complications. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study. This study included 153 tracheostomized COVID-19 patients from 11 intensive care units (ICUs). The primary endpoint was the median time to tracheostomy in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Secondary endpoints were survival rate, length of ICU stay, and post-tracheostomy complications, stratified by tracheostomy timing (early versus late) and technique (surgical versus percutaneous). RESULTS: The median time to tracheostomy was 15 (1-64) days. There was no significant difference in survival between critically ill COVID-19 patients who received tracheostomy before versus after day 15, nor between surgical and percutaneous techniques. ICU length of stay was shorter with early compared to late tracheostomy (p < 0.001) and percutaneous compared to surgical tracheostomy (p = 0.050). The rate of lower respiratory tract infections was higher with surgical versus percutaneous technique (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, neither early nor percutaneous tracheostomy improved outcomes, but did shorten ICU stay. Infectious complications were less frequent with percutaneous than surgical tracheostomy.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(4): 1217-1225, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: IL-1 plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response during cytokine storm syndromes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of early anti-inflammatory treatment (AIT) with intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia from February 26 to April 29, 2020, to assess the efficacy of early AIT with intravenous anakinra (100 mg every 8 hours for 3 days, with tapering) alone or in combination with a glucocorticoid (intravenous methylprednisolone, 1-2 mg/kg daily, with tapering). The standard of care (SOC) treatment was hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants. Late rescue AIT with anakinra or tocilizumab was also evaluated. Treatment effect on overall survival was assessed by a propensity score-adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients were analyzed; 63 patients received early AIT (30 received anakinra alone and 33 received anakinra plus a glucocorticoid) at admission, and 65 patients did not receive early AIT and were used as controls; of the latter 65 patients, 44 received the SOC treatment alone and 21 received the SOC treatment plus late rescue AIT. After adjustment for all the unbalanced baseline covariates, early AIT reduced the hazard of mortality by 74% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26; P < .001). The effect was similar in patients receiving anakinra alone (adjusted HR = 0.28; P = .04) and anakinra plus a glucocorticoid (adjusted HR = 0.33; P = .07). Late rescue treatment did not show a significant advantage over SOC treatment alone (adjusted HR = 0.82; P = .70). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests, on a larger series of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the potential efficacy and safety of the early use of high doses of intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739098

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with anti- severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in a large population of adult volunteers from five administrative departments of the Liguria and Lombardia regions. A total of 3609 individuals were included in this analysis. Participants were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies [Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) class antibodies] at three private laboratories (Istituto Diganostico Varelli, Medical Center, and Casa della Salute di Genova). Demographic data, occupational or private exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, and prior medical history consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected according to a preplanned analysis. The overall seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) was 11.0% [398/3609; confidence interval (CI) 10.0%-12.1%]. Seroprevalence was higher in female inmates than in male inmates (12.5% vs. 9.2%, respectively, p = 0.002), with the highest rate observed among adults aged >55 years (13.2%). A generalized estimating equations model showed that the main risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence were the following: an occupational exposure to the virus [Odd ratio (OR) = 2.36; 95% CI 1.59-3.50, p = 0.001], being a long-term care facility resident (OR = 4.53; 95% CI 3.19-6.45, p = 0.001), and reporting previous symptoms of influenza-like illness (OR = 4.86; 95% CI 3.75-6.30, p = 0.001) or loss of sense of smell or taste (OR = 41.00; 95% CI 18.94-88.71, p = 0.001). In conclusion, we found a high prevalence (11.0%) of SARS-CoV-2 infection that is significantly associated with residing in long-term care facilities or occupational exposure to the virus. These findings warrant further investigation into SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence among the Italian population.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237831, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725099

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to respiratory failure due to severe immune response. Treatment targeting this immune response might be beneficial but there is limited evidence on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine if early treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with tocilizumab and/or steroids was associated with better outcome. METHODS: This observational single-center study included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were not intubated and received either standard of care (SOC, controls) or SOC plus early (within 3 days from hospital admission) anti-inflammatory treatment. SOC consisted of hydroxychloroquine 400mg bid plus, in those admitted before March 24th, also darunavir/ritonavir. Anti-inflammatory treatment consisted of either tocilizumab (8mg/kg intravenously or 162mg subcutaneously) or methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg for 5 days or both. Failure was defined as intubation or death, and the endpoints were failure-free survival (primary endpoint) and overall survival (secondary) at day 30. Difference between the groups was estimated as Hazard Ratio by a propensity score weighted Cox regression analysis (HROW). RESULTS: Overall, 196 adults were included in the analyses. They were mainly male (67.4%), with comorbidities (78.1%) and severe COVID-19 pneumonia (83.7%). Median age was 67.9 years (range, 30-100) and median PaO2/FiO2 200 mmHg (IQR 133-289). Among them, 130 received early anti-inflammatory treatment with: tocilizumab (n = 29, 22.3%), methylprednisolone (n = 45, 34.6%), or both (n = 56, 43.1%). The adjusted failure-free survival among tocilizumab/methylprednisolone/SOC treated patients vs. SOC was 80.8% (95%CI, 72.8-86.7) vs. 64.1% (95%CI, 51.3-74.0), HROW 0.48, 95%CI, 0.23-0.99; p = 0.049. The overall survival among tocilizumab/methylprednisolone/SOC patients vs. SOC was 85.9% (95%CI, 80.7-92.6) vs. 71.9% (95%CI, 46-73), HROW 0.41, 95%CI: 0.19-0.89, p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: Early adjunctive treatment with tocilizumab, methylprednisolone or both may improve outcomes in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13319, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired bloodstream infections (BSI) in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, single-centre study was conducted in Northern Italy. The primary study objectives were as follows: (a) to assess the incidence rate of ICU-acquired BSI and (b) to assess the cumulative risk of developing ICU-acquired BSI. RESULTS: Overall, 78 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. Forty-five episodes of ICU-acquired BSI were registered in 31 patients, with an incidence rate of 47 episodes (95% confidence interval [CI] 35-63) per 1000 patient-days at risk. The estimated cumulative risk of developing at least one BSI episode was of almost 25% after 15 days at risk and possibly surpassing 50% after 30 days at risk. In multivariable analysis, anti-inflammatory treatment was independently associated with the development of BSI (cause-specific hazard ratio [csHR] 1.07 with 95% CI 0.38-3.04 for tocilizumab, csHR 3.95 with 95% CI 1.20-13.03 for methylprednisolone and csHR 10.69 with 95% CI 2.71-42.17 for methylprednisolone plus tocilizumab, with no anti-inflammatory treatment as the reference group; overall P for the dummy variable = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of BSI was high, and the cumulative risk of developing BSI increased with ICU stay. Further study will clarify if the increased risk of BSI we detected in COVID-19 patients treated with anti-inflammatory drugs is outweighed by the benefits of reducing any possible pro-inflammatory dysregulation induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Candidemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Enterobacter aerogenes , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL