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1.
Vaccine ; 40(18): 2619-2625, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the antibody response, natural killer cell response and B cell phenotypes in healthcare workers (HCW) who are vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac with or without documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and unvaccinated HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: HCWs were divided into four groups: vaccine only (VO), vaccine after SARS-CoV-2 infection (VAI), SARS-CoV-2 infection only (IO), and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccine (IAV). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Anti-S) antibodies were measured by Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S ELISA kit. Memory B cells (CD19+CD27+), plasmablast B cells (CD19+CD138+) and long-lived plasma cells (LLPC; CD138+CD19-) were measured by flow cytometry in 74 patients. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release by natural killer (NK) cells were measured by NKVue Test (NKMAX, Republic of Korea) in 76 patients. RT-PCR was performed with Bio-speedy® COVID-19 qPCR detection kit, Version 2 (Bioexen LTD, Istanbul, Turkey). RESULTS: The Anti-S antibodies were detectable in all HCWs (n: 224). The median Anti-S titers (BAU/mL) was significantly higher in VAI (620 25-75% 373-1341) compared to VO (136, 25-75% 85-283) and IO (111, 25-75% 54-413, p < 0.01). VAI group had significantly lower percentage of plasmablasts (2.9; 0-8.7) compared to VO (6.8; 3.5-12.0) and IO (9.9; 4.7-47.5, p < 0.01) (n:74). Percentage of LLPCs in groups VO, VAI and IO was similar. There was no difference of IFN-γ levels between the study groups (n: 76). CONCLUSION: The antibody response was similar between uninfected vaccinated HCWs and unvaccinated HCWs who had natural infection. HCWs who had two doses of CoronaVac either before or after the natural SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited significantly higher antibody responses compared to uninfected vaccinated HCWs. The lower percentages of plasmablasts in the VAI group may indicate their migration to lymph nodes and initiation of the germinal center reaction phase. IFN-γ response did not differ among the groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Killer Cells, Natural , Plasma Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311668

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is one of the repurposed antiviral medications for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since the dosing regimen is a prominent factor for the success of the antiviral therapy, this prospective observational study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetic characteristics of favipiravir in COVID-19 patients. Adult patients (n=21) hospitalized for mild to moderate COVID-19 with a positive RT-PCR test, and assigned for favipiravir treatment were included. Favipiravir was administered for 5 days, with a loading dose of 3200 mg and a 1200 mg/day maintenance dose. Serial blood samples were collected on Day-2 and Day-4 of the therapy. Laboratory findings of the patients and in-hospital mortality were assessed. Favipiravir concentrations exhibited high variations and a significant decrease during the treatment of COVID-19. The median favipiravir trough concentration (C0-trough) on Day-2 was 21.26 µg/mL whereas it decreased significantly to 1.61 µg/mL on Day-4, the area under the concentration versus time curve decreased from 345.6 µg.h/mL to 108.6 µg.h/mL, respectively. Gender seems significant to affect favipiravir concentrations. Day-2-C0-trough of female patients was significantly higher than male patients. Of the 5 patients that died, 4 were male with a significant increase in ferritin levels from Day-0 to Day-5 compared to surviving patients. In addition, there was a significant decrease in D-dimer and CRP levels in the surviving patients. Our findings indicate that favipiravir concentrations show significant changes during the treatment of COVID-19. Therapeutic drug monitoring may best guide dose adjustments in patients that do not respond to treatment with favipiravir.

