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1.
Turk Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 60(1): 29-35, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954479

ABSTRACT

Objective: Various metals play role in the survival and pathogenesis of the invasive fungal disease. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of heavy metals in patients with chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (CIFR) and healthy controls, and to analyze their role in disease outcome. Methods: Twenty-three patients (15 with invasive mucormycosis and 8 with invasive aspergillosis, Group 1), and 14 healthy controls (Group 2) were recruited. Blood samples were collected from each group into ion-free tubes and analyzed for serum levels of Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Gallium (Ga), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se), Rubidium (Rb), Strontium (Sr), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb). The final outcome of the patients during their hospital stay was categorized clinico-radiologically as improved or worsened, or death. Results: The levels of all metals were higher in Group 1 except for As and Pb. However, the differences in Cu (p=0.0026), Ga (p=0.002), Cd (p=0.0027), and Pb (p=0.0075) levels were significant. Higher levels of Zn (p=0.009), Se (p=0.020), and Rb (p=0.016) were seen in the invasive aspergillosis subgroup. Although Zn (p=0.035), As (p=0.022), and Sr (p=0.002) levels were higher in patients with improved outcome, subgroup analysis showed no differences. Conclusion: The levels of some heavy metals in CIFR significantly differ from those of the general population and also vary with the type of the disease and its outcome. These levels may not have a direct effect on the outcome of the patient, but they do play a role in the pathogenesis of the invading fungus.

2.
J Mycol Med ; 32(4): 101307, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although unexpected airway difficulties are reported in patients with mucormycosis, the literature on airway management in patients with mucormycosis associated with Coronavirus disease is sparse. METHODS: In this retrospective case record review of 57 patients who underwent surgery for mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease, we aimed to evaluate the demographics, airway management, procedural data, and in-hospital mortality records. RESULTS: Forty-one (71.9%) patients had a diagnosis of sino-nasal mucormycosis, fourteen (24.6%) patients had a diagnosis of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and 2 (3.5%) patients had a diagnosis of palatal mucormycosis. A total of 44 (77.2%) patients had co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus in 42 (73.6%) patients, followed by hypertension in 21 (36.8%) patients, and acute kidney injury in 14 (28.1%) patients. We used the intubation difficulty scale score to assess intubating conditions. Intubation was easy to slightly difficult in 53 (92.9%) patients. In our study, mortality occurred in 7 (12.3%) patients. The median (range) mortality time was 60 (27-74) days. The median (range) time to hospital discharge was 53.5 (10-85) days. The median [interquartile range] age of discharged versus expired patients was 47.5 [41,57.5] versus 64 [47,70] years (P = 0.04), and median (interquartile range) D-dimer levels in discharged versus expired patients was 364 [213, 638] versus 2448 [408,3301] ng/mL (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing surgery for mucormycosis associated with the coronavirus disease, airway management was easy to slightly difficult in most patients. Perioperative complications can be minimized by taking timely and precautionary measures.

3.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911472

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India faced a rapid and sudden surge of not only COVID19-delta variant cases but also mucormycosis, making the infection even more fatal. We conducted a study to determine factors associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: This case-control study comprised 121 patients; 61 cases (mucormycosis with COVID-19) and 60 controls. Patients were included from April 10, 2021 onwards. Follow-up was conducted after about 90 days and health status was recorded based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). (3) Results: Mucormycosis with COVID-19 cases had a median (IQR) age of 49 (43-59) years with 65.6% males and were older (95% CI 1.015-1.075; p = 0.002) than in the control group with median (IQR) 38 (29-55.5) years and 66.6% males. Baseline raised serum creatinine (OR = 4.963; 95% CI 1.456-16.911; p = 0.010) and D-dimer (OR = 1.000; 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p = 0.028) were independently associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, diabetes mellitus (OR = 26.919; 95% CI 1.666-434.892; p = 0.020) was associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality in patients with mucormycosis with COVID-19 as per the multivariable analysis. A total of 30/61 mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement. (4) Conclusions: The study observed elevated levels of baseline raised creatinine and D-dimer in mucormycosis pa-tients with COVID-19 as compared to the control group. However, future studies may be conducted to establish this cause-effect relationship.

4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296029

ABSTRACT

Purpose Although unexpected airway difficulties are reported in patients with mucormycosis, the literature on airway management in patients with mucormycosis associated with Coronavirus disease is sparse. Methods In this retrospective case record review of 57 patients who underwent surgery for mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease, we aimed to evaluate the demographics, airway management, procedural data, and mortality records. Results Forty-one (71.9%) patients had a diagnosis of sino-nasal mucormycosis, fourteen (24.6%) patients had a diagnosis of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and 2 (3.5%) patients had a diagnosis of palatal mucormycosis. A total of 44 (77.2%) patients had co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus in 42 (73.6%) patients, followed by hypertension in 21 (36.8%) patients, and acute kidney injury in 14 (28.1%) patients. We used the intubation difficulty scale score to assess intubating conditions. Intubation was easy to slightly difficult in 53 (92.9%) patients. In our study, mortality occurred in 7 (12.3%) patients. The median (range) mortality time was 60 (27–74) days. The median (range) time to hospital discharge was 53.5 (10–85) days. The median [interquartile range] age of discharged versus expired patients was 47.5 [41,57.5] versus 64 [47,70] years (P = 0.04), and median (interquartile range) D-dimer levels in discharged versus expired patients was 364 [213, 638] versus 2448 [408,3301] ng/mL (P = 0.03). Conclusion In patients undergoing surgery for mucormycosis associated with the coronavirus disease, airway management was easy to slightly difficult in most patients. Perioperative complications can be minimized by taking timely and precautionary measures.

