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1.
Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2001656

ABSTRACT

Background Methods Results Conclusions Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) result in millions of illnesses and hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations annually in the United States. The responsible viruses include influenza, parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinoviruses. This study estimated the population‐based hospitalization burden of those respiratory viruses (RVs) over 4 years, from July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2019, among adults ≥18 years of age for Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania.We used population‐based statewide hospital discharge data, health system electronic medical record (EMR) data for RV tests, census data, and a published method to calculate burden.Among 26,211 eligible RV tests, 67.6% were negative for any virus. The viruses detected were rhinovirus/enterovirus (2552;30.1%), influenza A (2,299;27.1%), RSV (1082;12.7%), human metapneumovirus (832;9.8%), parainfluenza (601;7.1%), influenza B (565;6.7%), non‐SARS‐CoV‐2 coronavirus (420;4.9% 1.5 years of data available), and adenovirus (136;1.6%). Most tests were among female (58%) and White (71%) patients with 60% of patients ≥65 years, 24% 50–64 years, and 16% 18–49 years. The annual burden ranged from 137–174/100,000 population for rhinovirus/enterovirus;99–182/100,000 for influenza A;and 56–81/100,000 for RSV. Among adults <65 years, rhinovirus/enterovirus hospitalization burden was higher than influenza A;whereas the reverse was true for adults ≥65 years. RV hospitalization burden increased with increasing age.These virus‐specific ARI population‐based hospital burden estimates showed significant non‐influenza burden. These estimates can serve as the basis for several areas of research that are essential for setting funding priorities and guiding public health policy. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after COVID-19 vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully-vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant (SOT), hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, HIV infection) versus non-immunocompromised healthcare-workers (HCW). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for IgG to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: 1271 participants enrolled: 1,099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared to HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (p<0.01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus mRNA-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines, after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r=0.89, p<0.0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSION: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCW. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

4.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S260-S260, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564731

ABSTRACT

Background Rescue ECMO has been used worldwide in patients (pts) with ARDS caused by COVID-19. Bacterial super-infections affect 3.5-14.3% of hospitalized pts with COVID-19. Pts requiring ECMO may be at an increased risk of infection due to their severity of illness, gut translocation and ECMO impact on host immunity. Methods This was a retrospective review of pts requiring ECMO for COVID-19 from April 2020-2021 at a single center. Strict definitions of infections (including ventilator-associated PNA, VAP) were in accordance with CDC criteria. Results 43 ECMO pts with 1065 ECMO days were evaluated. Median age was 53 yrs (range: 21-62) and median BMI was 36.2 (range: 19.4-75.8). 70% were men and 65% were white. 37 patients (86%) experienced a total of 40 infectious episodes with a median onset from ECMO cannulation to first infection of 10.5d (range: 4-50). Median SOFA and SAPSII scores at time of infection were 12 (6-20) and 63 (30-90), respectively. PNA was the most common infection (78%, with 19% of cases complicated by bacteremia and 3% by empyema) (Fig. 1). The most common organisms isolated were Enterobacterales (37%), S. aureus (25%) and P. aeruginosa (16%) (Fig. 2). Only 2% of all organisms were multi-drug resistant. 3 pts had fungal infections (1 candidemia, 2 aspergillus PNA). Duration of ECMO was significantly longer for infected pts (26d, range: 5-92d) vs (11d, range: 3-24d), p=.01. 95% of infected pts had received steroids vs. 67% of uninfected pts, p=0.09. Treatment success at 1 week was 50%, and 24% and 40% of pts had recurrent infections and persistent/recurrent organisms in clinical cultures, respectively. S. aureus (54%) and Enterobacterales (26%) were associated with persistent or recurrent clinical cultures, requiring prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Mortality rate at 30 days was 65% and was significantly higher for pts with infection than those without (67% vs 33%, p=.02). Conclusion Super-infection (most commonly PNA) occurred in almost all COVID-19 pts requiring ECMO for >4 days, and was a significant risk factor for death. Recurrent infections among survivors were common, especially when caused by Enterbacterales or S. aureus. Super-infection and mortality rates of ARDS pts on ECMO for COVID-19 were worse than for ARDS pts on ECMO for influenza at our center. Disclosures Ryan K. Shields, PharmD, MS, Shionogi (Consultant, Research Grant or Support) Fernanda P. Silveira, MD, MS, FIDSA, Ansun (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Novartis (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Qiagen (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Shire (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member, Grant/Research Support;SlieaGen (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Whiscon (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support Cornelius J. Clancy, MD, Merck (Grant/Research Support)

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6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2240-2247, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently compared with influenza. The Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN) conducts studies on the etiology and characteristics of U.S. hospitalized adults with influenza. It began enrolling patients with COVID-19 hospitalizations in March 2020. Patients with influenza were compared with those with COVID-19 in the first months of the U.S. epidemic. METHODS: Adults aged ≥ 18 years admitted to hospitals in 4 sites with acute respiratory illness were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing COVID-19. Demographic and illness characteristics were collected for influenza illnesses during 3 seasons 2016-2019. Similar data were collected on COVID-19 cases admitted before June 19, 2020. RESULTS: Age groups hospitalized with COVID-19 (n = 914) were similar to those admitted with influenza (n = 1937); 80% of patients with influenza and 75% of patients with COVID-19 were aged ≥50 years. Deaths from COVID-19 that occurred in younger patients were less often related to underlying conditions. White non-Hispanic persons were overrepresented in influenza (64%) compared with COVID-19 hospitalizations (37%). Greater severity and complications occurred with COVID-19 including more ICU admissions (AOR = 15.3 [95% CI: 11.6, 20.3]), ventilator use (AOR = 15.6 [95% CI: 10.7, 22.8]), 7 additional days of hospital stay in those discharged alive, and death during hospitalization (AOR = 19.8 [95% CI: 12.0, 32.7]). CONCLUSIONS: While COVID-19 can cause a respiratory illness like influenza, it is associated with significantly greater severity of illness, longer hospital stays, and higher in-hospital deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , Demography , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 674-679, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218744

ABSTRACT

Adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19 and were identified as a priority group to receive the first COVID-19 vaccines approved for use under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in the United States (1-3). In an evaluation at 24 hospitals in 14 states,* the effectiveness of partial or full vaccination† with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was assessed among adults aged ≥65 years. Among 417 hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years (including 187 case-patients and 230 controls), the median age was 73 years, 48% were female, 73% were non-Hispanic White, 17% were non-Hispanic Black, 6% were Hispanic, and 4% lived in a long-term care facility. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥65 years was estimated to be 94% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49%-99%) for full vaccination and 64% (95% CI = 28%-82%) for partial vaccination. These findings are consistent with efficacy determined from clinical trials in the subgroup of adults aged ≥65 years (4,5). This multisite U.S. evaluation under real-world conditions suggests that vaccination provided protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥65 years. Vaccination is a critical tool for reducing severe COVID-19 in groups at high risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic
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