3.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:58-58, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1598630

ABSTRACT

B Introduction: b Better delineation of COVID-19 presentations in different climatological conditions might assist with prompt diagnosis and isolation of patients. When adjusted for baseline differences, at lower latitudes (< 30°) patients presented less commonly with gastrointestinal symptoms (p< 0.001, odds ratios for latitudes 15°, 25°, and 30°: 0.32, 0.81, and 0.98, respectively). [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 102(2): 153-167, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of innate and adaptive cells in COVID-19 is necessary for the development of effective treatment methods and vaccines. METHODS: We studied phenotypic features of innate and adaptive immune cells, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and apoptosis. One hundred and three patients with COVID-19 were grouped according to their clinical features into the categories of mild (35%), moderate (40.8%), and severe (24.3%). RESULTS: Monocytes were CD16+ pro-inflammatory monocytes and tended to shed their HLA-DR, especially in severe cases (p < 0.01). Neutrophils were mature and functional, although a decline of their CD10 and CD16 was observed (p < 0.01). No defect was found in the reactive oxygen species production and their apoptosis. The percentage of natural killer cells was in the normal range, whereas the percentages of CD8+ NK and CD56+ T lymphocytes were found to be high (p < 0.01). Although the absolute numbers of all lymphocyte subsets were low and showed a tendency for a gradual decrease in accordance with the disease progression, the most decreased absolute number was that of B lymphocytes, followed by CD4+ T cells in the severe cases. The percentages of double-negative T cells; HLA-DR+ CD3+ and CD28- CD8+ subsets were found to be significantly increased. Importantly, we demonstrated the increased baseline activation of caspase-3 and increased lymphocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSION: We suggest that SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the lymphocytes and not the innate cells. The increased baseline activation of Caspase-3 could make the COVID-19 lymphocytes more vulnerable to cell death. Therefore, this may interrupt the crosstalk between the adaptive and innate immune systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
7.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 2395212, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection may have multiorgan effects in addition to effects on the lungs and immune system. Recently, studies have found thyroid function abnormalities in COVID-19 cases which were interpreted as euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) or destructive thyroiditis. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the thyroid function status and thyroid autoimmunity in COVID-19 patients. Material and Method. 205 patients were included. The medical history and laboratory parameters at admission were collected from medical records. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid peroxidase antibody, and thyroglobulin antibody were measured, and patients were classified according to thyroid function status. RESULTS: 34.1% of the patients were euthyroid. Length of hospitalization (p < 0.001), rate of oxygen demand (p < 0.001), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p=0.022) were lower, and none of the euthyroid patients died. 108 (52.6%) patients were classified to have ESS, 57 were classified as mild, and 51 were moderate. The inflammatory parameters were higher in patients with moderate ESS. In cluster analysis, a high-risk group with a lower median FT3 value (median = 2.34 ng/L; IQR = 0.86), a higher median FT4 value (median = 1.04 ng/dL; IQR = 0.33), and a lower median TSH value (median = 0.62 mIU/L; IQR = 0.59) included 8 of 9 died patients and 25 of the 31 patients that were admitted to ICU. Discussion. Length of hospitalization, oxygen demand, ICU admission, and mortality were lower in euthyroid patients. Moreover, none of the euthyroid patients died. In conclusion, evaluation of thyroid function tests during COVID-19 infection may give information about the prognosis of disease.

8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 721-725, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721547

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). First COVID-19 case was detected in March, 10, 2020 in Turkey and as of May, 18, 2020 148,067 cases have been identified and 4096 citizens have died. Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health concern, incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people) in Turkey was reported at 14, 1 in 2018. During pandemic COVID-19 was the main concern in every clinic and as we discuss here overlapping respiratory diseases may result in delaying of the diagnosis and treatment. METHODOLOGY: There were 4605 respiratory samples examined between March 23 and May 18 for COVID-19 and 185 samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our laboratory. The Xpert Ultra assay was performed for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis; SARS-CoV-2 RNA was determined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis in combined nasopharyngeal and deep oropharyngeal swabs of suspected cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Both of SARS-CoV-2 and M. tuberculosis tests were requested on the clinical and radiological grounds in 30 patients. Here we discussed 2 patients who were both COVID-19 and TB positive. One patient already diagnosed with tuberculosis become COVID-19 positive during hospitalization and another patient suspected and treated for COVID-19 received the final diagnosis of pulmonary TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: We want to emphasize that while considering COVID-19 primarily during these pandemic days, we should not forget one of the "great imitators", tuberculosis within differential diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnostic imaging
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