6.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 12(Suppl 2): 279-289, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409406

ABSTRACT

Head and neck pathologies requiring surgical intervention are considered a high-risk subsite in the context of COVID-19 pandemic by virtue of its close proximity to the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Retrospective review of all head and neck surgical procedures is undertaken during the pandemic from 23rd April 2020 to 30th September 2020. One hundred procedures were performed on 98 patients. COVID-19 status determined by SARS-Cov-2 RT-PCR at baseline was negative for 81, positive in 8 and unknown in 11. The RT-PCR negative subgroup included 40 diagnostic procedures and 41 ablative and or reconstructive procedures for head and neck neoplasms. None of the patients or health-care workers converted to COVID-19-positive status during the duration of the hospital stay. There were no cases with 30-day mortality. Clavien-Dindo grading for postoperative complications was as follows: 1-4, 2-12, 3a-2, 3b-1. Eleven patients with unknown COVID-19 status at baseline underwent emergency tracheostomy in a COVID-19 designated operating room for upper airway obstruction secondary to head and neck cancer. Of the 8 procedures conducted on known cases of COVID-19, 6 were tracheostomies performed for COVID-19 ARDS. The rest were maxillectomy for acute invasive mucormycosis and incision and drainage for parotid abscess. A matched-pair analysis was performed with similarly staged historical cohort operated during January to December 2016 to compare peri-operative complication rates (Clavien-Dindo Score). Incidence of complication with higher Clavien Dindo Score (>/=3a) was found to be lower in those patients operated during the pandemic (p=0.007). By meticulous preoperative COVID-19 screening and isolation, head and neck surgical procedures can be continued to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment without jeopardising the risk of transmission of COVID-19 to the patients or health-care workers.

7.
Emerg Radiol ; 28(6): 1063-1072, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378974

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have been found to have an increased incidence of superadded fungal infections because of multiple factors such as impaired cell-mediated immunity, immunosuppressive therapy, and coexistent diabetes mellitus. Recently, there has been a significant rise in the COVID-19-associated mucormycosis and aspergillosis cases involving the sinonasal cavity and the lungs. Rhino-orbito-cerebral acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFR) is a potentially life-threatening, invasive fungal infection. Early diagnosis followed by prompt medical management and surgical intervention is crucial for patient survival. The role of cross-sectional imaging (CT/MRI) is not only to suggest a diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis but also to delineate the complete extent of disease. Mapping the extent of orbital and intracranial disease has prognostic as well as management implications, as involvement of these sites marks a worse prognosis. A stepwise approach to evaluation of imaging of AIFR along with a pictorial depiction of the key imaging findings is presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Orbital Diseases , Sinusitis , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging
8.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 680-681, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340221
9.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 680-681, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206735
11.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 73(1): 72-77, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880351

ABSTRACT

This study endeavours to comprehensively the study the spectrum of ENT manifestations in mild and asymptomatic COVID-19 and observe the natural course of anosmia and dysgeusia consequent to SARS-Cov-2 infection. A prospective cohort study was undertaken at a tertiary care centre in India on admitted patients with RT-PCR proven COVID-19. Patients were included provided the baseline National Early Warning Score (NEWS) was less than 4. Patients were screened for ENT manifestations using a questionnaire at baseline, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days. 225 patients were included in the study. Of these complete data at 4 weeks was available for 210. Out of 145 patients with mild COVID-19 (asymptomatic = 80), ENT manifestations accounted for 66.2% of all symptoms. Smell and taste disturbance had an overall incidence of 20% and 45% of ENT manifestations. Temporal trends of the recovery rate of anosmia and dysgeusia were 53.6% and 66.7% at 2 weeks, respectively. Corresponding rates at 3 weeks were 89.29% and 86.7%, respectively. By the end of 4 weeks 96% of the patients had recovered completely. The incidence of anosmia and dysgeusia in this study parallels the rates reported from other Asian countries, albeit, lower than the rates quoted from the Western Hemisphere. We recommend structured reporting of all ENT manifestations especially smell and taste disturbances to accurately identify individuals infected with SARS-Cov-2.

12.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(5): 1669-1673, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain if topical lignocaine application in oropharynx prior to swab sampling to test for COVID-19 improves a patient's comfort and to assess its effect on the swab sample taken to conduct the RT-PCR. METHODS: Adult patients testing positive on the RT-PCR COVID-19 test were sampled again within 48 h after administering topical oropharyngeal anaesthesia. Patients were asked to rate their discomfort on a visual analog scale (VAS) for both sample A and B. A qualitative real-time RT-PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, was performed, and the cycle threshold value (Ct), used as a surrogate marker for the viral load, was measured for the sample taken without lignocaine (sample A) and the sample taken post-lignocaine application (sample B). The difference in Ct values of both the groups was checked for any statistical significance using paired t-test. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used on VAS scores to determine any significant decrease in discomfort. RESULTS: Forty patients were included in the study. Twenty-nine patients (72.5%) reported the procedure to be more comfortable post-lignocaine application. Median (IQR) discomfort on VAS decreased from 7 (1) to 5 (2) after lignocaine use, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Mean Ct value for sample A was 17.21 ± 5.25 and for sample B was 18.44 ± 4.8 (p > 0.05), indicating a non-significant effect of lignocaine on SARS-CoV-2 concentration in the sample. CONCLUSION: Topical lignocaine, while improving the comfort of the procedure of oropharyngeal sampling for patient did not alter the SARS-CoV-2 viral load that was detected in nasal and oropharyngeal samples taken together.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Lidocaine , Oropharynx , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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