Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742764

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has induced the explosion of vaccine research. Currently, according to the data of the World Health Organization, there are several vaccines in clinical (145) and preclinical (195) stages, while at least 10 are already in clinical phase 4 (post-marketing). Vaccines have proven to be safe, effective, and able to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its variants, as well as the clinical consequences of the development of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). In the two-dose primary vaccination, different time intervals between the two doses have been used. Recently, special attention has been paid to assessing the immunogenicity following booster administration. The third dose of the vaccine against COVID-19 may be administered at least 8 weeks after the second dose. In Israel, a fourth dose has already been approved in immunocompromised groups. The main objective of this review is to describe the principal results of studies on the effectiveness of first-to-fourth dose vaccination to reduce reinfection by variants and the incidence of severe disease/death caused by COVID-19. Vaccines have shown a high level of protection from symptomatic infection and reinfection by variants after a third dose. Accelerating mass third-dose vaccination could potentially induce immunogenicity against variants.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057985, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their inherent vulnerabilities, the burden of COVID-19 and particularly of its control measures on migrants has been magnified. A thorough assessment of the value of the interventions for COVID-19 tailored to migrants is essential for improving their health outcomes as well as promoting an effective control of the pandemic. In this study, based on evidence from primary biomedical research, we aimed to systematically identify health interventions for COVID-19 targeting migrants and to assess and compare their effectiveness. The review will be conducted within a programme aimed at defining and implementing interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and conducted by a consortium of Italian regional health authorities. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Embase, LOVE Platform COVID-19 Evidence, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies must evaluate health interventions for COVID-19 in migrants. Two independent reviewers will screen articles for inclusion using predefined eligibility criteria, extract data of retained articles and assess methodological quality by applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. In synthesising the evidence, we will structure results by interventions, outcomes and quality. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous, trial data will be pooled and meta-analyses will be performed. Data will be reported according to methodological guidelines for systematic review provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a review of existing literature, and ethics approval is not required. We will submit results for peer-review publication and present at relevant conferences. The review findings will be included in future efforts to develop evidence-informed recommendations, policies or programmatic actions at the national and regional levels and address future high-quality research in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 51-59, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the Covid-19 pandemic has provoked a huge of clinical and epidemiological research initiatives, especially in the most involved countries. However, this very large effort was characterized by several methodological weaknesses, both in the field of discovering effective treatments (with too many small and uncontrolled trials) and in the field of identifying preventable risks and prognostic factors (with too few large, representative and well-designed cohorts or case-control studies). OBJECTIVES: in response to the fragmented and uncoordinated research production on Covid-19, the   italian Association of Epidemiology (AIE) stimulated the formation of a working group (WG) with the aims of identifying the most important gaps in knowledge and to propose a structured research agenda of clinical and epidemiological studies considered at high priority on Covid-19, including recommendations on the preferable methodology. METHODS: the WG was composed by 25 subjects, mainly epidemiologists, statisticians, and other experts in specific fields, who have voluntarily agreed to the proposal. The agreement on a list of main research questions and on the structure of the specific documents to be produced were defined through few meetings and cycles of document exchanges. RESULTS: twelve main research questions on Covid-19 were identified, covering aetiology, prognosis, interventions, follow-up and impact on general and specific populations (children, pregnant women). For each of them, a two-page form was developed, structured in: background, main topics, methods (with recommendations on preferred study design and warnings for bias prevention) and an essential bibliography. CONCLUSIONS: this research agenda represents an initial contribution to direct clinical and epidemiological research efforts on high priority topics with a focus on methodological aspects. Further development and refinements of this agenda by Public Health Authorities are encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Research Design , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Epidemiology/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prognosis , Societies, Scientific , Therapeutic Equipoise
4.
J Psychosom Res ; 141: 110328, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Italy has been largely involved by the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of the lockdown during the pandemic on mental health adopting both a longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. Accordingly, the study investigated general psychopathology a few weeks before the COVID-19 outbreak (T0) and during lockdown (T1), and the associations between lockdown-related environmental conditions, self-perceived worsening in daily living and psychopathology. METHODS: 130 subjects (aged 18-60 years) were included in the longitudinal design, and an additional subsample of 541 subjects was recruited for the in-lockdown evaluation. Socio-demographic data and the Brief Symptom Inventory were collected both at T0 and T1. Moreover, at T1 an online survey was administered for the evaluation of lockdown-related environmental conditions and self-perceived variations in daily living induced by quarantine, along with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. RESULTS: Longitudinal analysis showed that phobic anxiety and depressive symptoms increased at T1 as compared with T0, whereas interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation decreased. Pre-existing general psychopathology predicted COVID-19-related post-traumatic symptomatology. Cross-sectional analyses underlined that self-perceived deteriorations in various areas of daily living were associated with general and post-traumatic psychopathology, and with several lockdown-related conditions, especially economic damage. CONCLUSION: The present study underlined a different trend of increased internalizing and decreased interpersonal symptoms during COVID-19 quarantine in Italy. Furthermore, the results showed that subjects with pre-existing psychopathology and those reporting economic damage during the pandemic were more likely to develop deterioration of their mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(12): 2808-2815, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887008

ABSTRACT

Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 71 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A significant number of these will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Currently, during the COVID-19 outbreak, a high mortality rate has been found in patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis. New direct-acting antiviral agents can cure more than 90% of HCV-infected patients. The new WHO strategy has introduced global goals against viral hepatitis, including a 30% reduction in new HCV cases and a 10% reduction in mortality by 2020. HCV transmission has changed considerably, reflecting both the evolution of medicine and health and social changes. The HCV is usually spread through blood-to-blood contact. After the discovery of HCV in 1989, antibody screening has drastically decreased the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis. Nowadays, routine blood donor screening by nucleic acid amplification testing for the presence of HCV RNA has been introduced in many countries. It is conceivable that HCV screening could be offered to people born between 1946 and 1964 in the developed world and to people at high risk for HCV infection such as those who have received blood transfusions, blood products or organ donations before the 1990s, prisoners, health care workers, drug users and infants born to HCV-infected women. To achieve HCV elimination, health programmes should include improvement to access to health care services, increased screening and new projects to identify a submerged portion of patients with HCV infection. Submerged people with HCV infection are both people who are unaware of their condition and people diagnosed with HCV but not yet treated. Based on these premises, this review will examine and discuss the epidemiological changes in contracting HCV, highlighting the ways in which to identify a submerged portion of patients with HCV infection.

6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173644, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome, a characteristic hyperinflammatory response, vascular damage, microangiopathy, angiogenesis and widespread thrombosis. Four stages of COVID-19 have been identified: the first stage is characterised by upper respiratory tract infection; the second by the onset of dyspnoea and pneumonia; the third by a worsening clinical scenario dominated by a cytokine storm and the consequent hyperinflammatory state; and the fourth by death or recovery. Currently, no treatment can act specifically against the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the pathological features and different clinical phases of COVID-19, particularly in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, the classes of drugs used are antiviral agents, inflammation inhibitors/antirheumatic drugs, low molecular weight heparins, plasma, and hyperimmune immunoglobulins. During this emergency period of the COVID-19 outbreak, clinical researchers are using and testing a variety of possible treatments. Based on these premises, this review aims to discuss the most updated pharmacological treatments to effectively act against the SARS-CoV-2 infection and support researchers and clinicians in relation to any current and future developments in curing COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL